rss_2.0Cultural Studies FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Cultural Studies Studies Feed Transfer during the Warring States Period: Considering the Importance of Early China’s Relationship with the Steppes<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> This paper focuses on the contact between pre-imperial China and the peoples living on the steppes in her vicinity. For all the obscurity that had been shrouding the steppe inhabitants throughout centuries of historical scholarship, archaeological discoveries during the past century attest to their highly developed culture and economy and, what is more, make obvious that they had been entertaining close relations with the Chinese from as early as the second millennium BCE. Following a line of scholarship which has set out to redefine the role of the steppes in world history on the basis of this new data, this paper aims to demonstrate certain aspects of the important role they played in the history of China. Several very impactful innovations diffused to early China through interactions with the steppes, influencing Chinese history to a major degree. The paper specifically concentrates on a timeframe surrounding the Warring States Period (c. 500- 221 BCE), during which a couple of key innovations can be shown to have been adopted from the steppes. Furthermore, it illustrates the impact of these innovations on historical developments within China, thereby reinforcing the argument that the role of the steppes in Chinese history was one of tremendous importance.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-12-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Nihon-Robotto-Ron: A Deconstruction of the Japanese ‘Robot Kingdom’ Phenomenon<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper attempts to deconstruct the image of Japan as the ‘Robot Kingdom’. The genesis of this image is analysed and integrated in the nihonron, an essentialist discourse on Japan, by taking into account the perspectives of different academic disciplines such as computer science and cultural studies. The different strands of the discourse are critically evaluated. In this way, the structure of the image of the ‘Robot Kingdom’ will become visible and can be analysed in the context of the nihonron.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-12-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Oral Corrective Feedback: Examining Teacher- Initiated Correction of CFL (Chinese as a Foreign Language) Learners’ Pronunciation Errors<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> This paper examines oral corrective feedback strategies in regard to pronunciation errors in a Chinese foreign language classroom. Traditional oral corrective feedback typologies (Lyster and Ranta 1997; Ellis and Sheen 2006; Sheen 2011) have been combined with Chinese pronunciation teaching methods and investigated in a case study conducted at the Department of East Asian Studies, University of Vienna. Two sessions of first year Chinese language laboratory classes were observed and recorded. The qualitative data analysis was carried out in two stages. First, traditional oral corrective feedback typologies were applied to the collected material in order to find out which types of corrective feedback were used (deductive analysis). The results revealed that corrective feedback on pronunciation errors are mostly given in an explicit manner. Therefore, as a second step, a differentiated typology of explicit correction was developed (inductive analysis). The main findings of this study are that pronunciation errors in a Chinese foreign language classroom are corrected explicitly and treated with methods of 1) explication, 2) comparison, and 3) reduction. The explicitness of these methods is further enhanced by 1) paralinguistic cues (stress, speech rate modification), 2) visualisations (gestures) and 3) additional verbalisation.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-12-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Sustainability in Hunting Licence Systems of Japan and South Korea<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> This paper compares the different terrestrial hunting (licence) systems of Japan and South Korea. In order to test their sustainable resource use the silvicultural model and categories by Josef Hackl, Felix Heckl, Martin Forstner, Wolfgang Lexer, and Friedrich Reimoser have been adapted and modified to the circumstances of these two nations. Sustainability will be analysed according to three columns of ecological, economic, and socio-cultural sustainability. The multidisciplinary theoretical approach to sustainability discourses includes the theories of public goods, property rights, and co-management strategies, based on Garrett Hardin’s controversial essay The Tragedy of the Commons. Hardin’s resource exploitation dilemma has been refuted many times. The working hypothesis is therefore based on a bottom-up approach of decentralisation and subsidiarity mainly based on the assumptions of Elinor Ostrom and Fikret Berkes, in which the preservation of local and therefore context-bound knowledge plays a significant role in the sustainable management of impure public goods like game. The paper seeks to compare current laws on hunting, weapons, wildlife, and environmental protection as well as to take a look at existing local hunting customs and the historic reasons for their disappearance.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-12-05T00:00:00.000+00:00International Peace Cooperation Activities of Japan and the Republic of Korea between 2000 and 2010: A Comparative Analysis<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> International peace cooperation plays an important role in international relations. National interests and power balances lead to situations in which national security, human security and peace are often threatened, and international cooperation is required. The desire for peace and security is a motivating factor for states to engage in cooperation and to foster a more stable and secure environment, which in turn will also facilitate further social, political and economic development in individual countries as well as worldwide. Due to globalisation, the interconnectedness and interdependence of states in various contexts has significantly increased. This development has also led to a growing demand and need for cooperation between states to take collective action and to commonly solve regional as well as global challenges, such as peace and relevant security issues but also issues of economic, social and political importance. The aim of this paper is to present a comparative analysis and to give an overview of Japan and the Republic of Korea’s efforts and actions concerning peace cooperation in order to promote regional and global peace between 2000 and 2010-apart from the commonly known international peacekeeping operations. How do both states’ global peace supporting activities compare to each other, and is it possible to identify differences in their approaches towards international peace cooperation?</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-12-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Liberty in Harmony: An Integration of Confucian Harmony and Liberalism in Contemporary China<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> As the mainstream ideology, Confucian harmony deeply influences ways of thinking and social life in the East. Contemporary China has experienced quite a radical change since the Xīnhài Revolution in 1911. It also marked the re-examination of Confucianism, i.e. the development of New Confucianism. New Confucianism needs to encourage China to fit the modern and global context. Therefore, the revival of Confucian harmony must remake itself to fit the modern world. A certain degree of convergence between Confucian harmony and liberalism, the mainstream ideology in the West, is necessary. Personal improvement is a hotly disputed idea among Chinese Confucians and Western liberals because transformation of public ethics is closely related to transformations of the self. This paper argues the importance of integration between harmony and liberalism. What is important is to explore how each tradition can shed light on theoretical and practical issues regarding harmony between the individual and the community, rather than individual sovereignty over communal claims in ideological studies.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-12-05T00:00:00.000+00:00The Relation between Economic Development and International Trade: A Comparative Analysis of East Asian and Southeast Asian Economies<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The impressive economic development of East Asian and Southeast Asian countries, like China, Japan, South Korea, or Singapore, is often described as the ‘Asian economic miracle’. The transition from a less developed economy to an industrialised country and successful integration into the global economy within a relatively short period of time are characteristics of the economic development process. Academic research is dominated by a general agreement on the causal relationship between economic development and international trade. The research goal of this paper is to analyse the impact of the level of economic development on the degree of international trade in the economies of China, Japan, South Korea, Singapore and Thailand. The applied research model does not follow the traditional research mainstream but rather introduces relative shares of GDP-related industrial output and of manufactures exports by adopting national as well as international perspectives instead. Descriptive trend analysis, correlation analysis and regression analysis are conducted in order to test the hypotheses. The results do not support conventional academic wisdom. A statistically reasonable causality between the level of economic development, in terms of relative industrial output, and the degree of international trade, in terms of relative industrial exports, could not be confirmed.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-12-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Queer Desire in Japanese TV Series<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This article provides an analysis of representations of sexual minorities in Japanese TV series. It outlines how homosexual and queer desire is depicted and how stereotypes and tropes are used in the construction of queer characters in this media format. The article also illuminates the ways in which TV series differentiate between depictions of same-sex romance and opposite-sex romance. The corpus of analysed TV series spans a period of twenty-five years. Thus, the analysis also sheds light on changes in the representation of sexual minorities over time. Examples from recent TV series point to a more positive and sometimes didactic approach towards the topic of homosexuality in Japanese mainstream media.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Songs of Japanese Prisoners of War in the Soviet Union after World War II<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The Second World War ended with Japan’s capitulation after the disastrous nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Subsequently, approximately 700,000 Japanese soldiers were selected as captives to undertake physical labour in Soviet prison camps. After returning to Japan, some of them wrote about their lives in the Soviet Union, drew pictures about their experiences, or wrote about their favourite songs that they had sung during their imprisonment.</p><p>My study of various reports of Japanese prisoners of war (POWs) after the Second World War surprisingly revealed that not only traumatic conditions during forced labour were published, but also social interactions in the form of joint artistic activities such as making music, producing theatre plays, and staging sports competitions. The prisoners have often retrospectively described these as strikingly positive events during their years of internment in the Soviet Union. This article analyses a total of thirty-four songs sung and composed by Japanese POWs during captivity on a lyrical level (text analysis). In doing so, I adopt a new approach to interpreting the social conditions during the imprisonment of Japanese soldiers in the Soviet Union.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Discourses of “Herbivore Masculinity” in Japanese Love Advice Books<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In the last decade, discourses of non-conforming masculinities have become increasingly prominent in Japanese mass media. In particular, the so-called “herbivore men” have been made infamous by Japanese newspapers and were accused of being responsible for sinking birth rates and economic stagnation in Japan (Schad-Seifert 2016). In this article, I explore the discourse on the “herbivore men” in Japanese love advice books which are meant to guide and inform the (female) reader’s assessment of potential romantic partners. Utilising Siegfried Jäger’s methodological approach (2015), this discursive analysis focuses on the line of discourse that implicitly criticises the “herbivore men” and rejects their turn away from hegemonic images of masculinity. The analysis yields that the “herbivore man” is constructed as an ‘unnatural’ form of masculinity in these publications, which allegedly causes women to become sexually active and career-driven “carnivores.” Japanese women’s empowerment from hegemonic gender ideals is thereby misrepresented as a symptom of psychological distress due to changing masculinities. By perpetuating ideas of biological determinism linked to the backlash against the “gender-free” movement in the early 2000s, this line of discourse propagates problematic relations of gender and power in Japanese society.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The Stranger and Others: The Life and Legacy of the Japanese Ethnologist Oka Masao<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Oka Masao (1898–1982) was a leading figure in the establishment of Japanese ethnology (cultural anthropology) since the 1930s and taught many of the next generation of ethnologists from Japan. He travelled to Vienna in 1929 to learn the methodology for studying the ethnogenesis of his own country, putting forward theories that questioned tennō-ideology of the time and became highly influential. During the war, he pushed for the establishment of an Ethnic Research Institute (Minken) to support the government in their ethnic policy in the occupied territories. Oka was also the founder of Japanese Studies at the University of Vienna in 1938. Despite these important—and at time controversial—roles, he is relatively unknown today. This article introduces recent scholarship on Oka’s life and legacy. It raises important questions about the role of ethnologists in politically sensitive times and counter-balances the Anglo-American narrative of the history of ethnology or social and cultural anthropology of Japan.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The Philippines and Vietnam’s Responses to the Permanent Court of Arbitration’s Final Award on the Arbitration Case Initiated by the Philippines Against China over the South China Sea (July 2016)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In July 2016, the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) issued its final award on the South China Sea dispute between the Philippines and China that caught the attention of the international community. Since this was the first time that a claimant in the South China Sea had ever referred the case to an international juridical body in an effort to settle the dispute, the responses of both claimant and non-claimant stakeholders were awaited. Realising the relevance of the issue, I conduct a comparative study of the responses to the PCA’s final award to two major claimants with similar positions on the South China Sea—the Philippines and Vietnam. The main aim of this study is to indicate the similarities and/or differences in the way these two states responded to the final decisions of the PCA. The study finds that even though both the Philippines and Vietnam reacted to the award in a similar manner, the motives behind their responses were different. In general, the South China Sea policy of the Philippines has always been less consistent than that of Vietnam, which can be explained through each state’s foreign policy tendencies.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The Cultural and Educational Dimension of the “New Silk Road:” The Re-invention of Mongolness at the Sino-Tibetan Borderlands<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In October 2013, Xí Jìnpíng presented not only an ambitious infrastructure project but a strategic initiative that promoted connections in many regards: the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). One intended strategic value of this initiative is the improvement of relations between China and its neigh-bours as well as the improvement of dialogue among different civilizations. Emphasis is placed on the importance of the shared historical cultural heritage of the involved ethnic groups, while the idea of a ‘harmonious society’ is promoted at the same time. The aim of this article is to shed light on how China expands its soft power through civilizational connections along the Sino-Mongolian-Russian Economic Corridor by referring to the Silk Road Academic Belt. This article is based on ethnographic field research in Hénán Mongol Autonomous County in the Sino-Tibetan borderlands of Qīnghǎi Province during an international conference titled “Historical and Cultural Links between Mongolia and Tibet,” held in July 2017.<sup>1</sup></p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00On the Origins of the Japanese Language<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In this article, I deal with the historical development of the Japanese language by applying a multi-disciplinary approach that uses data from a variety of fields. My research indicates that the home-land of the Japonic language family may have been in the lower Yangtze River Valley, from where its speakers moved to the Korean Peninsula and eventually to Japan during the Yayoi period. This spread is associated with the dispersal of wet rice agriculture from the area south of the Yangtze River via the northeastern Asian mainland, where it was in contact with cultures cultivating millet. Old Japanese mythology and genealogical data suggests that the earliest known ethnic group that spoke Japonic may have been the Hayato people of southern Kyūshū.<sup>1</sup></p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The Hero in the Lyrical Epic Poem in the Context of Contemporary Nationalism<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The analytical-interpretative study examines the depiction of literary characters in the lyrical-epic work <italic>Detvan</italic> written by Andrej Sládkovič. It interprets the ingenious system of relations between the Slovak nation represented by the main character Martin and King Matthias Corvinus. The study notes the shifts in meaning and symbolization of relationships in this work and reveals the influence of national ideology in the creation of characters and their relations. It proves that the relationship between the king and the main character is a poetic expression of the national program, and that the story line is determined by the Slovak autostereotype of a peaceful nation. The article was written on the occasion of the 200<sup>th</sup> anniversary of Andrej Sládkovič’s birth.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-23T00:00:00.000+00:00From a Shepherd’s Hut to the Presidential Palace. Contribution to the 15 Anniversary of the proclamation of the Fujara as UNESCO Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The fujara became the first element of Slovakia’s traditional music culture proclaimed as Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity in 2005 and automatically incorporated in the UNESCO Representative List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2008. I was a member of the team that prepared the application documents and witnessed debates among fujara players on what this event would mean for the fujara and its music. The expectations of the performers, instrument makers, and other fans of the fujara were ambiguous. After 15 years since the proclamation, there is an opportunity to show what has happened with the fujara and to what extent their visions have been fulfilled. In this context, the text reflects on important contemporary events related to the life of the fujara: changes in the making technology, unification of its acoustic and intonation features, new ways of its use, presentation of this instrument in the media, as well as processes of a socio-cultural nature focused on the community of fujara players, the education of young performers, and the perception of the fujara in today’s society.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-23T00:00:00.000+00:00The Origins of Women’s Skirt and Shirt Clothing on the Moravian-Slovak Border and Its Central European Context<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Over the past one hundred years, folk clothing has been considered one of the most significant elements of cultural heritage and has been perceived in this way not only by experts but, for many decades, by its wearers as well. In the present study, the author seeks to find an answer, based on an analysis of older expert texts, as to what formed the theoretical basis for this process, who were its representatives, at what conclusions they arrived, and how the methods of their work were reflected in the formulation of their conclusions. From the historical perspective, the study summarises the opinions on folk clothing, projected through the idea of Slavic unity, as can be observed in the case of Jan Koula and, through the reception of these opinions, also in the case of Lubor Niederle, Drahomíra Stránská and Viera Nosáľová. This work also offers newer reflections from the studies by Alena Jeřábková on the shaping of folk clothing within the Carpathian culture. Through the example of women’s linen skirts, the material part of the study seeks to point out the pitfalls of these approaches and highlight the need to study the construction of folk clothing from a longer historical perspective. Only in this way is the effect of clothing styles in the form of domestication of the individual pieces of stylish clothing evident, combined with older clothing layers. Even though most parts of folk clothing are not proto-Slavic and do not necessarily relate to the culture of the Carpathian curve, as a whole, they prove well the way the countryside managed to accept the transformations of contemporary fashion over the last four centuries and to incorporate them into a unique clothing complex. </p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Contemporary Paradigms in the Historical Context of the Institute of Ethnology and Social Anthropology SAS (1946 – 1989): From the to the<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The aim of this study is to offer a paradigmatic analysis of the development of the discipline – called predominantly “ethnography” and “ethnology” in the 20<sup>th</sup> century Slovakia – in the background of the history of its development within one of the key institutions in Slovakia where research is conducted – the Institute of Ethnology and Social Anthropology of the Slovak Academy of Sciences (IESA SAS).</p><p>It is extremely interesting in our case how, in a relatively short period of its existence, the institution under study reacted flexibly to changes in the political regimes and discursive paradigms which resulted in system changes. The changes in external settings forced the institution to interact and intervene, which was reflected in different intensities of reorganisation of the internal ecosystem in different periods. On the other hand, it is also possible to observe major resilience which enabled the institution to preserve internal consistency of its processes. In the case of the IESA SAS, we can rather speak of “micro-historical temporalities” (measured approximately over a period of individual decades) in the background of more general <italic>longue dureé</italic> processes (i.e. long-lasting and global historical changes) in which work teams, specific personalities at leadership positions as well as the external ecosystem were significantly engaged. Within the history of the institution, the study also observes the life and modus operandi of two important generations, denoting them, in terms of the metaphorical discourse, as the <italic>generation of founders</italic> (1950s and 1960s) and the <italic>generation of builders</italic> (1970s and 1980s).</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of Interventions to Reduce Antigypsyism in Slovakia: A Social Psychology Perspective<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Despite numerous efforts of Roma inclusion from various State and non-governmental organisations, segregation and socioeconomic marginalisation of the Roma is still widespread in Slovakia. In this paper, we show what social-psychological factors intervene into the process of intergroup relations change and how they can influence the effectiveness of interventions to reduce antigypsyism. We contend that establishing intergroup harmony between majority and minority may, by creating false assumptions about the absence of structural inequalities, weaken the potential for social change and minority collective action. Based on the theoretical analysis as well as the content analysis of anti-discrimination interventions carried out in the year 2018 and the thematic analysis of interviews with selected stakeholders (NGO representatives, intervention participants, sponsors) we identified four challenges that need to be tackled if the interventions are to succeed in reducing antigypsyism. These are: 1) essentializing vs. empowerment of minorities; 2) tension between the colourblind and multiculturalism approaches; 3) problem of intergroup boundaries and their consequences for generalization of positive intergroup attitudes to the whole outgroup; and 4) societal norms defining the nature of intergroup relations. We discuss how these challenges ought to be addressed in succesful anti-discrimination interventions.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Testing of Priorities in the Research of Cultural Heritage in Slovakia’s Depopulated Regions<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Along with the dynamics of findings of several scientific disciplines of the recent decades, the mechanisms and processes of culture transmission seem to be much more apparent. The knowledge about cultural heritage and the inheritance of culture produced in this way have led to the creation of several platforms of critical cultural heritage. Anthropological and ethnological findings significantly enrich these multi-disciplinary environments where the criterion of a living cultural heritage is becoming generally accepted. In this light, the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) created a working group in 2019 with the aim to prepare an innovated Strategic Research Agenda (SRIA) for the submission of European projects in the field of cultural heritage (JPI CH). The working group invited Slovak and Czech researchers to reflect on the knowledge from the Central European research area in order to define the research topics for the priority Cultural Heritage and People. The research on the testing of the priority and clarification of the impacts of the depopulation of cultural regions on cultural heritage was conducted at selected locations of the Hont, Novohrad and Malohont regions. The key indicators for justifying the inclusion of the research topic <italic>The impact of the depopulation of EU regions with cultural heritage</italic> in SRIA include ethnographic information, historical demographic data and the modelling of the transmission of cultural heritage content to the next generations.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-23T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1