rss_2.0Cultural Studies FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Cultural Studieshttps://www.sciendo.com/subject/CShttps://www.sciendo.comCultural Studies Feedhttps://www.sciendo.com/subjectImages/Cultural_Studies.jpg700700Language- And Legal Culture Peculiarities in Selected Swiss Constitutional Acts Including a Translational Perspectivehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cl-2021-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The subject of the analysis is linguaculture expressing linguistic and cultural differences occurring in every language of law. They relate to vocabulary and editing principles of law acts. It seems that preserving such differences in the target translation makes it possible to reveal specific legislation trends of a given country, which express political motivation. Their preservation in the translated text requires good knowledge of law and in-depth comparative analysis. The focus of the analysis in this text is on the expression of gender in the law texts and specifically, on the translation of feminatives and legal names relevant for cultural dimension of a given law system.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Can Corpus Consultation Compensate for the Lack of Knowledge in Legal Translation Training?https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cl-2021-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>It is generally assumed that a good knowledge of the legal field is a prerequisite to deliver legal translations. This paper will challenge this assumption by presenting a case study with third-year bachelor’s students who participated in a translation project. The students, enrolled in a course in translation practice, were trained in corpus consultation at the beginning of the academic year. Nearly at the end, they translated an extract of a supply contract without being trained in the legal field. They consulted a pre-compiled offline corpus and online bilingual dictionaries. The paper findings highlight that knowledge of the legal field would have certainly helped the students make more informed decisions and avoid some mistranslations. However, the major shortcomings were actually due to ineffective corpus or dictionary consultation. In particular, formulaic expressions and collocations were neglected. In light of the paper findings, it can be speculated that in translation training, effective corpus consultation may help users deliver high-quality legal translations. It also seemed that thorough knowledge of the legal field is not a prerequisite, at least as far as short texts are concerned.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Linguistics Difficulties in Harmonisation of European Union Law: The Example of Directives on Procedural Guaranties in Criminal Mattershttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cl-2021-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Multilingual writing of European directives is faced with a few linguistic difficulties, like choosing an appropriate legal terms. All linguistic versions shall reflect the same content event though the legal system of each Member State is different and some legal concept do not have an equivalent in other legal systems. In this way, legal writing of European Directive is a very complex subject both from legal and linguistic perspective. The aim of this article is to discuss different linguistics difficulties that could appear during the harmonisation of criminal proceedings in European Union, where multilingualism is a key value and to analyse the possible solutions, when dealing with those difficulties. It seems that even if multilingualism is a big challenge to European Union, it could have a positive influence on the quality of European legislation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Arabic Legal Phraseology in Positive Law and Jurisprudence: The Historical Influence of Translationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cl-2021-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present study examines Arabic legal phraseology formation from the standpoint of positive law and jurisprudence. It claims that phraseological constructions in Arabic legislative and statutory texts are largely influenced by the translation process of Roman law texts. However, scholarly literature still relies to some extent on formulae used in the Islamic jurisprudence. To illustrate this, three examples of legal principles anchored in Islamic jurisprundence, known as <italic>legal maxims</italic>, are subjected to a comparative analysis and discussed along with their corresponding expressions in positive law in modern-day Arabic. Ultimately, the purpose of this paper is twofold: firstly, to demonstrate that the phraseology present in many Arabic positive laws is fully adapted to corresponding formulations in the Roman law, steming from a historical translation process that accompanied the codification movement in the beginning of the 20th century; secondly, to emphasize the significance of textual genre awareness in legal translation. Concretely, the introductory section provides an overview of recent studies that have addressed legal phraseologisms. It is followed by a section on the historical role of translation in the construction of certain phraseologisms. The general legal principles of (a) burden of proof, (b) presumption of innocence, and (c) the pacta sunt servanda principle are then examined in order to shed light on the influence of both the Civilist tradition and Islamic jurisprudence on the use of legal Arabic today, as well as to demonstrate how the translation of phraseologisms is dependent on the parameters of genre. The analysis leads to the conclusion that proper use of phraseologisms, whether in drafting or translation, is closely linked to knowledge of phraseology formation and the historical influence of translation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Gender and Ethnicity: Life Stories of Jewish-American Immigrant Women in the First Half of the Twentieth Centuryhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ewcp-2020-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the first half of the twentieth century, immigrants left oral and written testimonies of their experience in the United States, many of them housed in various ethnic-American archives or published by ethnic historical societies. In 1942, the Yiddish Scientific Institute in New York City encouraged Jewish-American immigrants to share their life stories as part of a written essay contest. In 2006, several of these autobiographical accounts were translated and published by Jocelyn Cohen and Daniel Soyer in a volume entitled <italic>My Future Is in America</italic>. Thus, this essay examines the autobiographies of two Jewish-American immigrant women, Minnie Goldstein and Rose Schoenfeld, with a view to comparing how their gendered identity (as women and as members of their families) has impacted their choices and lives in their home countries and in the United States in the first part of the twentieth century.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Phonological Patterns in the Translations of Poe’s “The Bells” into Romanianhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ewcp-2020-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Of all translation work in the world at any given time, poetry makes up just a small proportion. And of all theorists in translation, only a few tackled the issue of poetry translation for reasons that need no expatiation. The article below discusses two translations into Romanian of Edgar Allan Poe’s “The Bells,” focusing on the approaches and techniques used by the translators in what concerns the transfer of phonological patterns from English into Romanian. The aim is to determine to what extent the target-language texts are faithful replicas in terms of orchestration and aesthetic function, and, whether the outcome has suffered any meaning transformation as a result of the transfer of phonological patterns.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Japan’s Food Culture – From (Dumplings) to (Moon-Viewing) Burgershttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ewcp-2020-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this essay is to present how Japanese eating habits have changed in the context of globalization. We start from the premise that eating is not merely about meeting a basic need, but about creating a relationship with nature. It can be regarded as a ritual practice because it reveals a culture and its people’s beliefs, values and mind-sets. As Geert Hofstede et al. note, life in Japan is highly ritualized and there are a lot of ceremonies (192). Starting from the idea that food consumption is based on rituals too, we intend to explain the relationship between eating habits and lifestyle change in contemporary Japan. Considering that the Japanese diet is based on whole or minimally processed foods, we ask ourselves how Western food habits ended up being adopted and adapted so quickly in the Japanese society. With this purpose in mind, we intend to describe some of the most important festivals and celebrations in Japan, focusing on the relationship between special occasions and food. In other words, we aim to explain the cultural significance of food and eating and to see if and how these habits have changed in time.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-12T00:00:00.000+00:00The Image of the River in Kazuo Ishiguro’s https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ewcp-2020-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This essay focuses on the theme of the river in Kazuo Ishiguro’s <italic>A Pale View of Hills</italic> which will be analyzed in relation to the nuclear devastation of WWII. Rivers have a special meaning to the inhabitants of Nagasaki since the rivers were filled with the corpses of people who were exposed to radiation after the atomic bombing. It is also known in Nagasaki that unidentifiable fireballs called <italic>onibi</italic> float over marsh ground at night in summer. Especially in his first novel, <italic>A Pale View of Hills</italic>, the river evokes the image of <italic>Sanzu No Kawa</italic>, a river which, in Japanese Buddhism, the souls of the dead are believed to be crossing on the seventh day of afterlife. The river imagery signifies the boundary between life and death, and it has been used as a metaphor for the transience of time. As such, the river displays an ephemeral texture. In <italic>A Pale View of Hills</italic>, the protagonist Etsuko reminisces about her days in Nagasaki. In her memories, she becomes friends with Sachiko and her daughter Mariko. One night, Mariko confesses to Etsuko that she sees a ghostly woman coming from the other side of the river. Ishiguro also writes about the rivers in other novels. For example, in <italic>Never Let Me Go</italic>, he uses the river as a metaphor for Kathy and Tommy’s fate. In <italic>The Buried Giant</italic>, at the end of the novel, Axl sets Beatrice free and lets the boatman carry her alone to the island, which can be read as Beatrice’s departure from life. My analysis explores Ishiguro’s intentions when using the river and various apparitions in his novels, with a special focus on <italic>A Pale View of Hills.</italic></p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Mihaela Ursa (coordinator). . Ed. Adrian Tătăran and Alexandra Turcu. Piteşti: Paralela 45, 2019https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ewcp-2020-0016ARTICLE2021-05-12T00:00:00.000+00:00“People Eat Their Dinner, Just Eat Their Dinner…”: Food Discourse in Anton Chekhov’s and Beth Henley’s https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ewcp-2020-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The essay sets out to explore the functions of food discourse in the plays <italic>Three Sisters</italic> by Anton Chekhov and <italic>Crimes of the Heart</italic> by Beth Henley. Based on the critically established continuity between the two plays, the essay looks at the ways the dramatists capitalize on food imagery to achieve their artistic goals. It seemed logical to discuss the alimentary practices within the framework of everyday life studies (Edmund Husserl, Alfred Schütz, Fernand Braudel, Bernhard Waldenfels and others), moved to the forefront of literary scholarship by the anthropological turn in the humanities. Enhanced by a semiotic approach, this perspective enables one to understand food products and consumption manners as performing a variety of functions in each play. Most obviously, they are instrumental in creating the illusion of “everydayness” vital for new drama. Then, for Chekhov, food comes to epitomize the spiritless materiality of contemporary life, while in Henley’s play it is predominantly used, in accordance with the play’s feminist agenda, as a grotesque substitute for the lack of human affection. Relying upon the fundamental cultural distinction between everyday and non-everyday makes it possible to compare representations of festive occasions in the two plays seen through the gastronomical lens of “eating together.” Despite substantial differences, the emphases on alimentary practices in the plays serve to realize the inexhaustible dramatic potential inherent in the minutiae of quotidian life.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-12T00:00:00.000+00:00The Challenges of Translating into Romanianhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ewcp-2020-0015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A classic of American literature, Mark Twain’s <italic>The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn</italic> has had a huge impact not only on American literature but also on world literature. Its bold and freshly creative style, its humor and the author’s endless verve and vitality, the multifaceted and novel approach to life have all contributed to its success and popularity. However, Twain’s greatest merit probably lies in the way in which he used language, crafting art out of the speech of ordinary people. His experiments with language, the vernacular in particular, have meant a huge step forward in American literature and have been a source of inspiration for many writers. However, the translation of the novel has generated huge challenges related to the linguistic register appropriate for the translation of the novel and the strategies for rendering dialect, the African-American one in particular. It has also divided Romanian translators with regard to the target readership the original novel addressed: children, adults or both.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-12T00:00:00.000+00:00“The Reason for War is War”: Western and Eastern Interrogations of Violence in Michael Ondaatje’s https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ewcp-2020-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Michael Ondaatje’s <italic>Anil’s Ghost</italic> (2000) is set in civil war-torn Sri Lanka. This contemporary violent moment becomes a rupture through which the writer interrogates the division between Western and Eastern ways of approaching a violent situation. This essay sets out to investigate historical instances of violence and justifications for violence in the Buddhist context. The essay then turns to Buddhist scholars’ contemporary critical examination of violence and war in light of the teachings of ancient Buddhist texts. Then, having established the Buddhist history and contemporary debate around violence and war, the essay explores how Ondaatje comments on this history through the contemporary moment of civil war in Sri Lanka. The essay argues that rather than illustrating the need for a purer Buddhism or the separation between the political and the religious, as some scholars have argued in relation to <italic>Anil’s Ghost</italic>, according to Ondaatje, the only way to approach the problem of violence with any hope of reaching understanding is through appreciating the different ways of knowing offered by the East and the West.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Entertainment: An interdisciplinary approach to an object of studyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.5334/csci.35ARTICLE2011-04-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Ethnographic Blogging: Reflections on a Methodological Experimenthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.5334/csci.38<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper describes how a weblog was utilized as a major component in a long-term, multi-site ethnography with both “virtual” and physically situated research components. “Ethnographic blogging” describes not only the act of writing on a website and hoping that someone will read it, but the process of regularly maintaining a blog, and the modes of interaction and observation that this process gradually enables. In my own study of self-identified ‘geeks’ and ‘nerds,’ ethnographic blogging involved traversing news sites, forums, and other blogs for relevant content, leading to opportunities for dialogue with other bloggers and readers; establishing a persona online as a researcher, which has encouraged subjects to invite me to public and private discussions about their culture and identities; and bringing together online subjects from multiple physical sites, among other opportunities. My own experience of integrating a blog into ethnographic research was largely experimental, though I offer these reflections to encourage researchers to consider what alternative means of qualitative analysis online may have to offer us.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2010-01-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysing Geo-linguistic Dynamics of the World Wide Web: The Use of Cartograms and Network Analysis to Understand Linguistic Development in Wikipediahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.5334/csci.39<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article discusses the usefulness of geo-linguistic analysis for Internet studies by presenting two techniques to frame and visualize the linguistic development of the World Wide Web, in particular the geo-linguistic development amongst different language versions of Wikipedia. An emergent research agenda has been set to explore the multilingual aspects of the Internet using, for example, a global perspective on Wikipedia research. And yet, there is a lack of theoretical and methodological tools for understanding the distribution and diffusion of linguistic materials online. The idea of geo-linguistic factors is introduced in this article to address these shortcomings and to respond to the study of a wide range of issues such as linguistic pluralism on the Internet or, more generally, the diffusion of innovation. Cartograms and network analysis are presented as two techniques that showcase the potential uses of geo-linguistic analysis. These two techniques of measurement and visualization indicate certain geographic and linguistic affiliations among languages. It is argued that although certain more developed language versions such as English and German may have central positions in connecting all languages, there exists another pattern that can best be explained by geo-linguistic factors. Finally, the limitations and implications of such findings and techniques are discussed, not only for research on Wikipedia but for Internet studies in general.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2010-01-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Reading News Datahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.5334/csci.37ARTICLE2010-01-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Survival of the mediatedhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.5334/csci.33<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Departing from a perspective of life as lived in rather than with media, this paper articulates the evolutionary context for people's near-complete immersion in media. Using examples such as the appropriation of the movie "Avatar" by activists around the world it is argued how our orientation to media provides adaptive advantage in contemporary postgeographical society.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2010-01-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Introduction to the special issuehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.5334/csci.102ARTICLE2011-04-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Locating Four Pathways to Internet Scholarshiphttps://sciendo.com/article/10.5334/csci.36ARTICLE2010-01-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Social networking friendships: A cross-cultural comparison of network structure between MySpace and Wretchhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.5334/csci.34<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A cross-cultural comparison of social networking friendship between MySpace (in USA) and Wretch (in Taiwan) was conducted utilizing the high- and low-context framework proposed by Edward T. <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_csci.34_ref_015">Hall (1976)</xref>. Three network indicators were used to describe the network structure of both social network sites: size, density, and heterogeneity. Data were drawn from the forum “Jobs, Work, Careers” on MySpace and “Job-Related” on Wretch over a 2-month period from mid-October to mid-December in 2007. For each of the 2 sites, 6 users (3 men and 3 women) were randomly selected as sources or “seeds” from which to crawl the friendship networks. From the 6 seed users, a snowball sample was constructed by crawling 2 degrees out along the networks. The results indicated that Wretch, although it followed the expected direction predicted by Hall’s model, did not have significantly larger and denser networks than MySpace. Finally, no differences in same-sex and cross-sex friendships were found between the 2 sites either. The overall findings are discussed with implications for future studies.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2010-01-01T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1