rss_2.0Business and Economics FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Business and Economics and Economics Feed Bar on the Right to Exercise a Mortgage Under the Conditions Applicable in the Slovak Republic and Comparison with the Legal Regulation of the Czech Republic<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Based on the analysis and comparison of legal regulation and existing case law, the authors present in the paper their opinion on the issue of deleting mortgage with statute-barred claim from public records (Land Registry). The Slovak legal regulation, in contrast with the Czech one, does not include an explicit provision enabling the deletion of mortgage with statute-barred claim from Land Registry. Taking into consideration the aspect of justice, the authors reached the conclusion that even without a normative platform, it is necessary to allow the mortgagor to apply to court to determine that the real estate is not mortgaged and subsequently use the court’s decision as a basis for deletion. However, since the courts decide in this case, using judicial activism, knowingly contrary to the purpose and content of the institute of statutory bar, the authors consider it essential that legislation be adopted as soon as possible to regulate this situation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Good Regulation Reflects Words in Action<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Given the impossibility of binary “yes” and “no” classical general legal rules to anticipate and address the future path of law, this paper imitates the adaptive human nature and frames future legal actions on it. Given this human trait, this paper presents some predispositions for substance and actions that are based on the systemic/cybernetic approach. The latter prioritises values, goals and their weights, with controllable thresholds that, based on feedback loops between events, facts, and intentions, activate different preestablished (legal) scenarios. The paper develops new responses to changed conditions (responsiveness, adaptability, agility and robustness); the first are needed in the law due to inevitability of dynamic changes to present some adaptive regulatory techniques, which could be implemented in practical systems. The paper concludes that such techniques can be used in the law used as sunset clauses, legal experiments, emergent strategies, negative scenarios, adaptable norms, Henry VII clauses, public opinion within collective intelligence and legal experiments. They all can address changed conditions in the environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Regional Differences in Revenues from Local Taxes in Comparison to the Socio-Economic Level of the Regions of the Slovak Republic<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the article is to reveal regional differences in revenues from local taxation and to compare the development of local government taxation ratios with selected socio-economic indicators within the NUTS III regions in the Slovak Republic. The paper points out the regional differences in local tax revenues in relation to total tax revenues, own current revenues, and total current expenditures with regard to the socio-economic level of the regions. We measure regional disparities through the coefficient of variation and the socio-economic level of regions through the composite index created from selected socioeconomic indicators of the respective regions. Results indicate that the social and economic performance of regions had an impact on revenues from taxation by local governments. We observe a declining trend of the monitored indicators from west to north-east of the country.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Acceleration of Labour Cost Along with Deceleration of Productivity: How the Slovak Manufacturing Lost the Advantage of Low Unit Labour Cost<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The recent development in the Slovak economy erased a significant competitive advantage of manufacturing – low labour cost. The paper analyses the driving factors of rising unit labour costs in the manufacturing sector. The paper aims to explain why the unexpectedly rapid loss of traditional competitive advantage took place in the group of V4 countries and why this phenomenon was particularly pronounced in Slovakia. The paper identifies the driving factors that caused a strong increase in labour costs in addition to factors that also caused a slowdown in productivity growth. The decomposition of ULC dynamics has shown that the primary problem in the case of Slovakia is a very significant slowdown in labour productivity growth. Especially, from a marginal perspective, the components of gross value added developed strongly in favour of increasing compensations of employees. The decrease in the working-age population represented a significant driving force of increasing labour cost (wages) along with a halt in productivity growth caused by relatively low investment rate and absence of convergence in capital-to-labour ratio. Such development was identified in all V4 countries; however, the least favourable trend took place in Slovakia.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Towards a New Global Development Paradigm and Restructuring the Economy Into a Sustainable<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The current economy transcends the boundaries of sustainability, threatens the quality of life on Earth and, ultimately, of the man himself, which requires its restructuring to a sustainable one. The unsustainability of the development of society, which causes the development of the economy in a global environment, is revealed by theoretical research based on qualitative analysis of texts and documents. Subsequently, the need to change the paradigmatic basis of economic theory is explained and a new model of economy – sustainable economy – is outlined. Using logical methods and comparison of basic axioms, postulates and based on the prediction of further development, the study emphasizes that moving towards a more sustainable future presupposes the replacement of neoclassical paradigm by a new paradigm – the paradigm of sustainable development. Restructuring the economy into a sustainable one will be based on this paradigm, as confirmed by some of the outlined new economic theories and initiatives.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Strategic Communication and Competitive Advantage: Assessing CEO Letters of Global Airline Alliances<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>For the last several decades, global airline alliances have ensured their market presence in the aviation industry. Scholars have focused on the effects of alliance affiliation for airlines and what the competitive advantages of alliances are. However, these issues have been discussed in relation to operational aspects. The quality of strategic communication can be an important factor in achieving a competitive advantage and realizing a differentiation strategy. This study assessed the differences in quality of strategic communication between the three leading alliance groups (oneworld, SkyTeam, and Star Alliance) and a non-alliance group. Comprehensive content analysis was implemented using the letters of chief executive officers (CEOs) of 46 airlines. We found that the non-alliance group has more ideal CEO letters than the alliance groups, and the main topics and quality of CEO letters of alliance group differed. This study provides a novel insight into the competitive advantage of global airline alliances.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-08T00:00:00.000+00:00The Importance of Positive Leadership in the Process of Change on the Example of the Banking Sector<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In today's world, the success of modern company in dealing with change depends, to a large extent, on a positive approach toward its knowledge workers. The aim of the present study is to indicate the significance of positive leadership in the implementation of crucial changes in an organization in the environment of knowledge workers. The study has researched the case of a major Polish bank undergoing significant change in the Risk Management Division. Presented research covers the period between 2013 and 2019 and was conducted thanks to the participation of nearly 600 employees. Changes in the level of their engagement were systematically studied. All ten leaders in the division were also investigated, so that ten individual Reiss Motivation Profile (RMP) profiles could be created. Study results have confirmed that team leaders possess characteristics that confirm their preferred style is positive leadership, with a clear servant leadership attitude. The formulated hypotheses have been positively verified. It has been confirmed that the orientation of leaders on positive leadership ensured an effective implementation of crucial changes in the environment of knowledge workers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Research Method for Management of Thermoplastics Production Improvement in Rubber Industry with the Use of 3D Simulation Modeling<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper concerns research and improvement of production processes in one of the European companies in the rubber industry<fn id="j_fman-2021-0002_fn_001" symbol="1"><p>The company did not allow the name or country to be given.</p></fn>. The main goal is to improve the production process of the thermo-plastics obtained from polymer materials on the company's production line. Improvement is defined as a reduction of the setup time of a key machine in the tested production process. The research method includes the analysis of the literature, observation of the studied process, and the accomplished computer simulation experiments. The proposed activities relate to the reinforcement of the key part of the machine, the change of the machine setup method, and the preliminary staff assignment to the specific tasks. The results of the simulation experiments confirm the implementation of the proposed improvements. The theoretical contribution to the research field development is the proposal of the simulation modeling methodology to improve production processes of continuous materials. Practical conclusions lead to recommendations for the implementation of improvements in the enterprise, with direct application of the proposed actions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Quality Gaps in Higher Education from the Perspective of Students<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The presented research work relates to the category of quality in higher education. This article aims to present the determinants of the quality of education in the context of international standards. The background of the considerations is the Bologna Declaration and the European Higher Education Area. The results of the research carried out with the use of the nominal group method and the data analysis carried out based on the SERVQUAL model for education revealed groups of quality determinants that are not included in the standards of internal quality assurance. It has been found that the principle of autonomy of universities in the European Higher Education Area is a sufficient basis to include the determinants of the quality of education identified by internal stakeholders of a given university in the internal quality of education assurance system.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Real Time Enterprise as a Platform of Support Management Systems<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The current, fast market changes require enterprises to dynamically adapt the way they conduct their business. This poses many challenges for information technology. Market requirements for immediate response to business changes became the basis of the idea of a real-time information processing (RTE) company. RTE provides real-time information to employees and business partners. Integrated IT systems supporting management constitute a common platform – the foundation of a real-time enterprise. The aim of the article is to present the basic problems of building an IT system that is the basis of a real-time information processing (RTE) company. It is a summary of our work on this type of system. The article justifies the thesis about the need to build a system for the RTE's requirements and the conditions of its implementation. Such a system is designed to provide employees and business partners with the information they need in real time. The use of integrated systems such as ERP, CRM, SCM, and so on provides the ability to implement the main business processes of a real-time enterprise. The article presents both literature analysis and the characteristics of own work on designing IT systems for RTE. Particular attention was paid to the analysis of success factors (determinants) in system design and the use of MUST methodology (MUST is a Danish acronym for theories of and methods for design activities). The final part of the article presents a proposal for further work on IT systems for RTE in the context of existing trends such as DARQ technology (Distributed Ledger, Artificial Intelligence, Extended Reality, Quantum computing).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Creating a New, Sustainable Mindset through Responsible Consumption: A Case Study of the International Chain of Sustainable Restaurants<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper presents research conducted in the United Arab Emirates with the management of Bareburger, the chain of sustainable restaurants, as well as among its clients. In our project, we are interested in the relation between the offer of sustainability and the culture of conscious consumption. The opinions of industry experts and customers collected in an interview session are analyzed to derive the answer to the research questions. The research focuses on finding the possibility of changing the mindset and habits of consumers and creating an impact on consumer behavior by offering a responsible and sustainable nutrition model. An experiment was conducted to analyze the effect of sustainable restaurants on consumer culture in terms of cultivating healthy food habits. In our case study, we analyze Bareburger, a healthier fast-food chain that originated in the United States, which took the concept of sustainability to a completely new level, from ideation to implementation. Observing this process, we checked whether the unhealthy eating habits that we observe in the Middle East can be changed through the carefully composed model of a responsible restaurant.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Patterns of the Distribution of the Demand of End-Consumers among Retailers in the Zone of their Residence<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The rapid development of retail and e-commerce is forcing marketing and logistics to be competitive and adapt to the demands of end-customers. At the same time, accurately determining the demand for goods allows to better understand customers and plan deliveries. The purpose of this article is to study the change in patterns of probability of choosing the option to purchase goods among end-consumers with and without the presence of e-commerce. The study consisted of research buyers, determining the probability of purchasing goods from “consumer basket” in the traditional way and over the Internet, which is considered for the example of one of the Kharkiv districts. The results develop e-commerce potential in Ukraine and are intended to determine the motives of consumers when choosing a shopping option.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Digital Innovations and Smart Solutions for Society and Economy: Pros and Cons<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Recent developments in artificial intelligence (AI) may involve significant potential threats to personal data privacy, national security, and social and economic stability. AI-based solutions are often promoted as “intelligent” or “smart” because they are autonomous in optimizing various processes. Because they can modify their behavior without human supervision by analyzing data from the environment, AI-based systems may be more prone to malfunctions and malicious activities than conventional software systems. Moreover, due to existing regulatory gaps, development and operation of AI-based products are not yet subject to adequate risk management and administrative supervision. Resonating to recent reports about potential threats resulting from AI-based systems, this paper presents an outline of a prospective risk assessment for adaptive and autonomous products. This research resulted in extensive catalogs of possible damages, initiating events, and preventive policies that can be useful for risk managers involved in conducting risk assessment procedures for AI-based systems. The paper concludes with the analysis and discussion of changes in business, legal, and institutional environments required to ensure the public that AI-based solutions can be trusted, are transparent and safe, and can improve the quality of life.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Innovation and Leadership: A Study of Organizations Based in the United Arab Emirates<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The successful practice of innovation in any organization demands the integration and interaction of individual, collective, and organizational climate levels of management. Leadership styles have an impact on all these three levels of management. However, little work has been done to assess this impact, especially in the context of United Arab Emirates (UAE)-based organizations. This study was conducted with the purpose of assessing whether leadership processes, tools, and techniques differ in innovative organizations and, thereafter, propose general leadership requirements for innovative projects in the UAE. This study adopts statistical data-processing methods, such as descriptive statistics, the reliability of the instrument, correlation, and regression analysis. Data obtained through a survey of UAE-based organizations were used for analyzing whether innovativeness (as perceived by employees) is statistically correlated with leadership dimensions. The research results show that the transformational leadership style scores better over transactional leadership when it comes to predicting innovations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Innovative Behavior and Firm Competitive Advantage: The Moderating Effect of Environmental Dynamism<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study investigated the effect of innovative behavior of managers on the competitive advantage of small, medium, and micro enterprises (SMMEs) in South Africa. In addition, the study examined the moderating role of environmental dynamism in the relationship between innovative behavior and competitive advantage. The study adopted the quantitative research design, and the cross-sectional survey method was used for data collection. Hierarchical regression was used for data analysis. Based on a dataset of 140 respondents, the results indicated that innovative behavior has a significant positive impact on competitive advantage. The moderating effect of environmental dynamism is insignificant. Theoretically, the study explains the moderating effect of environmental dynamism in the relationship between innovative behavior and firm competitive advantage. To sustain competitive advantage, it is important for firms to invest in the innovative behavior of managers and employees through training. Management must foster an environment that support the generation of new ideas by employees and the coordination of such ideas to improve products and services.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Differences in the Perception of Organizational Culture in Non-Public Universities in Poland by Academic and Administrative Staff – A Study Based on Cameron and Quinn's Model<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this paper is to present differences in the perception of current and desired organizational culture between two different types of workers – academic and administrative staff – in non-public universities in Poland. A synthetic review of the literature on organizational culture at universities and the workplace attitudes of the two groups of university employees was conducted and presented. Research in the form of a survey based on Cameron and Quinn's model was conducted in three non-public universities in Poland. A sample of opinions of 115 workers was gathered and analyzed. It was found in the study that according to academic workers, the present culture was market culture, whereas for administrative workers, it was hierarchy culture. Both groups chose clan culture as the preferred culture. The findings may be useful for higher education decision makers in their attempts to transform universities into market-oriented, yet friendly workplaces. The study's limitations include a relatively small sample of respondents. A further, more comprehensive research into the subject will be worth conducting.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-24T00:00:00.000+00:00The Use of Digital Technology Platforms in the Context of Cybersecurity in the Industrial Sector<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study discusses the use of digital technology platforms (DTPs) in the context of cyber-security in the industrial sector, with a focus on digital industry (industrial) platforms (DIPs). A definition of DTPs is presented, including the author's interpretation, as well as the scope of DTP application in the industrial sector, which includes, in particular, European Digital Platforms (EDPs) and Polish Digital Platforms (PDPs), such as non-ferrous metals PDP or intelligent transport systems PDP. This is followed by a section covering the theoretical basis of the study that highlights the key challenges and risks associated with the use of DTPs as well as the methods for their neutralization in the form of specific concepts and systems that can be employed in the industrial sector. The subsequent section of the study is based on results of the author's own survey which collected information from a total of 120 companies operating in Poland, which were granted subsidies under the Operational Program Innovative Economy for investments involving the implementation and development of DTPs. The survey was carried out using a questionnaire developed by the author, which consisted of 23 questions. In this respect, as shown by the author's own studies, of greatest relevance are hardware failures and Internet outage events. Most importantly, concerns about such risks are some of the major factors underlying the negative attitudes of management staff of industrial companies toward DTPs, and therefore, it is so important to ensure that any such risks can be effectively addressed. They can be avoided through the use of certain concepts and systems such as STOE or CVSS. A typical company may know the model of DTPs in the context of challenges in the field of cybersecurity through this study; in particular, it can improve IT security.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Cultural Capital in the Digital Age. The YouTuber Online Persona<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this essay, we will examine if and how Bourdieu’s cultural capital theory can be applied to the YouTuber online persona and if any significant alterations could point towards the consideration of a new form of capital – digital capital. We will also be looking at how a YouTuber persona and its capital can be transferred and used in different environments and situations. We aim to examine how one’s online persona is becoming just as, if not more important than one’s real-life actions, managing to overcome punitive measures (inauthenticity aversion) usually applied to inauthentic forms of capital. We will take into account how the embodied, objectified, and institutionalized cultural capital can be found in YouTuber personas, but are being altered by the online environment, by exposure, by the algorithms used by the platform, by ‘internet history’. With the help of these alterations, the forms of capital associated with the online persona – in this case the YouTuber persona – have transcended the classic definitions of cultural capital. These developments can be analyzed and further explored in several fields, such as personal branding.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Broadening the Frame of Cultural Exploration Fortress – (Re)Inventing a Museum<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article discusses the case of the transformation of the Tighina-Bender fortress in a historic museum and tourist attraction site. The fortress is one of the most important medieval fortifications in Eastern Europe and is a national monument registered in the State Register of Protected Monuments of the Republic of Moldova. Paradoxically, but the fortress has not benefited from serious historic and archaeological research so far. It must be because during the Soviet era the fortress was a military base and it was closed to the public. Its recent transformation into a museum, the launch of a rehabilitation project, and ensured access inside this fortification inspire us for the possibility of transforming this site into one of the most attractive tourist places in the Republic of Moldova. But for better interpretation and presentation is strictly necessary to understand the history of the place, its role from regional and European perspectives, the relation of historic place with the local community, etc. (Re)inventing a museum needs, in, first of all, a vision and, secondly, a strategy of museum sustainable development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-14T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1