rss_2.0Engineering FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Engineering Feed and Lane Detection Technique for Autonomous Car Using Machine Learning Approach<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The main objective of this work is to develop a perception algorithm for self-driving cars which is based on pure vision data or camera data. The work is divided into two major parts. In part one of the work, we develop a powerful and robust lane detection algorithm which can determine the safely drive-able region in front of the car. In part two we develop and end to end driving model based on CNNs to learn from the drivers driving data and can drive the car with only the camera data from on-board cameras. Performance of the proposed system is observed by the implementation of the autonomous car that can be able to detect and classify the stop signs and other vehicles.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Urban Travel Behavior and Socio-Spatial Issues in the Mena Region: What Do We Know?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Unlike literature and studies coming from high-income or Western countries, the existing conducted on the Middle East and North Africa fail to draw a nearly complete image of the characteristics of passenger travel behaviors in the urban areas of the region. This gap necessitates a holistic review of the previous studies and comparing their results of those of the international findings. This paper summarizes the status of urban travel behavior studies on the MENA region under eight categories of socioeconomics, land use, perceptions and attitudes, urban sprawl, neighborhood design, public transportation use, active mobility, and new technologies and concepts. Descriptive literature review and desk research depicts both lack of research results or data and differences between the behaviors in the MENA region and the Western countries. Moreover, based on the background review, this paper provides a list of recommendations for having more sustainable mobility in the MENA region.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Development of Reliable Models of Signal-Controlled Intersections<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper considers an approach to building various mathematical models for homogeneous groups of intersections manifested through the use of clustering methods. This is because of a significant spread in their traffic capacity, as well as the influence of several random factors. The initial data on the traffic flow of many intersections was obtained from real-time recorders of the convolutional neural network. As a result of the analysis, we revealed statistically significant differences between the groups of intersections and compiled their linear regression models as a basis for the subsequent formation of generic management decisions. To demonstrate visually the influence of random factors on the traffic capacity of intersections, we built distribution fields based on the fuzzy logic methods for one of the clusters consisting of 14 homogeneous intersections. Modeling was based on the Gaussian type of membership functions as it most fully reflects the random nature of the pedestrian flow and its discontinuity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Aviation Profiling Method Based on Deep Learning Technology for Emotion Recognition by Speech Signal<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper proposes a method of automatic speaker-independent recognition of human psycho-emotional states by analyzing the speech signal based on Deep Learning technology to solve the problems of aviation profiling. For this purpose, an algorithm to classify seven human psycho-emotional states, including anger, joy, fear, surprise, disgust, sadness, and neutral state was developed. The algorithm is based on the use of Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients and Mel spectrograms as informative features of speech signals audio recordings. These informative features are used to train two deep convolutional neural networks on the generated dataset. The developed classifier testing on a delayed verification dataset showed that the metric for the multiclass fraction of correct answers’ accuracy is 0.93. The solution proposed in the paper can be in demand in human-machine interfaces creation, medicine, marketing, and in the field of air transportation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Real-Time Lane Line Tracking Algorithm to Mini Vehicles<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Autonomous navigation is important not only in autonomous cars but also in other transportation systems. In many applications, an autonomous vehicle has to follow the curvature of a real or artificial road or in other words lane lines. In those application, the key is the lane detection. In this paper, we present a real-time lane line tracking algorithm mainly designed to mini vehicles with relatively low computation capacity and single camera sensor. The proposed algorithm exploits computer vision techniques in combination with digital filtering. To demonstrate the performance of the method, experiments are conducted in an indoor, self-made test track where the effect of several external influencing factors can be observed. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm works well independently of shadows, bends, reflection and lighting changes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Research of Self – Organizing Networks (SON) Algorithms Efficiency Applying on Fourth – Generation Mobile Networks<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The application of SON algorithms for automating the processes of operating fourth-generation mobile networks based on the networks of operation, administration and management of OAM (Operation and Maintenance) is considered. The features of the tasks at the stages of self-optimization and self-configuration of the network for the various stages of 4G mobile network life cycle are shown. Criteria and approaches to assessing the effectiveness of solving problems by the SON network are proposed. The technical requirements are also formulated for SON algorithms. The experimentally achieved values of the selected performance exponents depending on the duration of the test cluster self-optimization time of the 4G network are shown.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Artificial Intelligence-Based Network Selection and Optimized Routing in Internet of Vehicles<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Internet of Vehicles (IoV) is a network of vehicles communicating with each other by exchanging road traffic information via radio access technologies. Two potential technologies of V2X that have gained attention over the past years are DSRC and cellular networks such as 4G LTE and 5G. DSRC is suitable for low latency communications, however provides a shorter coverage range whereas, 4G LTE offers a wide coverage range but has high transmission time intervals. In contrast, 5G offers higher data rates, low latencies but prone to blockages. Single technology might not fully accommodate the requirements of vehicular communications. Hence, it is required to interwork with more than one radio access network to satisfy the requirements of safety vehicular applications. One issue identified when working with multiple radio access networks is the selection of the most appropriate network for vertical handover. Usually, in the previous works, the network is selected directly or will be connected to the available network due to which the handover had to take place frequently resulting in unnecessary handovers. Hence, in the existing state-of-the-art, the need for handover is not validated. In this paper, we have proposed a dynamic Q-learning algorithm to validate the need for handover, and then, appropriate selection of network would take place by using a fuzzy convolutional neural network. Besides, a modified jellyfish optimization algorithm is proposed to select the shortest paths by forming V2V pairs that take into account channel metrics, vehicle metrics, and vehicle performance metrics. The proposed algorithms are then evaluated using OMNET++ and compared with the existing state-of-the-art concerning mean handover, HO failure, throughput, delay, and packet loss as the performance metrics.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Method of Assessing the Efficiency of Electrical Power Circuit Separation with the Power Line Communication for Railway Signs Monitoring<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article describes a project to use PLC technology in railway light signs. The proposal presents a solution for the separation of supplying circuits with the use of filters. The necessity of separation is a result of long distance data transmission between sign controllers and LED railway signs using PLC modems which work on the same frequency. Problems in the selection of filter parameters are presented due to the fact that there is no specification for the characteristic of the separation filter, there are only requirements for the reliability communication system. To meet these requirements, the circuits separation efficiency must be assessed. The paper presents a quick method to evaluate separation efficiency. Structure of the network, as well as the set of devices which realize this specific kind of wired sensor network for supervising railway LED sign network and maintenance parameters are also presented in this article.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00The destructive influence of external factors on building partitions in historic buildings<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents the destructive influence of external factors on building partitions in selected historic buildings made from made full-bodied solid ceramic bricks. The external factors are an additional element that adversely affects the maintaining of historic buildings in a good technical condition, and they are complementary to a number of harmful factors that destructively act upon on such buildings. In order to estimate the range of damage in historic buildings, selected buildings that have been exposed to external factors for a long time in the Podlaskie and Warmińsko-Mazurskie Voivodships were analysed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Planning of areas in the vicinity of large industrial plants<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Planning space around large industrial plants affects urban development and significantly impacts the integration of industrial areas with a city’s structure. Large industrial plants act as functional and spatial barriers within the urban fabric. Their immediate areas undergo transformation and are currently becoming sites of various uses. New manufacturing technologies limit the nuisance caused by industry and the siting of plants aids in using the areas around them. The objective of this paper is t present an analysis of the transformation of the existing function-spatial structure, transport layout and compositional relations in the vicinity of selected large industrial plants in Kraków and Skawina. The study covered areas around the north-eastern territory of the Metallurgy Plant in Kraków and selected industrial plants in Skawina.</p> <p>This study was based on original analyses of the existing functio-spatial structure, compositional relationships and transport accessibility. The form of development of areas adjacent to large industrial plants was found to be a product of local determinants. Compositional relationships and functional linkages affected the quality of the space and its visual reception, which in many cases is a natural urban development reserve.</p> <p>Due to the specificity of industrial areas, concentrations of vehicular traffic and dominance within space, it may prove interesting to develop a dedicated form of development for areas near large industrial plants. This form would have to shield against possible nuisances while also offering the potential for a new, attractive and diverse functio-spatial structure. The transformation of and the problems present in these areas are distinctive of many cities in Poland and around the world and require new, cohesive planning principles.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of the possibility of employing 3D printing technology in crisis situations<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Events related to climate change and the increase in the occurrence of natural disasters, as well as the increasing incidence of new diseases, have all caused the prominence of regional security and crisis management around the world to rise. Three-dimensional printing, which has seen noteworthy developed in recent years, both in terms of print parameters, and the magnitude of the production potential, may prove helpful in this matter. Enormous opportunities have arisen which, if properly directed, can save human life and preserve health in crisis situations, when traditional supply chains could be disrupted or even prevented. The use of additive technologies, however, has its limitations and in order to be able to take full advantage of the opportunities they offer, a legitimate functional system should be created and embedded within proper structures to support crisis management. This paper presents the advantages and disadvantages of using 3D printers and the possibility of their implementation as part of the current crisis-response systems. The article proposes a model for incorporating additive technologies into the crisis-management system.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Operational problems of tramway infrastructure in sharp curves<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Elements of the tramway track that require special attention in the design and maintenance of the tramway infrastructure are sharp curves (curves with small radii). In such places, there are a number of unfavourable operational problems, which are discussed in the article below. It describes the characteristics of such geometric elements and analyses the interaction of the wheel-rail system. Moreover, the most important operational problems are presented, such as the wear of wheels and tramway rails, the buckling of the rails, and noise and vibrations occurring during the passage of the tram. Methods of reducing unfavourable phenomena occurring on curves in the tramway infrastructure were also highlighted.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Calculation of brake-force distribution on three-axle agricultural trailers using simulation methods<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents a new methodology for calculating the optimal linear distribution of braking forces for a three-axle trailer with “walking beam” and “bogie” suspension of the rear axle assembly that will meet the requirements of the new European legislation, EU Directive 2015/68. On this basis, a computer program for selecting the linear distribution of braking forces between axles has been developed. The presented calculations and simulation results of the braking process can be used in the design process to select the parameters of the wheel braking mechanisms and then the characteristics of the pneumatic valves of the braking system. The adaptation of the braking system of agriculture trailers is a very important factor for improving the safety of the transportation systems.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Improved rack and pinion drive<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A typical rack and pinion drive set is comprised of a rack and a pinion. There is an inter-tooth clearance between the mating teeth of the rack and the pinion, which has advantages and disadvantages. The disadvantage of this clearance is the errors that occur in the positioning of the machine tool during set-up. Elimination of clearance between teeth is possible by using a pinion drive with two pinions. This ensures continuous contact between the teeth, regardless of the direction of machine movement.</p> <p>These are found on new machines, while older machines do not have such a solution. This paper presents a solution with two pinions, which can be used in such older machines and which makes it possible to achieve qualitative parameters that were not possible before.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-04T00:00:00.000+00:00The systems method as an educative tool for sustainable architecture design on the example of solar building design<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The following article discusses the systems method as an educative tool for teaching sustainable architecture, including environmental design. Based on this method, a systemic model was created which provided a pillar of the learning process that concluded with a solar building project. This method offered a holistic view of the issues of pro-environmental design and led to an understanding of the relationship between the urban scale and the scale of the building. This aspect was considered crucial in teaching sustainable development architecture.</p> <p>The systems method has been recently used in China as a part of an environmental design course which only lasted for forty-eight lesson hours. The method proved to be an effective educational tool that enabled the obtaining of satisfactory design effects in such a short period of time. Additionally, the method was successful in conditions of cultural and linguistic barriers and a lack of prior preparation of students in the field of architectural design. The created systems model determined a precisely defined path for the teaching process in advance, as the specified issues included only those that were needed to achieve the set project goals. This approach resulted in the optimisation of teaching time, while ensuring the completeness of the assumed results.</p> <p>Experience gained from the didactic process leads to the conclusions that the systems method can be an adequate educative tool for solving multidisciplinary problems. Based on the example of solar building design, a systems method made it possible to indicate three main external factors that influence the design: macro-scale urban elements (district scale), micro-scale urban development (housing estate) and climatic conditions. The article also presents the possibilities of transforming the system model, in order to facilitate its more universal application, with reference to such issues as the topic of classes, as well as to the required scope and level of detail of the design task.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Rzeszów as an example of a ‘new town’ tailored for the modern era<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The city life cycle is an issue that can be considered from many perspectives. Klaassen’s period cycle is the basic model of city life: urbanisation– suburbanisation–deurbanisation–reurbanisation. In each of these periods, cities develop by, building and transforming their structures. This article presents various approaches to shaping new urban spaces using the city of Rzeszów as an example. In the city’s history, three periods are distinguished during which structures referred to as the ‘new town’ were created in the 16<sup>th</sup> and 20<sup>th</sup> centuries and continue to be created now. After analysing the site-forming processes, the most important features of new-town urban systems are compared.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Humic substances and significance of their application – a review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper is based on recent articles regarding applications of humic substances (HSs). HSs are natural organic materials, which have a number of potential applications. Furthermore, HSs are cheap, widespread and obtainable from bio-waste materials. HSs can be used as organic compound sorbents or in detoxification. They are applied as organic additives due to their positive effect on soil and plants, even under stress conditions. HSs reduce water consumption and minimise environmental problems. HSs are utilised for the remediation of multi-metal contaminated soils and as substitutes for synthetic washing agents. From an environmental engineering point of view, it is beneficial to remove HSs from municipal management, where they are undesirable (by-products of disinfection) and to utilise them where they are valuable. The aim of this article is to provide a greater insight into research about the applications of HSs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessment of the technical condition of mines with mechanical fuses<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Contemporary armed conflicts reveal that the use of effective mine barriers has a significant impact on the course of hostilities. Therefore, the Polish Armed Forces selected reliable and effective explosive ordnance as a priority, both newly-acquired material and those currently in operation. For this reason, among others, strict supervision over the technical condition of mines is exercised, in particular during their long-term storage. The reasons behind the increased mine unreliability may include physical and chemical changes in the construction materials used (corrosion, deformations, loss of strength properties), deterioration of the physicochemical properties of the main charge, booster and primer-detonator, inadequate technical condition of the safety components, or the failure of mine fuse mechanisms. In order to assess the mine’s operational reliability, each mine fuse subassembly is examined and then a check of the entire assembled mine is performed. This requires proper planning of the full test cycle and the use of inspected and calibrated measuring devices and test stands enabling the precise adjustment of mechanical and climatic stress parameters.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-22T00:00:00.000+00:00The efficiency of municipal sewage treatment plants inspiration for water recovery<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article presents a detailed analysis of the functioning of municipal sewage treatment plants. The presented findings are based on questionnaires from over seventy wastewater treatment facilities, covering from several hundred to several hundred thousand inhabitants. The required quality of treated sewage and the necessary efficiency level of the treatment plant were determined in the context of the content of the applicable regulations, and were then compared with the actual data obtained from sewage treatment plants. The findings provided the basis for formulating an evaluation of the efficiency of municipal sewage treatment plants and for further analyses of the possibility of the recovery of water from sewage and its reuse.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Historical, non-existing synagogue in Przeworsk<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The history of southeastern Poland is inseparably linked with the Jewish community that settled mostly in larger cities located near significant trade routes. Despite limiting privileges, in many cities Jews managed to establish their own quarters, in which synagogues were the most important structures. Only a few cases of historical Jewish religious architecture, in varying states of preservation, have survived to the present. In Przeworsk, to the north of the town hall, an impressive, masonry Jewish synagogue had stood for several centuries. The building was erected at the start of the seventeenth century and up to the Second World War constituted a significant element of the city’s spatial structure. Despite the passage of over eighty years since the demolition of the synagogue, its site has not been commemorated. This paper presents the genesis and architecture of the historical synagogue. The massing of the building, its functional and spatial layout, and its interior décor were investigated. The paper also discusses the commemoration of historical buildings, pointing to the significance of place-based identity and broadly understood cultural heritage.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-23T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1