rss_2.0Engineering FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Engineering Feed effect of changing graphitization temperature toward bio-graphite from Palm Kernel Shell<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper focuses on the relationship between heat treatment temperature toward structural transformation from amorphous carbon to highly graphitic carbon material during a production stage.The following report discusses a simple strategy to convert the palm kernel shell (PKS) into highly crystalline, high quality graphite via simple two-step process. The production involves impregnation of catalyst followed by thermal treatment. Both XRD and Raman spectroscopy allowed the observation of microstructural change of the prepared sample at temperature ranging from 1000°C to 1400°C using Ferum catalyst. From XRD pattern it can be observed that as graphitization temperature increased, the degree of graphitization also increased. Overall sample prepared at higher temperature 1400°C shows a higher degree of graphitization. PKS sample graphitized at 1400°C with the aid of Ferum catalyst shows a sharp intensified peak at 2θ = 26.5° reflecting formation of highly crystalline graphite structure. Raman spectrum also suggests similar results to XRD in which PKS-1400 shows the presence of large amount of graphitic structure as the value of (Id/Ig) ratio is lower than in other samples. HRTEM analysis visibly shows define lattice fringe, which further confirms the structural transformation from amorphous to highly ordered graphitic carbon structure. Overall, good quality graphitic carbon structure from Palm Kernel shell was succesfully synthesised via utilization of PKS, Ferum catalsyt and heat treatment method.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Investigation of corrosion rate of X55CrMo14 stainless steel at 65% nitrate acid at 348 K<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A number of factors determine the mechanical, but also physical and chemical properties. One of the most important are the steel microstructure and its working conditions. A few corrosion processes in crevices and awkward corners can be avoided at the design stage (low roughness parameters, round-section and other). But still the construction material is exposed to corrosion. These steels often come into contact with an aggressive environment based on nitric acid. Stainless steel is more and more often used in many sectors of industry.</p> <p>The purpose of this article is to investigate corrosion resistance in different time (48, 96, 144, 192, 240, 288, 336, 384 and 432 hours) using weight loss and profile roughness parameters of martensitic steel in grade X55CrMo14 in nitric acid 65% pure-basic at temperature 348 K. Corrosion tests show that the tested steel in nitric acid as a corrosive environments is characterized through continuous corrosion process whose measure may be surface roughness.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Barriers to the implementation of innovations in information systems in SMEs<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Information management and information flow is an important element in the strategy of developing and running a company. The need to supervise information makes it necessary to implement numerous innovations that improve the method of information management correlated with the proper reception, selection and analysis - in both external and internal information flow. This paper presents the results of research that allowed for the assessment of barriers that arise during the implementation of innovative solutions in small and medium-sized enterprises (service MSEs). On the basis of the conducted research, it was found that the mental barrier is not always crucial from the point of view of modern technologies implementation. And the determination to implement information management innovations may be forced by the necessity of the document exchange acceleration. The success of innovative solutions e.g. in the financial services industry (in SMEs) is closely related to the technological capabilities of the enterprise - the technological barrier is crucial in this type of enterprises. Especially, taking into account the assumption that employees are highly motivated to implement new products.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Agri-Food 4.0 and Innovations: Revamping the Supply Chain Operations<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The agri-food sector contributes significantly to economic and social advancements globally despite numerous challenges such as food safety and security, demand and supply gaps, product quality, traceability, etc. Digital technologies offer effective and sustainable ways to these challenges through reduced human interference and improved data-accuracy. Innovations led by digital transformations in the agri-food supply chains (AFSCs) are the main aim of ‘Agri-Food 4.0’. This brings significant transformations in the agri-food sector by reducing food wastage, real-time product monitoring, reducing scalability issues, etc. This paper presents a systematic review of the innovations in the agri-food for digital technologies such as internet-of-things, artificial intelligence, big data, RFID, robotics, block-chain technology, etc. The employment of these technologies from the ‘farm to fork’ along AFSC emphasizes a review of 159 articles solicited from different sources. This paper also highlights digitization in developing smart, sensible, and sustainable agri-food supply chain systems.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysing the machines working time utilization for improvement purposes<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article is a case study of the use of snapshot observation to analyse the factors causing time losses at selected laser burner stations, and to propose changes that will increase the effective utilization of working time. The purpose of this paper is to determine the best and worst utilization of working time at the examined workplaces, analyse the amount of time lost and identify the causes of losses, and propose solutions that will improve the utilization of working time. According to the snapshot observation, procedure 2 main - work and non-work - time fractions and 10 detailed time fractions in the working day were distinguished, and their percentage share for the analysed workstations was calculated. Analyses of the working day time utilization depending on the type of machines, days of observation, single shifts were done and selected results were averaged. The paper indicates that organizational and technical aspects, as well as the employees’ faults, were the main reasons for time losses. Research has shown that the generally examined group of workstations was characterized by a high utilization level of working time. An unfavourable phenomenon was the ratio of the main time to the auxiliary time, the high share of the maintenance time fraction of the workstations, and incorrect organization of the interoperation transport, low workers motivation, rush, and routine. It was found that further improvement of work efficiency and reduce time losses requires paying attention to the optimization of employees’ working conditions, training, motivation systems, and implementation of lean concept tools and MES/CMMS solutions into production.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Economy and energy analysis in the operation of renewable energy installations – a case study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the paper an economic, ecological and energy analysis of a home photovoltaic on grid installation was presented. The increase in ecological awareness of the Polish society contributes to the continuous growth of interest in green energy. However, many people haven’t been aware of the ecological, economic and energy benefits of photovoltaic installations yet, so the following analysis is made. The analysis concerns a photovoltaic installation with a capacity of 3.96 kWp located in Ościęciny near Włocławek. The photovoltaic installation consists of 11 monocrystalline panels with a power of 360 Wp, a 4 KTLM Sofar Solar inverter and other necessary components. The first part presents basic issues related to photovoltaic installations. Parameters related to the proper functioning of the photo-voltaic installation were replaced. The analysis of the literature will help to understand the essence of the proper functioning of the photovoltaic installation. In the practical part, an analysis of a selected home photovoltaic installation was carried out. Based on the available data, it has been calculated that the installation will have a payback period of over 9 years. The photovoltaic installation will produce approximately 3 582.61 kWh of electricity and will contribute to the reduction of 70 tons of carbon dioxide during the entire operation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00ISO 9004 - A stimulating quality management standard for the creative leaders of contemporary sustainable organizations<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>International management standards can provide organizations with challenging opportunities only if they understand the intended aims and features of those standards and apply them creatively and integrated into their business management. For that to happen, the business leaders of the organizations play the key role. For this subject, this discursive article focuses on the ISO 9004 quality management (QM) standard, which is one of the international management standards, which can be applied to all kinds of organizations. In addition to the opportunities, this article discusses difficulties and pitfalls associated with the ISO 9004 standard, and their possible solutions in practical implementations.</p> <p>The authors highlight aspects of how ISO 9004 can be considered as the most challenging standard in the ISO 9000 series of the QM standards. However, many organizations, which have not acknowledged the differences and relationship of the ISO 9004 and ISO 9001 standards, often apply the ISO 9000 standards in inadequate ways and hence have not the ability to exploit the potential opportunities of the standards. Especially, ISO 9004 considers QM from the entire business point of view and aims at the quality of the whole organization. ISO 9004 standard can provide QM guidance to achieve sustained success even in complex, demanding and ever-changing contemporary business environments, including the challenges of the 4th industrial revolution.</p> <p>This article gives ideas and creative theoretical and practical views for the ISO 9004 implementations. The aim is to emphasize that, according to ISO 9004, the organization’s identity and its differentiating competitive advantages are the bases for the quality of the organization and its sustained success. In this context, each organization has its own and always existing QM realization, which cannot be separated from business management and which can be continually improved according to the organization’s business development strategies and practices. In this respect, the ISO 9004 can be seen as flexible and challenging. Based on the authors’ experience, QM targets can be achieved and developed in the most natural way through the principles and practices of the learning organization. In addition to the ISO 9000 standards, organizations also use other well-known managerial references, including performance excellence models and many various management system standards of the specific disciplines. All these may be seen as sub-domains within the ISO 9004 framework. ISO 9004 also can be used for diverse TQM and sustainability implementations.</p> <p>This article is based on the authors’ long experience in the practical promotion and application of the ISO 9000 standard in different kinds of organizations. The first author of the article has involved in the international drafting process of the ISO 9004 standard-editions since the 1980s. He also was a co-writer of a similar ISO 9004 article about twenty years ago. That article has been publicly available on the Internet, and its over one thousand recent readers evidence a growing interest in this standard. Moreover, after 2000, ISO 9004 standard has been revised twice and rewritten completely recently. Hence, it is well-founded to re-examine this subject again in this article.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00An investigation of wire offset and surface morphology of Die Steel D-3 on Wire EDM by using RSM-CCD<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The work investigated the effect on wire offset and surface morphology, with input process parameters as peak current, pulse on time, wire tension over Die Steel D3. Some of experiments were performed by using response surface methodology (RSM) as the design of experiment with central composite design (CCD) technique for the analysis. The ANOVA results annotate that the model is significant. Wire Tension and peak current are observed to have major impact on wire offset during machining operation and surface morphology. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images confirmed that the thermal stresses produced during the machining of the workpiece resulted in the development of microcracks, craters and spherical module. Due to higher thermal gradient i.e., higher peak current and pulse on-time larger cracks and melted deposits were observed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Production potential of biodiesel, methane and electricity in the largest steamed rice industry in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: case study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The potential for energy production from effluents and husks generated in grain processing in the rice parboiling industries in Brazil is capable of promoting energy self-sufficiency in the sector, through the production and use of syngas and biogas. However, the production of methane from residues of the rice parboiling industries is still little explored by academic studies, in general studies on the potential of methane production by this same type of effluent are found in the south of the country, however, the same is not true for the production of biodiesel from rice bran oil. The objective of this study was to determine the production potential of biodiesel, methane and electric energy of the largest parboiled rice industry in Rio Grande do Sul, located in the southern region of the country. According to this study, the rice parboiling industry located in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, has a production potential of 1.2∙10<sup>2</sup> m<sup>3</sup>/day of biodiesel, 2.93∙10<sup>4</sup> Nm<sup>3</sup>/day of methane and 1.89∙10<sup>5</sup> kWh/day of electricity. Despite being a significant and high potential, which may reduce the financial expenses of the industry regarding the purchase of energy from concessionaires, it is not able to promote its energy self-sufficiency. At the same time, it would be necessary to add the energy production potential of the rice husk gasification syngas highlighted in other studies</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Influence of laser texturing on tribological properties of DLC coatings<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The work presents the use of laser texturing of DLC coatings to improve tribological properties. The coatings were applied by the PVD method to the rings made of 4H13 steel. The surface texturing was performed with the TruMICRO 5325c picosecond laser with the radiation wavelength λ = 343 nm. The surface microstructure analysis, surface microgeometry and microhardness measurements and tribological tests were carried out. The problem presented in the paper can be used to extend the knowledge of the areas of application of DLC coatings, especially in sliding friction pairs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00The concept of operation and production control<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The theoretical aim of the paper is to analyses the main function and concept of production control in operation management. The empirical aim of the paper is to investigate polish production firm opinion about factors affecting production planning and control and also functions of production planning and control. Production control is very important in every factory, and every aspect of operation and production management especially in times of Industry 4.0 conditions. In the paper we presented all classical seven task of production management control. Also there is in the paper an analysis of main factors affecting production control in industrial organization. In the paper we analysed the problems connected with production control. Nowadays in the conditions of Industry 4.0 this is very important concept because the increasing level of digitalization of all industrial processes leads to possibility of detailed analysis of all processes and better level of control. Operation managers should have good level of knowledge about production control and especially quality control. They can use in this many new information tools like statistical methods and artificial intelligence. Especially we think that in the future many function of production control would be assisted by artificial intelligence. We also in the paper give results of research conducted on example of 30 polish production organizations located in Silesia region.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Electrical impedance to easily discover undeclared freeze-thaw cycles in slaughtered bovine meat<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>A portable electrical impedance spectroscopy device was developed to monitor the bioimpedance resistive component of bovine meat by injecting a sinusoidal current of 1 mA at 65 kHz. Both right and left longissimus dorsi muscles were trimmed from 4 slaughtered cows. The left muscle portions were frozen to −18 °C for 7 days while the right ones were meantime maintained at 5 °C. Mean value of impedance per length (Ω/cm) of frozen and thawed left samples was 31% lower than that of right non-frozen one (P = 0.0001). It was concluded that the device is reliable for monitoring the maturation of beef meat in situ with the possibility of revealing undeclared freeze-thaw cycles.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Segmental volume and circulatory changes that occur in humans and Rhesus monkeys during 4 hour, −6 degree head down tilt<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Nonhuman primates are often used to investigate physiologic processes that occur in man during aerospace/cardiovascular orthostatic research. Few studies have compared nonhuman primates and man under identical test conditions to assess the degree of similarity between the two species. Impedance plethysmography was used to measure calf, thigh, pelvic, thoracic, upper arm, and lower arm volume changes in eight rhesus (Macacca Mulatta) monkeys and twelve human subjects during four hour exposures to −6 degree head down tilt (HDT).</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Electrical bioimpedance: from the past to the future<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This year, 2021, marks the “coming of age” for JoEB with its indexing in PubMed Central. It is also a century since some of the earliest studies on tissue impedance. This editorial briefly reviews the time-line of research in the field to mark this occasion.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-30T00:00:00.000+00:00T Dependence of the Mechanical Properties on the Microstructural Parameters of WC-Co<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The effect of binder content and WC grain size on the mechanical properties is widely investigated in literature. An increase in binder amount and WC grain size leads to a decrease in hardness and an increase in fracture toughness. Actually, these correlations are related to the influence of binder content and WC grain size through the contiguity and mean binder free path, which are the microstructural parameters that affect the mechanical properties. The aim of this study is to verify the dependence of the two microstructural parameters that govern the WCCo mechanical behaviour, namely the contiguity and mean binder free path, on the mechanical properties of an extended range of WC-Co samples, which differ in terms of Co content and tungsten carbide grain size.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-06-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Die Wall - Vs. Bulk Lubrication in Warm Die Compaction: Density, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Three Low Alloyed Steels<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The influence of die wall lubrication during warm die compaction on densification, microstructure and mechanical properties of three low alloy ferrous powders was investigated. Specimens were sintered at 1250°C. Die wall lubrication leads to higher green and sintered density and enhances the dimensional stability. It does not affect the microstructure of the matrix, while pores are smaller and more rounded than in bulk lubricated specimens. In TRS tests, both strength and deformation are higher in die wall lubricated specimens than bulk lubricated ones.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-06-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Study on Sintering of Artificially Oxidized Steel Compacts<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Sintering of Cr-prealloyed PM steels requires atmospheres with good quality – low oxygen potential – to achieve satisfactory sintering results. But during heating even the best atmospheres may be oxidizing, the system turns to reducing conditions only at high temperatures, which can be monitored by thermal analysis. During the dewaxing process, oxidizing conditions are favourable for effective dewaxing without sooting and blistering. However, this may result in some oxygen pickup during heating, and then the final properties of the produced parts may be strongly influenced by this intermediate oxidation. This study demonstrates the behaviour of artificially oxidized steels (Fe-C and Fe3Cr-0.5Mo-C) during the sintering process by stepwise sintering. Iron and steel powder were slightly oxidized and then pressed and sintered at different temperatures. In parallel, as a second approach, pressed samples were oxidized and then sintered. Density, hardness and impact energy were measured and dilatometry/MS was used for online monitoring of the sintering process. The starting oxygen content of 0.20 to 0.30 wt% is high enough to change the sintering behaviour of the materials, but still leads to rather good properties. Thermal analysis showed that most of the oxygen picked up was present as iron oxides on the surface which were reduced by hydrogen at rather low temperatures, confirming that these were iron oxides, which also holds for the Cr-prealloyed variant. The biggest influence on the final performance was exerted by the final carbon content and the microstructural development of the material.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-06-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Polymorphs of Neodymium Niobate and Tantalate Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Method<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Neodymium niobate NdNbO4 (NNO) and tantalate NdTaO4 (NTO) thin films (~100 nm) were prepared by sol-gel/spin-coating process on Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3/Al2O3 substrates with annealing at 1000°C. The precursors of films were synthesized using Nb or Ta tartrate complexes. The XRD results of NNO and NTO films confirmed tetragonal T-NdNbO4 and T-NdTaO4 phases, respectively, with traces of monoclinic MNdNbO4 and M´-NdTaO4. The surface morphology and topography were investigated by SEM and AFM analysis. NTO was smoother with roughness 5.24 nm in comparison with NNO (6.95 nm). In the microstructure of NNO, small spherical (~ 20-50 nm) T-NdNbO4 and larger needle-like particles (~100 nm) of M-NdNbO4 phase were observed. The compact clusters composed of fine spherical T-NdTaO4 particles (~ 50 nm) and cuboidal M´-NdTaO4 particles (~ 100 nm) were found in NTO. The results of this work can contribute to formation of different polymorphs of films for the application in environmental electrolytic thin film devices.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-06-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Influence of Sodium Alginate on Properties of Tetracalcium Phosphate/Nanomonetite Biocement<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The tetracalcium phosphate/nanomonetite (TTCPMH) biocements with the addition of sodium alginate were prepared by mechanical homogenization of powder mixture with hardening liquid containing sodium alginate. The effect of various viscosity of different alginates on properties of TTCPMH cement mixture was investigated. The medium viscous (MED) alginate had a more negative effect on setting process and compressive strength than low viscous (LOW) alginate. An approx. 50% decrease in mechanical properties (compressive strengths, Young´s modulus, work of fracture (WOF)) was revealed after an addition of 0.25 wt % with rapid fall above 1 wt % of LOW alginate in biocement. A statistically significant difference in the WOF was found between of 0.25 and 0.5 LOW alginate biocements (p&lt;0.035) whereas no statistical differences were revealed between WOF of 0.5 and 1 LOW alginate biocements (p˃0.357). In the microstructure of composite cements, the increased amounts of granular or finer needle-like nanohydroxyapatite particles arranged into the form of more separated spherical agglomerates were observed. A low cytotoxicity of cement extracts based on measurement of cell proliferation was revealed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-06-15T00:00:00.000+00:00International Journal of Bioelectromagnetism<DIV align=justify> <P><EM>The International Journal of Bioelectromagnetism</EM> (IJBEM) is a peer-reviewed, open access international scientific journal on the Internet devoted to the advancement and dissemination of scientific knowledge concerning bioelectromagnetism and related disciplines. It has about 20 years’ history and is, therefore, one of the firsts, if not the very first open access scientific journal on the Internet. It is published two times per year and only in the English language. </P><STRONG></STRONG> <P><STRONG>The Scope of Bioelectromagnetism</STRONG> </P> <P>The discipline of bioelectromagnetism examines the electric, electromagnetic and magnetic phenomena which arise in biological tissues. These include: </P> <UL> <LI>Measurement of electric and magnetic fields from bioelectric sources. </LI> <LI>Electric and magnetic stimulation. </LI> <LI>Measurement of electric impedance and magnetic susceptibility of biological tissues. </LI></UL> <P></P> <P>Characteristic properties of bioelectric and biomagnetic signals are that: </P> <UL> <LI>Their information spreads immediately throughout the whole body. </LI> <LI>Their measurement may be done non-invasively. </LI> <LI>Their source may be solved with reasonable accuracy. </LI> <LI>They may be used for producing temporally and spatially controlled stimulation and that. </LI> <LI>They generate only a minimal amount of side effects and these are well known. </LI></UL> <P></P> <P>The elementary bioelectric source is an activating nerve or muscle cell. These form the peripheral and central nervous systems, especially the brain, as well as the skeletal and internal muscular systems, especially the cardiac muscle. The main application areas of bioelectromagnetism are basic and applied research in all these areas. </P><STRONG></STRONG> <P><STRONG>The Aim of the IJBEM</STRONG> </P> <P>The aim of the discipline of bioelectromagnetism is to increase the understanding of the theory of bioelectric and biomagnetic phenomena and to facilitate their application for improving the diagnosis and therapy of diseases as well as the measurement and monitoring of physiological parameters also in healthy subjects. It is the aim of the International Journal of Bioelectromagnetism to be the fundamental and widely applicable forum for promoting this scope. </P><STRONG></STRONG> <P><STRONG>Publishing in the IJBEM</STRONG> </P> <P></P> <P>The IJBEM accepts original scientific articles, review articles, short communications, case reports, technical communications and clinical reviews from the field of bioelectromagnetism. The articles may discuss basic research as well as the application of bioelectromagnetic phenomena in clinical diagnosis and therapy. Articles discussing the detection, computerized processing, analysis and imaging of bioelectromagnetic signals fall centrally in the area of IJBEM. Articles discussing the use of electric and magnetic fields in stimulation are welcome as well. </P> <P>Publishing in the IJBEM is free of charge for members of the International Society for Bioelectromagnetism ( From non-members, it is charged 250 € for a published article. </P></DIV> JOURNAL2018-09-30T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1