rss_2.0General Interest FeedSciendo RSS Feed for General Interest Interest Feed Based and Non-Context Based Interpretation of English Compounds in Legal Discourse-A Case Study with ESP Law Students<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Due to new innovations and changes, every language needs new words simply because there is a need for new words to name new things. It is a common occurrence for a speaker to use some words in a way that has never been used before in order to communicate directly about certain facts or ideas. When new inventions and changes come into people’s lives, there is a need to name them and talk about them. If a new word is used by many speakers of the language, it will probably survive, and the same word will one day become an everyday word and enter the vocabulary of a language. This paper looks at compounding as one of the most productive word formation process in English. The term <italic>compounding</italic> refers to a process in which two or more lexemes are combined into one new word. When a word is formed by merging two or more words, each of which can be used separately, it is called a compound word. The term “word formation” has no universally accepted use. Word formation is sometimes defined as a process associated with changing the form of a word, for example, affixation, which is, in fact, the subject of morphology. In a broader sense, word formation covers the processes of creating new lexical items. In English, word formation is of great importance because this phenomenon affects the English dictionary, which in addition to borrowing from various other languages is enriched in this way. The aim of this paper was to investigate the context based vs. non-context interpretation of English compounds by EFL students in legal discourse. The findings from the test run-questionnaire showed that students of English as a foreign language found it more difficult to apply compound words in context rather than choosing an appropriate definition for them, with or without a given context. Furthermore, students scored lower when 50% of the compounds were given in context.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Children as Victims of Domestic Violence – Deprivation of Parental Rights according to the Family Law Act of the Republic of North Macedonia and the Family Law Act of Kosovo<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Domestic violence is one of the most serious forms of violation of basic human freedoms and rights regardless of ethnicity, gender, religion, and status. A reflection on many international statistics shows that women are the most frequent victims of domestic violence. Based on the definition of the phenomenon of domestic violence, the forms of abuse, the manner how violence is treated, the possibility of children, men, extramarital spouses, brothers, sisters, and old people living in an extended domestic community, of also being victims is not excluded. Since domestic violence is not only a national problem but a worldwide problem, international organizations have worked towards the eradication of this phenomenon by sanctioning it in various international conventions. Also, the legal systems of many countries prohibit and sanction domestic violence by special laws obliging the state authorities to act in all situations when there are indications that there are direct or indirect violent acts in a family. In this paper, the authors present only the domestic violence against children as an evident problem in families, but which is often unreported. The legal frameworks of the Republic of North Macedonia and Republic of Kosovo are presented in this paper with the aim to describe the material-legal and procedural-legal treatment of domestic violence by pointing out the failure of the state authorities in implementing the laws on protection and prevention of this phenomenon. The authors take the approach of only treating the legal consequences of child abuse by parents that in both legislations is deprivation of parental rights for the violent parent. They conclude that the state authorities should intensify their work in taking control measures towards all the families where there are suspicions that the parental rights are neglected, and the child is abused. Because many cases of abuse have not been detected or reported, and in both countries a special study especially on domestic violence against children does not exist, the possibility that the number for this type of child abuse is great.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Data Mining Approach Improving Decision-Making Competency along the Business Digital Transformation Journey: A Case Study – Home Appliances after Sales Service<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Data mining, as an essential part of artificial intelligence, is a powerful digital technology, which makes businesses predict future trends and alleviate the process of decision-making and enhancing customer experience along their digital transformation journey. This research provides a practical implication – a case study - to provide guidance on analyzing information and predicting repairs in home appliances after sales services business.</p> <p>The main benefit of this practical comparative study of various classification algorithms, by using the Weka tool, is the analysis of information and the prediction of repairs in the home appliances after sales services business. The comparison of algorithms is performed considering different parameters, such as the mean absolute error, root mean square error, relative absolute error and root relative squared error, receiver operating characteristic area, accuracy, Matthews’s correlation coefficient, precision-recall curve, precision, F-measure, recall and statistical criteria. Five classification algorithms such as the Naive Bayes, J48, random forest, K-Nearest Neighbor, and logistic regression were implemented in the dataset. J48 has proved to provide the best accuracy and the lowest error among the other examined algorithms applied to a home appliances after sales services dataset to predict repairs based on product guarantee period.</p> <p>The extracted information and results of an after sales services business by using data mining techniques prove to alleviate the process of streamlining decision-making and provide reliable predictions, especially for the customers, as well as increase businesses’ efficiency along their digital transformation journey.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00The Controversy between Niklas Luhmann and Jűrgen Habermas Related to Sociological Approach to Law<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the paper is to present a brief insight into the significant works and views of the German sociologists Niklas Luhmann and Jűrgen Habermas on the role of law in regulating human relations in society. Educated as a lawyer, Niklas Luhmann in the late academic career was under the influence of the American sociologist Talcott Parsons. Niklas Luhmann later, under the influence of the American sociologist Talcott Parsons, he built a sociological theoretical system called the systems theory. On the other side, Jűrgen Habermas was a philosopher and sociologist, highly influenced by the Frankfurt school of sociology. According to Luhmann‘s systems theory, the social reality and the separate aspects of the social life are part of a deeper system called society, and in relation to the same they are set as subsystems. Social systems are divided into allopoietic and autopoietic. One of the significant axioms of Luhmann’s theory is that the largest number of systems tends to simplify due to the pressure of the environment for greater efficiency. Law in Luhman’s systems theory enjoys the status of an autonomous system for regulating society, rather than an instrumental contribution to politics. This brief review exposed a big clash between two influential German thinkers. In this paper we are going to use historical method and analysing of the content of different materials and previous authors that are dealing with the work of Niklas Luhmann and Jűrgen Habermas.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparative Analysis of Local Community Protection Mechanisms in Kosovo and North Macedonia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The objective of this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of local community protection mechanisms in Kosovo and North Macedonia. The intention is to comparatively analyze the community protection mechanism’s differences and similarities and their establishment in both countries. Requirements on community protection mechanisms as tools for ensuring community rights will be elaborated with two institutional settings and succinct legal infrastructure. The establishment of the community-led mechanisms debate has been increasingly conductive to Kosovo and North Macedonia since the inter-ethnic conflicts that these two states were involved in. For that particular reason, Kosovo and North Macedonia have initiated the design of community protection mechanisms to foster inter-community communication, tension easing, and serving as a means and tool for communities’ inclusiveness in local and central institutional affairs.</p> <p>In doing this analysis, two primary legal documents in Kosovo and North Macedonia, the proposed plan settlement of the former United Nations special envoy Martii Ahtisaari in Kosovo and the Ohrid Framework Agreement in North Macedonia, will lead to conclusive comparative findings. Further, the comparative analysis will extend to elaborating Kosovo’s and North Macedonia’s legislative framework, such as their constitutions, community protection laws, and local governance legislation.</p> <p>The importance of the paper also extends to comparing the community protection mechanisms between two countries in finding potential differences and parities between the community protection mechanisms in Kosovo and North Macedonia.</p> <p>Finally, the analysis will provide a theoretical understanding of the local community protection mechanisms framework, focusing on establishing community protection mechanisms, legal requirements, and successes these mechanisms have brought to both countries’ institutional settings.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Characteristics of Juvenile Delinquency with Special Emphasis on Juveniles as Child Sexual Abusers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper is composed of two parts. The first part covers juvenile delinquency with all its characteristics. When analyzing the delinquency, we gave a special place to the socio-pathological phenomena which is more and more present and the rate is higher from year to year. Social pathology is a huge issue that requires special commitment, first, for its detection and then prevention. Within the delinquency, we also cover the most common crimes committed by juveniles.</p> <p>In the second part of this paper, the authors deal in more details with a specific form of crime which can also be committed by juveniles: child sexual abuse and pedophilia. First, the difference between child sexual abuse and pedophilia will be discussed, a difference that is of particular importance in cases where minors are abusers. Furthermore, the main characteristics of cases when both perpetrators and victims of sexual abuse are minors will be addressed. Although these criminal offenses are rarer in practice unlike the criminal offenses and deviant behaviors treated in the first part, however, knowing the main characteristics and specifics of such cases is of particular importance for the legal-criminal treatment of the perpetrators of these criminal offenses.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Editorial Preface Procedure on Securing a Claim in the Republic of Kosovo<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The objective of the paper is to create a concept of what securing the claim is, based on the positive legislation of Kosovo’s law, comparing its regulation with laws of somewhat similar legislations of neighbouring regions, understanding its implementation in practice, to achieve conclusions and remarks based on law, facts, practice, and the comparative aspect. The Civil Procedure Law in the Republic of Kosovo is regulated with contested, non-contested or enforcement procedure. Securing the claim is an institute expressively regulated by the “Law on Contested Procedure of the Republic of Kosovo” on its XXI Chapter that defines its means and types.</p> <p>Considering securing the claim measures are present in civil law to prevent any possible threat of protected rights until the final verdict is given, this paper tends to achieve a realization of how these measures practically succeed in actual cases, if they meet the criteria set in the law, or if securing the claim proposal is approved by the court, if they unintentionally restrain the respondent from using their rights. Moving forward, how one distinguishes claim security and interim measures from one-another although they describe the main concept, is strictly reviewed under this article, to finally achieve conclusions and remarks based on questions raised as above.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00The Legal and Trade Effect of the SAA between the Republic of Kosovo and the European Union<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Stabilization and Association Agreement with the Republic of Kosovo is a new chapter in the new institutional and social functioning because it has direct impact on the citizens’ life in our country. The effects of the agreement are not only in trading but those are multiple effects, since they do touch the political stability, the rule of law, democratic governance, economic development, trade exchange, regional economic cooperation, etc. and therefore the relevance of this agreement should not be seen from a single viewpoint, but rather from a wider perspective and we should dedicate more attention to the direct legal and trading issues. This agreement in the short term will create perspective and hope, in the middle term, it will create political stability, whereas in the long term, it will bring economic development, and genuinely trading exchange.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Protection of the Rights of Parties, Participants and Third Parties During Enforcement in Republic of North Macedonia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this paper is to analyze the protection offered to parties, participants and third parties during enforcement, as one of the most important requirements of the enforcement procedure. Having in mind that bailiffs except for implementing enforcement, they are also competent to determine the means by which creditors’ claims will be fulfilled. The realization of the creditors’ claims does not mean use of any kind of measure or enforcement procedural activity. In this context the authors review ways in which debtors and their family members can be protected during enforcement actions, such as measures of exclusion and restriction of enforcement on the debtor’s items and income. Furthermore, the authors elaborate other legal and important ways for protection of parties, participants and third parties, such as opposition to illegality and complaints provided by the Law on Enforcement.</p> <p>In this regard, results of this research have shown that the RNM is making efforts to create a more effective enforcement system, which includes guarantees not only for the protection of the creditor and the debtor as a party, but also for the participants and third parties. From the enforcement experiences of citizens were reported dissatisfaction and complaints of citizens regarding the performance of bailiffs, namely taking the necessary means of subsistence form them. To avoid this situation Amendments on the Law on Enforcement in 2020 were brought, so the legal framework was clarified in terms of measures for exclusion and restriction of enforcement. This resulted in the prevention of economic damage of debtors and their family, because now no action can be taken if the debtor has an average salary or pension. Extraordinary legal remedies in enforcement proceeding are excluded, but there are other safeguards that are related to enforcement process but are not regulated by the Law on Enforcement.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Fiscal Decentralization and Alternative Financial Sources for the Local Self-Government in Republic of North Macedonia - Overview<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Local governance in developing countries demonstrates many problems related to financial sources and good governance of their finances. Local Self-Government (LSG) units in the Republic of North Macedonia are very small which results in a lack of capabilities to raise enough funds to offer delegated services. The local government in the Republic of North Macedonia centralizes almost all public finance. Local budgets depend heavily on state transfers and donations from the central budget. The lack of funds remained a crucial problem even though there were some attempts for the decentralization process. Practically, governments in many of the local governments in North Macedonia could not secure their resources. In this way, they could come with specific charges, but all taxes are decided by the central government. The practice showed that local governments before borrowing needs to be approved by the Ministry of Finance.</p> <p>The Republic of North Macedonia as a potential candidate to join the European Union should make several changes regarding the legislation during the process of accession to benefit from being a small candidate country. The main aim of this paper is to investigate alternative financial sources such are <italic>Municipal Bonds, Partnership Sukuk securities, and PPP.</italic> Unfortunately, many financial alternatives have not been able to be implemented due to failures in reforms and good financial governance. But they remain an open opportunity for developing a local government in the future.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Impacts of Environmental Variations on Quality and Chemical Contents of Oriental Tobacco<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Basma tobaccos, in addition to Izmir and Samsun type tobaccos, are the most important high-quality oriental tobacco types grown in Turkey. This research was carried out to determine the effects of a variety of environmental conditions, in four locations on different altitudes on the yield as well as on nicotine, sugar and phenolic substances content. The plant material of the study included 21 Basma lines, which were selected according to their morphological differences and from genotypes separated by DNA fingerprint analysis, and four standard cultivars/lines (checks). The quality grade index of the genotypes was determined by the American grading method and chemical analyses were carried out using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system. All the parameters investigated indicated that genotypes were significantly affected by the variation in environmental conditions. Organoleptic observations showed that the quality grade index of genotypes ranged from 24.17 to 100%, and the ERB-7, ERB-13, ERB-15, ERB-19 and ERB-38 lines had the best quality. Nicotine contents of tobacco lines were between 0.31 and 3.15% dry matter (DM). Glucose, fructose and their sum (reducing sugar) contents of genotypes ranged from 1.16 to 8.88% DM, from 2.60 to 8.66% DM and from 4.44 to 15.03% DM, respectively. The ERB-21 and ERB-30 lines are noteworthy tobacco types in terms of reducing sugar contents. The values of chlorogenic acid, one of the phenolic compounds, ranged from 40.67 to 1119.76 ppm, the values of rutin from 121.05 to 1021.53 ppm, and the sum of these two phenolic compounds was from 174.94 ppm to 2019.41 ppm. The effect of variations in the environment on the quality of Oriental tobacco can be clearly explained by the variations in the parameters.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of Pyrolysis Characteristics and Kinetics of Cigar Tobacco and Flue-Cured Tobacco by TG-FTIR<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Investigation of the detailed pyrolysis characteristics of tobacco raw materials is important for the understanding of product design and consumption. In this work, pyrolysis characteristics and kinetic models of cigar filler tobacco (CFT), cigar wrapper tobacco (CWT), and flue-cured tobacco (FCT) were investigated by using a thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR). The pyrolysis of different tobacco samples could be divided into four stages based on the derivative thermogravimetric analysis (DTG) curves. Flue-cured tobacco underwent a marked decomposition process at lower temperatures (about 200 °C), while the thermal decomposition of cigar tobacco occurs at higher temperatures. During the pyrolysis process, evolved gases including H<sub>2</sub>O, CO<sub>2</sub>, CH<sub>4</sub>, CO, carbonyls, alcohols, phenols and aromatic compounds were detected by FTIR. CWT released more CO<sub>2</sub> than CFT, while the amount of CO<sub>2</sub>, CH<sub>4</sub>, CO and aromatic compounds released by flue-cured tobacco was lower than that of cigar tobacco. The pyrolysis kinetics of tobacco leaves were further analyzed and compared through the isoconversional FWO (Flynn-Wall-Ozawa) and KAS (Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose) methods. The activation energy of FCT (from 100.1 kJ mol<sup>−1</sup> to 192.1 kJ mol<sup>−1</sup>) was lower than that of CFT (from 207.36 kJ mol<sup>−1</sup> to 319.28 kJ mol<sup>−1</sup>) and CWT (from 160.40 kJ mol<sup>−1</sup> to 260.45 kJ mol<sup>−1</sup>). The thermal decomposition kinetics of different tobaccos were analyzed by M<sc>álek</sc> and C<sc>oats</sc>-R<sc>edfern</sc> methods.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Editors’ Note Single-Center Evaluation of Environmental Emissions from ENDS and Combustible Cigarettes<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>As the use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) continues to increase, there is a need to evaluate their impact on indoor air quality. This study evaluated the differences in concentrations of volatile and particulate compounds (including formaldehyde, benzene, glycerol, propylene glycol, nicotine, and particulate matter) in secondhand vapor (SHV) after <italic>ad libitum</italic> subject vaping of cig-a-like ENDS, after-subject smoking of combustible cigarettes (CC), and after-subject non-smoking/non-vaping (blank) in an environmental test chamber. A single-center, open-label, parallel-group study was conducted. Seventy-one generally healthy smokers and vapers were randomized to one of six cohorts: Marlboro Gold Pack, Newport Box, Vuse non-menthol (14 mg nicotine/cartridge and 29 mg nicotine/cartridge), Vuse menthol (29 mg nicotine/cartridge), and market-sample ENDS. Concentrations of most secondhand constituents were similar after e-cigarette vaping and blank sessions. Constituent concentrations in SHV after ENDS use were significantly lower than in secondhand smoke (SHS) from CC, with the exception of glycerol and propylene glycol. Secondhand nicotine concentrations after ENDS use were 88–99% lower than after cigarette smoking. Emission factors between the three Vuse products were also similar with the exception of propylene glycol. Concentrations of some secondhand constituents after ENDS use were compared to existing indoor and occupational air quality guidelines and did not show potential to contribute appreciably to indoor air quality. These findings indicate that SHV from ENDS differs qualitatively and quantitatively from the SHS from CC.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of Presence or Absence of α-Tocopherol and α-Tocopheryl Acetate in Various E-Liquids<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The presence of α-tocopheryl acetate in e-liquids is linked to EVALI (Electronic Cigarette, or Vaping, product use-Associated Lung Injuries). Typical e-liquids containing flavors and nicotine have a glycerin/propylene glycol carrier and are highly unlikely to contain α-tocopherol or α-tocopheryl acetate. However, the e-liquids containing cannabinoids, most notably tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), may contain α-tocopherol or α-tocopheryl acetate for enhancing the solubility of THC which is a lipophilic compound. For the analysis of α-tocopherol and of α-tocopheryl acetate in e-liquids a new HPLC technique was adopted which has been developed for the analysis of these compounds in tobacco and cigarette smoke and was previously reported. Both UV and MS/MS (MRM mode) were used as detection procedure.</p> <p>Thirty four e-liquids containing different levels of nicotine were evaluated using this method. None of the e-liquids contained either α-tocopherol or α-tocopheryl acetate. Also, three e-liquids containing cannabidiol (CBD) were analyzed. Two of the CBD containing liquids did not contain α-tocopherol or α-tocopheryl acetate. However, one of these e-liquids did contain α-tocopherol, but the level was low at about 10 μg/g, which is lower than the level of α-tocopherol per smoke of one cigarette (ISO smoking), and significantly lower than the level of α-tocopherol in tobacco.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Appropriate Mesh Size of Insect Screen for the Exclusion of the Cigarette Beetle, (F.)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Insect screens are often used in tobacco facilities to exclude insect pests. Previous studies using laboratory cultures indicated that screens with openings smaller than 1.0 mm are adequate to prevent the passage of the cigarette beetle, <italic>Lasioderma serricorne</italic>. The beetles from natural populations are rather heterogeneous, and their body sizes may vary. Studies were conducted to confirm the relationship between mesh sizes and the body sizes of the cigarette beetles that can pass through the screens and to elucidate the size distribution of wild beetles. The results revealed that meshes can protect against beetles whose thorax width is larger than the openings in the mesh. Additionally, the widths of the prothoraxes of wild beetles captured in pheromone traps, which were generally considered to be male, ranged from 727–1070 μm (<italic>N</italic> = 169), and approximately 90% of the beetles had thoraxes that were narrower than 1000 μm. These data led to the conclusion that a 1.0 mm opening mesh is insufficient to protect against the cigarette beetle. Thus, Tyler standard #24 mesh (= US standard #25 mesh: 0.71 mm opening/sieve size) is recommended as an insect screen for tobacco facilities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Evidence From the Scientific Assessment of Electronic Cigarettes and Their Role in Tobacco Harm Reduction<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>While smoking remains a main global cause of preventable morbidity and mortality, a potential inflection point has arrived where it could become possible for non-combustible nicotine products to displace cigarettes and reduce risk for smokers who transition completely from smoking. These have proven consumer satisfaction and are now widely and increasingly available globally. One of the most prominent of these nicotine products are electronic cigarettes (ECs), which are used daily by millions of current and former smokers. The category is not without controversy as these products are not risk free and can cause nicotine dependence. The differing interpretation of science assessing ECs has transpired into inconsistent regulation and product standards, providing an environment for its fragmented manufacturing base which allows for variable product quality and in turn, product quality variability has impacted on how they are viewed. In this review, we assess published scientific evidence to evaluate whether, on balance, ECs fulfil a tobacco harm reduction role by reducing health risks relative to smoking and providing a viable alternative for smokers while having limited appeal to non-smokers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Significance of Hypouricaemia in the Development of Neurodegenerative Diseases<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Hypouricaemia has received relatively little attention in the literature. As a result, there is less awareness or understanding of the potential risks of low uric acid levels. Emerging research indicates that normal uric acid levels may have an antioxidative and neuroprotective effect. This study aims to investigate possible associations between hypouricaemia and neurodegenerative disease. Data was collected from seventy-seven outpatients and inpatients who underwent routine uric acid testing, who were then stratified into patients with and without neurodegenerative disease. Patients with renal pathologies and patients using uric acid altering medications were excluded from the study. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease between hypouricemic and normouricemic patients (p = 0.001), however there was no difference in the prevalence of vascular dementia (p = 0.45). This study provides evidence that hypouricaemia has potential effects on health, specifically on the rate of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and gives weight to the potential neuroprotective role of uric acid.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Does the Course of Disease Influence the Development of Fatigue in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients?<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) typically have many permanently inflamed joints. The inflammation inside the body can lead to general physical weakness, exhaustion, and drowsiness. This feeling of extreme tiredness is also called “fatigue”. Some people find this to be the worst symptom of the disease. However, the clinical significance of fatigue and its pathogenesis have not been recognised. This study aimed to determine the development of fatigue depending on activity and aggressiveness of RA. To achieve the goal, patients were interviewed and indicators of disease activity and aggressiveness were determined: rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C reactive protein (CRP), immunoglobulins IgA RF, IgM RF, IgG RF and anti-carbamylated protein antibodies (anti-CarP). Based on the results of the survey, RA patients were divided into two groups — with and without fatigue. In the group of RA patients with fatigue, statistically more often an increase in IgA RF, IgM RF, and IgG RF levels was observed in those with elevated RF level, higher IgM RF and IgG RF levels were associated with increase in IgA RF level, and increase in the IgG RF and anti-CarP levels with elevation in the IgM RF level. A higher IgG RF level contributed to a higher anti-CarP level increase. Significant differences in the levels of clinical and laboratory inflammatory markers were not observed between the RA patients with and without fatigue. The obtained data suggest that the aggressive course of RA, more than inflammation, may contribute to the development of fatigue in RA patients.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-08T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1