rss_2.0Geosciences FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Geosciences Feedäumliches Planen in Wissenschaft und Praxis – von „Mind the Gap“ zu „Finding Gaps“ an die Reviewer im Jahr 2016 und Planungswissenschaft im Praxistest: Arbeitsalltag und Perspektiven von Regionalplanern in Deutschland<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Spatial planning challenges increasingly cross local boundaries. Statutory planning, which is organized along all different levels of government, is very complex and with its mix of informal and formal instruments difficult to put into fixed categories. It acts between local selfautonomy and large-scale spatial changes. Available empirical evidence about how and whereby planning is currently done, is often unclear or weak. This article is grounded on a survey of practitioners within regional planning administrations in Germany to investigate the development and use of theories and the perspectives of practitioners on these theories. Theories and their understanding prove to be as diverse as practice itself. The challenge to translate scientific evidence into working progresses of practitioners, the understanding of theories and the self-perception of planning practitioners has also been addressed. One main aim of this article is to show perspectives on the daily work in practice, the transfer of expertise between research and practice, the emergence and use of theories as well as the perception of planning theories by practitioners. Results reveal a highly diverse landscape of planning practices and a duality between a vested interest in research evidence and planning theories, but also deficiencies in communication and mutual understanding.</p></trans-abstract>ARTICLE2017-02-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Zur Darstellung von Macht in der räumlichen Planung – Potenziale und Grenzen der Methode der systemischen Aufstellung<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Power is inherent to spatial planning, especially in decision-making processes, but also within the planning and the implementation process. Apparently, a central challenge seems to be the analysis and evaluation of not only institutionalised power shown in legislative instruments and financial resources, but also regarding the current use of power in the planning processes. This paper provides a new conceptual framework to analyse the power characteristics and uses within the planning process. Based on power relations in theory and practice, similar methods and their approach to the illustration of questions of power are presented in a first step. Subsequently, the method of systemic constellations is explained and portrayed in detail, followed by an exemplary illustration of the method in scholarship and practice. The paper ends up with critical conclusions on potentials and limits of the implementation of systemic constellations in spatial planning processes.</p></trans-abstract>ARTICLE2017-02-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Erkennen und Handeln: Restrukturierung der landesplanerischen Mittelbereiche in Rheinland-Pfalz Gap zwischen theoriebasierter Planungsforschung und Planungspraxis. Eine Betrachtung weiter Teile des deutschsprachigen planungswissenschaftlichen Outputs seit 2003<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In this article a major part of the German-language output in spatial sciences between 2003 and 2014 is examined towards a supposed gap between theory-based research and planning practice. Thus a total of 1929 articles contained in scientific series of the Akademie für Raumforschung und Landesplanung (ARL) and three journals is analysed to different degrees of detailing. In the first step, a classification was conducted in order to organise the empirical results. In a second step, detailed analyses were followed. The assumption of a gap all in all is confirmed: Only a small part of the examined articles argues visible theorybased. And within these articles the empirical examination of theories mostly is succeeding only rudimentary and the practical benefit of the research results is rarely noticeable. This finding as well shows, that the requirement of transdisciplinarity in the planning sciences can only partly be fulfilled. This could be the result from reasons in between the system of research as well as in conceptual deficits in the planning research itself.</p></trans-abstract>ARTICLE2017-02-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Planungskultur als Sinnsystem. Eine Untersuchung am Beispiel kooperativer Stadtgrünentwicklung in Düsseldorf<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>How is the normative ideal of cooperative urban planning working in practice? Taking the case of green urban development in Düsseldorf (Germany) the analysis is focused on the cooperation between civil society and political-administrative actors. Thereby planning practice is qualitatively analysed from a cultural perspective. The empirical observations are theorised based on a <italic>Grounded Theory</italic> approach leading to a model of planning culture. It is shown how a ‘culture of cooperation’ has emerged in Düsseldorf’s green urban development, including a living tradition of cooperation and shared orientations of the actors. This culture is observable in the institutional scopes of actions and the adaptation of organisational structures and procedures. The theoretical output of this research illustrates an understanding of planning which emphasises the specific forms of negotiating spatial development on the local level. Ultimately local planning cultures are described as context-specific systems of meaning, which have emerged over time through processes of communication, learning and rapprochement between the actors involved. These systems of meaning guide planning-related actions and manifest in the ways spaces are socially produced.</p></trans-abstract>ARTICLE2017-02-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Diskursforschung. Ein interdisziplinäres Handbuchäten und Fachhochschulen im regionalen Innovationssystem – eine deutschlandweite Betrachtung ist, was Planer tun?<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Publicly funded projects have become popular and omnipresent in urban development. In Germany, both planning funding programs such as “Städtebauförderung” as well as non-planning funding structures have largely increased within the last two decades. These latter funding streams, though not explicitly targeted at planning issues, have a significant impact on municipal planning practices. The increase in funding structures on the European level in particular, has led to the new phenomenon that we have labelled “extra-departmental planning practices”. By presenting two cases of such externally funded planning projects in Berlin, this article reflects on this new phenomenon as a blind spot within the academic planning sphere. We argue that filling this gap is crucial both for planning theory and practice. With regard to planning practice, the article demonstrates that the increase in projects requires stronger administrative coordination, which can hardly be met by municipalities – especially under austerity conditions. A risk is that knowledge generated in these externally funded projects is lost and cannot be drawn on for future municipal projects. With regard to planning theory, the article calls for an open empirical perspective that defines “planning practice” beyond institutional boundaries. The growing practical role of extra-departmental planning practices, described in this article, opposes the idea of a planning theory whose empirical pool is limited to certain institutionally designated actors, instruments or spatial units.</p></trans-abstract>ARTICLE2017-02-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Wirtschaftliche Resilienz in deutschsprachigen Regionen inland water microflora as a source of phycobiliproteins and biological activity with beneficial effects on human health<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Ten monoclonal microalgal cultures were obtained from several Tunisian inland water bodies, and their dichloromethane and methanolic extracts were screened for antibacterial, antileishmanial, and antioxidant properties, as well as phycobiliprotein production capacity. <italic>Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii</italic> has been shown to synthesize high levels of phycocyanin and may be an effective alternative source to other sources used for commercial production of phycocyanin. <italic>Chroococcus</italic> sp. and <italic>Leptolyngbya</italic> sp1. exhibited the strongest radical scavenging activity against DPPH (IC<sub>50</sub> = 212.15 and 263.91 μg ml<sup>−1</sup>, respectively), indicating their promising potential for use as new effective and non-toxic antioxidants. Furthermore, <italic>Dunaliella</italic> sp. showed an interesting antileishmanial activity against the pathogens <italic>Leishmania infantum</italic> and <italic>Leishmania major</italic> (IC<sub>50</sub> = 151 and 284 μg ml<sup>−1</sup>, respectively), thus representing a good candidate for use against cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis in Tunisia, a country endemic to these diseases where thousands of new cases are registered every year. These results suggest that the strains of microalgae featured in this work have the potential to serve as natural alternative, safe and sustainable sources of high value-added products that could be used to improve the final biomass value.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Biodiversity of freshwater macroinvertebrates on Gökçeada Island (North Aegean Sea, Turkey)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Island ecosystems have attracted the attention of scientists since the early days of science because of their formation and biodiversity. Despite their abundant freshwater resources, data on freshwater diversity of Gökçeada are incomplete, especially for macroinvertebrates. This study was conducted in a wide range of freshwater ecosystems on Gökçeada between May 2016 and September 2018. Sampling of macroinvertebrates was performed using a hand net from 34 pre-selected sampling sites on the island. A total of 78 aquatic macroinvertebrate taxa were found, 46 of which are new records for the island. The most common species during the study were <italic>Gammarus komareki</italic> and <italic>Bythinella gokceadaensis</italic> with a frequency of 25.93%, followed by <italic>Tubifex tubifex</italic>, <italic>Gammarus</italic> sp. and <italic>Caenis</italic> sp. with a frequency of 22.22%. Endemic and invasive species on the island were assessed according to their presence and frequency values. Based on the results of the current study and previous data, it can be concluded that Gökçeada is characterized by a remarkable species diversity compared to aquatic macroinvertebrates on other Aegean islands.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Otolith phenotypic analysis for the endemic Anatolian fish species, Caucasian bleak Steindachner, 1897 (Teleostei, Leuciscidae), from Selevir Reservoir, Akarçay Basin, Turkey<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Otolith phenotypic variability was analyzed in the Caucasian bleak (<italic>Alburnus escherichii</italic>) from the Selevir Reservoir in Turkey. Utricular (lapillus) and lagenar (asteriscus) otoliths were removed, while distinguishing between left and right otoliths. All otoliths were photographed on the distal (for asterisci) and dorsal surface (for lapilli) using a Leica DF295 digital camera. Otolith morphometrics were measured to the nearest 0.001 mm using Leica Imaging Software. Linear and nonlinear (power) models were applied to determine the relationships between otolith measurements and total length of fish individuals. Two length classes (Class I: 6.7–10.9 cm <italic>L<sub>t</sub></italic>; Class II: 11.0–15.0 cm <italic>L<sub>t</sub></italic>) were established to analyze the shape of otoliths. The Form Factor, Circularity, Roundness, Rectangularity, Aspect Ratio and Ellipticity were used to analyze the shape of otoliths. A standardized model was used to remove the effect of size on otolith measurements. Multivariate analysis was performed to detect differences in otolith shape variation. The results of discriminant function analysis showed that 79.9% of <italic>A. escherichii</italic> specimens were correctly classified by length classes. In this study, intraspecific variation of asteriscus and lapillus otoliths in <italic>A. escherichii</italic> is reported for the first time. The results of this study provide the first comprehensive data on otolith shape analysis and the relationship between otolith morphometrics and total length in the Caucasian bleak.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Distribution of oil, grease and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coastal water and sediments of Suez Bay<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The permanganate index (PI), oil and grease (O&amp;G), and 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in surface sediment and water samples collected at 13 sites along the western coast of Suez Bay (SB). PI and O&amp;G in the SB coastal seawater ranged from 9.6 mg O<sub>2</sub> l<sup>−1</sup> and 17.0 mg l<sup>−1</sup> to 16.0 mg O<sub>2</sub> l<sup>−1</sup> and 37.0 mg l<sup>−1</sup>, respectively. The level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in water and sediment in the SB offshore area was determined by gas chromatography/flame ionization detection. The concentration ranged from 0.574 to 16873.2 ng g<sup>−1</sup> in the sediment and 0.502 to 43.540 ng l<sup>−1</sup> in water. The collected data were compared with values reported in the literature. The possible source and origin of pollution was also assessed based on the determined relative PAH levels at the study sites, the ratio of low molecular mass PAHs (LPAHs) to high molecular mass PAHs (HPAHs), and molecular indices of samples.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of water quality on the spatial distribution of charophytes in the Peshawar Valley, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The presented research was conducted in 2018–2019 in the Peshawar Valley, Pakistan, to study for the first time the effect of water quality on the spatial distribution of charophytes. A total of six taxa of charophytes were found at 41 sites in the Peshawar Valley along the banks of seven rivers, 16 streams and two wetlands: <italic>Chara braunii</italic> C.C.Gmelin, <italic>C. connivens</italic> Salzmann ex A. Braun, <italic>C. contraria</italic> A. Braun ex Kützing, <italic>C. globularis</italic> Thuiller, <italic>C. vulgaris</italic> Linnaeus, and <italic>Nitellopsis obtusa</italic> (Desvaux) J. Groves. <italic>Chara vulgaris</italic> was the most abundant species, followed by <italic>C. globularis</italic>, and <italic>C. contraria</italic>. Water pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), salinity and dissolved oxygen (DO) were within the permissible limits for Pakistan, while water temperature, oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and resistivity showed deviations. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) revealed that DO affected <italic>Chara vulgaris,</italic> pH and resistivity affected <italic>C. braunii, C. connivens</italic> and <italic>C. globularis</italic>, temperature and ORP affected <italic>C. contraria</italic> and <italic>Nitellopsis obtusa.</italic> Furthermore, CCA showed that TDS, EC, and salinity had no effect on the spatial distribution of <italic>Chara contraria</italic>, <italic>C. vulgaris</italic> and <italic>Nitellopsis obtusa</italic>. <italic>Chara contraria</italic> and <italic>Nitellopsis obtusa</italic> should be protected under VU (Vulnerable) status (IUCN) along with their habitats.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of heavy metal contamination in surface sediments of Iskenderun Bay, Turkey<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The ecological risk resulting from the accumulation of some heavy metals in the sediments of Iskenderun Bay was assessed using the following measures: enrichment and contamination factor, pollution load index (<italic>PLI</italic>), and potential ecological risk index (<italic>RI</italic>). The concentrations of the studied heavy metals were in the following order: Fe &gt; Ni &gt; Mn &gt; Cr &gt; Zn &gt; Cu &gt; As &gt; Pb &gt; Cd &gt; Hg. Ni and As had the highest <italic>EF</italic> values. This situation is most likely due to the presence of iron, pesticide, and fertilizer plants in the region. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Ni, As, Mn, and Cr may have harmful effects on faunal communities in sediments. According to the <italic>RI</italic>, Site 4 was more contaminated and toxic than the other seven study sites, with “moderate” ecological risk. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was determined by multivariate methods – cluster and principal component analysis. As can be inferred from the <italic>RI</italic> values, the potential toxic effect of As and Ni in the sediments is moderate.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Determination of functional structure of soft-bottom marine macrobenthic communities of the Samsun Shelf Area using biological traits analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Biological Traits Analysis (BTA) was used to investigate the functional structure of marine macrobenthic communities along the Samsun Shelf Area (SSA). Benthic samples were collected seasonally from five different locations and at four different depths using a Van Veen grab sampler. Macrofaunal communities distributed in the SSA were assessed using 10 biological traits to identify characteristic traits for each depth and location. It was found that variability of benthic ecosystem functions in the SSA was driven by biological traits such as maximum size, living habit, sediment position, feeding mode and type of reproductive behavior. Bivalves, polychaetes and crustaceans of small to medium size, biodepositing, burying themselves in the sediment (burrowers) and feeding in suspension were relatively more abundant at depths of 0–60 m. However, the biomass of <italic>Amphiura</italic>, <italic>Abra</italic>, <italic>Papillicardium</italic> and some polychaetes characterized by medium to large sizes, diffusive mixing, free living and feeding on deposit and subsurface deposit showed higher values at depths below 60 m. In general, it is concluded that the functional structure of the benthic infauna in the SSA has adapted to physical disturbance, and communities distributed in this area consist mainly of taxa resistant to mechanical pressure.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Growth pattern, mortality and reproductive biology of common sole, (Linneaus, 1758), in the Sea of Marmara, Turkey<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study deals with the growth pattern, mortality, and reproduction of common sole, <italic>Solea solea</italic> (Linneaus, 1758), from the Sea of Marmara (Turkey). A total of 580 fish specimens were sampled monthly from October 2017 to September 2018. The total length of all sampled individuals ranged from 11.1 to 29.5 cm, corresponding to ages from 1 to 3 years. The length–weight relationship was expressed as W = 0.022 TL<sup>2.6838</sup>, where the slope indicated negative allometric growth. Growth parameters were <italic>L</italic><sub>∞</sub> = 33.7 cm, <italic>k</italic> = 0.48, and <italic>t</italic><sub>0</sub> = −0.18 for all samples. A seasonally oscillating growth model, indicating the amplitude of oscillations, revealed an important seasonal growth pattern. Total, natural, and fishing mortality rates were calculated as 1.42, 0.47, and 1.01, respectively. The exploitation ratio (E = 0.68) indicates that the fishing pressure on the common sole in the Sea of Marmara was high. The sex ratio (♀/♂) was 1.18. The gonadosomatic index (GSI) for females showed that two main spawning seasons were observed: one in spring (May) and one in autumn (September–October). Sizes at the onset of sexual maturity were estimated for both females and males at 21.6 and 18.6 cm, respectively.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Empirical approach to risk management strategies of Mediterranean mussel farmers in Greece<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Risk perception and risk responses of Greek mussel farmers are important for understanding their risk behavior and the likely success of different risk mitigation strategies. This allows policy makers and actuarial companies to decide what risk management products to offer to address specific types of risks.</p> <p>Results from an empirical survey showed that ex-farm prices and health/disability status of farmers are perceived as the most important sources of risk.</p> <p>Risk management decisions were strongly influenced by the attitudes of mussel farmers rather than their socioeconomic status or perception of risk sources.</p> <p>Financial reserves and an alternative source of stable income are both preferred by mussel farmers as risk management strategies, while optimizing farm management to produce at the lowest possible cost is commonly practiced to eliminate losses. Farmers recommend that for certain types of risks that lead to total losses, e.g. anoxia, tsunamis, harmful algal blooms (HABs), insurance contracts should be provided by the public sector, as in similar situations in agriculture. For other needs, customized insurance contracts should be provided by the actuarial market.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-03T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1