rss_2.0Industrial Chemistry FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Industrial Chemistryhttps://www.sciendo.com/subject/IChttps://www.sciendo.comIndustrial Chemistry Feedhttps://www.sciendo.com/subjectImages/Industrial_Chemistery.jpg700700Simulation of boronizing kinetics of ASTM A36 steel with the alternative kinetic model and the integral methodhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/kom-2021-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this study, two different mathematical models have been proposed for estimating the diffusivities of boron in the Fe<sub>2</sub>B layer on ASTM A36 steel in the range of 1173 to 1273 K with exposure times of 2 to 8 h. The boride incubation period required for the formation of such a layer was constant regardless of the boriding conditions. In both approaches, the boron diffusivity in the iron phase was considered in an unsaturated matrix. The first approach was derived from the mass balance equation at the (Fe<sub>2</sub>B/substrate) interface while the second approach employed the integral diffusion model. The calculated values of boron activation energies for ASTM A36 steel were found to be very comparable for the two approaches (161.65 and 160.96 and kJ mol<sup>-1</sup>). Afterwards, these values of activation energy were confronted with the results from the literature. Experimental validation of these two approaches has been done by comparing the experimental value of Fe<sub>2</sub>B layer thickness measured at 1123 K for 2.5 h with the simulated values. Finally, the predicted values of Fe<sub>2</sub>B layer thickness were in line with the experimental measurement.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Environmentally assisted cracking in the low pressure superheated hydrogen steamhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/kom-2021-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Low pressure superheated H<sub>2</sub>-steam appears to be an interesting alternative to pressurized water environments, since it is capable of performing accelerated environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) experiments for nickel base and stainless steel alloys. Constant Extension Rate Tensile (CERT) tests were performed with displacement rates of 2×10<sup>-6</sup> or 2×10<sup>-8</sup> ms<sup>-1</sup> at 350, 400, 440 and 480 °C on flat tapered specimens of Type 316L austenitic stainless steel. The tapered shape allows the determination of crack initiation over a range of stresses and strains simultaneously on one specimen and therefore the threshold stress value was obtained. The environment was 6 times more oxidizing than the dissociation pressure of NiO. The acquired mechanical properties are summarized and threshold stresses for EAC crack initiation are evaluated.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Investigation on the microstructure, microhardness, and tribological behavior of AA1100-hBN surface compositehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/kom-2021-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Aluminum alloy AA1100 has less wear resistance and mechanical properties than that of other aluminum alloys. This research work is on the fabrication of surface composites of AA1100 alloy by friction stir processing (FSP). The surface composites are fabricated by reinforcing hBN (hexagonal Boron Nitride) in AA1100 alloy to improve the mechanical and tribological properties. The influence of process parameters, rotational speed (rpm), and transverse speed (mm/min) on the microstructural evolution and properties of the fabricated surface composites is investigated.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Terephthalohydrazide and isophthalo- hydrazide as new corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in hydrochloric acid: Experimental and theoretical approacheshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/kom-2021-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Most organic corrosion inhibitors have polar groups through which the molecule can be adsorbed strongly or specifically on the metal surface. In this investigation, terephthalo- hydrazide and isophthalohydrazide were synthesized as corrosion inhibitors, and their corrosion-inhibiting properties on mild steel were evaluated in a corrosive environment by weight loss measurements. The results of corrosion experiments revealed that terephthalohydrazide and isophthalohydrazide as inhibitors controlled or reduced corrosion through adsorption mechanism and showed inhibitive efficiencies of 96.4 % and 97.2 %, respectively, at the optimum concentration of 0.5 mM. The surface morphology of the metal was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The terephthalohydrazide or isophthalohydrazide molecules were adsorbed on the mild steel surface, and the process of adsorption follows chemical adsorption. Quantum chemical calculations of the tested corrosion inhibitors were consistent with the experimental observations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Impediments in cluster development: the case of Târnave valleyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/picbe-2020-0052<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Many years after the fall of communism, the Romanian wine industry has been still struggling to overcome lot of challenges such as erratic weather, unfair competition, lack of investments or the need for a clear vision of the future path of growth. The industry has reached eventually a level of maturity although there is still much to be done in terms of, among others, network-oriented management skills and the acknowledgement of the importance of the role of location for upgrading competitive advantages. Cluster development initiatives have become lately an important direction of economic policy, building on earlier macroeconomic stabilization efforts, opening up markets and reducing business costs. Companies that operate within a cluster, as opposed to those that are not integrated in such agglomerations, benefit from externalities thanks to their location, have better access to specialized suppliers, technological improvements and skilled labor, as well as direct connections to specialized knowledge flows. Is cluster formation and development a driver for the revival of the Romanian wine industry? What are the impediments that delay further progress? To answer these questions, a qualitative research was conducted with support of statistical data collected mainly from the Global Competitiveness Report, the Romanian Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, the National Institute of Statistics, and the International Organization of Vine and Wine. The paper focuses on the case of the vine and wine region of the Târnave Valley to understand the impediments for cluster development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Neuromanagement: the scientific approach to contemporary managementhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/picbe-2020-0099<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The last years have been marked by the attempts to approach the management discipline from a new, innovative perspective, in accordance with the present times, marked by complex challenges and highly increased competition. Given the importance and impact of scientific advances and also the explosion of research in the field of neuroscience, management had to be redefined and its critical variables had to be analyzed from a different perspective. An interdisciplinary vision was needed to enable future researches and explanations of the decision-making processes, leadership practices, change management, innovation, creativity, human resources performance, engagement of people and emotions. Literature review has been made, from the classical management theories and models, the historical concepts of man, to the new, full of perspectives spectrum of neuroscience, brain functioning and, its infinite potential, that opened new horizons, uncovered resources and tools to face the realities of the new business world. The main purpose of this article is to overview the transition from management to neuromanagement, from leadership to neuroleadership, the role and impact of these concepts on the holistic approach of management science. This evolution allows not only the confirmation of a set of assumptions but also access to a wide range of knowledge, with multiple possibilities of applications in organizational management and opens avenues for future researches.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Indefinite vs. fixed-term work contracts: the impact over the teachers’ work-engagementhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/picbe-2020-0085<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A teacher’s work during the school year should be seen as a marathon or as a sprint? This paper intends to contribute to the expanding body of literature on the work-engagement issues of education employees from a perspective of strategic human resources management. It investigates how the length of their working contracts influences the level of engagement shown for their work. It was assumed that the existence of an indefinite or a fixed-term work contract brings up aspects such as stability, predictability and coherence for a teacher’s work, all thought to be parts of a positive engagement state of mind. Nevertheless, the acknowledgement and the acceptance of a short time collaboration could bring just as good results if the focus remains on the present moment. In order to gain a better understanding it was performed a quantitative research materialized in a questionnaire, answered by school teachers employed under both forms of contracts. The findings of this study are of value for any of the educational field stakeholders as the system’s human resources are the most valuable asset for a qualitative result. In the end, implications of a predominant engaged or disengaged stuff will be discussed and human resources management suggestions will be made.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Considerations on the void or voidable agreement under Romanian lawhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/picbe-2020-0112<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The concept of nullity under New Civil Code enacted on 1st of October 2011 has been amended. Thus, the New Civil Code brings more clarity and amends partially some of the former concepts of nullity and its legal regime. In this respect, new legal provisions have been enacted for the purpose of clarifying the nature and the effects, respectively the option to confirm/remedy or, to restore the null and/or voidable legal acts. The notary public becomes a new competence through which the nullity can be confirmed upon parties’ request. Such new procedure saves a lot of resources for the parties with no/low appetite to initiate and to be part of the court action. This paper aims to critically to analyze the novelties and to identify the upsides and the downsides which may incur in practice when implementing such new concepts.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Factors with impact on the knowledge management practices within shared service centershttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/picbe-2020-0053<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Nowadays it has become easier and easier to reach and achieve information and a great reason for that is the fast evolution of technology. Along with these less complicated opportunities to access information there is an increasing consciousness of recognizing the ways to use it in different moments in time especially within the business environment. Successful organizations empower employees to share knowledge by rewarding them for such actions. And the organization’s leaders must be role models of sharing knowledge regularly with their teams, and they should discuss openly about successes and failures. Taking all these aspects into account, in this paper various processes of knowledge management (KM) are presented from theoretical approaches to practical ones. Successful examples of KM within multiple Shared Service Centers of two multinational companies based in Bucharest, Romania are displayed in order to uncover best practices. A qualitative and in the same time a quantitative investigation were expanded and tested in these Shared Service Centers with the objective to detect the current most suitable patterns and procedures of KM in 2019 and, simultaneously, the difficulties in applying the KM methods within an organization. Information from different employees in the companies was gathered regarding the key success factors of implementing Knowledge Management in organizations (organizational culture, leadership, efficient and systematic processes, technology and strategy). The results certified that communication, along with an open professional behavior, sharing experiences and teamwork as the most important factors for boosting Knowledge Management within the organization.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Romanian family business branding: contextual factors of influence of decisional processeshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/picbe-2020-0057<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Despite the difficulties of the economic environment and the challenges encountered, family businesses in Romania are drivers of economic growth. The tumultuous history and the cultural differences have impacted the way businesses are conducted and how decisions are made, especially in family-run companies, influencing how the family aspect is being portrayed and turned into a competitive advantage. The purpose of this paper is to determine how these contextual factors are influencing the promotion of the family aspect in the family business brand. The methodology of this paper is the exploratory qualitative interview-based study. Empirical data has been collected by way of in-depth semi-structured interviews with eleven Romanian family business owners or managers selected through non-probability purposive sampling, further analysed using content analysis technique. Results suggest that Romania’s cultural background directly affects family businesses and the way they promote their family image, identity and reputation. Although this has a positive effect, few Romanian family businesses are active and promote themselves on the marketplace as a family business. Romanian families have a high degree of autonomy and accountability in relation to local communities which can help or impede the development of a family brand because both families and communities require transparency and there is a high degree of uncertainty which can impact both the business and the family owners. The reference to current literature primarily relates to the position of the family in the business but most notably to branding. The role of family members is drawn to limit actions in certain aspects of promotion and branding, as a direct result of high-conservative views.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Improving the performance of organizational innovation processes by applying the Six Sigma methodologyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/picbe-2020-0103<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this paper is to integrate the concept of innovation management with the Six Sigma methodology, focusing on the impact analysis of the quality management principles on the organizational innovation processes. To achieve this objective, the DMAIC methodology was used – define (D), measure (M), analyze (A), improve (I) and control (C). Based on this methodology by introducing innovation in the improvement phase of the DMAIC model, we developed the model called DMAIC - IM (DMAIC - Innovation Management model). A case study related to the implementation of the DMAIC-IM Model was carried out within a company that produces and sells products for the automotive industry. Thus, the performances of the processes were measured, the obtained values were compared with the ideal values from a statistical point of view and the methods for eliminating the variations were identified. Also, the critical factors of the innovation success of organizations were analyzed resulting ways to remove the obstacles that lead to this success. According to the research results, the application of the Six Sigma methodology has a positive impact on the performance of the organizational innovation processes. The proposed solution has a set of indicators and can help organizations to improve their system of evaluating the innovation processes performances.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Efficient institution in the context of environmental policieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/picbe-2020-0050<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the context of new environmental paradigms for the efficient customization of both traditional and renewable energy systems, the international regulations aim to be effective sources of alignment. The control practices in a big state-owned enterprise are the concepts implemented in this paper into a multi-criteria decision-making model for understanding, observing and accommodate the personnel for reaching high service quality. The best practices for effective policy design are alternatives in an Analytic Network Processes model designed and estimated by the staff in the audit department of the Romanian Regulatory Authority for Energy (RRAE). This model integrates all the national and international regulations at which the Romanian Regulatory Authority for Energy adhered and it determines what is the practical measures need to be taken at the level of each and every employee, in terms of individual forms of evaluation, so that principles regarding the implementation of the energy efficient systems produce tangible effects. The conceptual instrument considered for the effective alignment is the internal marketing. Internal marketing as a method built the foundation of a multi-criteria decision-making model whose alternatives are employees” evaluations forms. The model designed and estimated by staff in the audit department of the Romanian Regulatory Authority for Energy is developed using the analytic network processes theory (ANP) and the SuperDecisions software.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-27T00:00:00.000+00:00The role of education in reducing poverty social exclusionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/picbe-2020-0047<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Education provides a stable foundation for developing the societies of tomorrow, having a dual function since it fosters economic growth and represents a crucial instrument also for ensuring the stability of a society in terms of human welfare. The research was carried out through an econometric analysis based on a questionnaire as a quantitative measure. Through this study we intended to identify the standpoints of teachers activating in the Romanian pre-university education system and who activate in Bucharest and Prahova, on the research subject as well as correlations that exist between the study variables. Some key issues addressed by the study were determining the extent to which teachers believe that education can reduce poverty and social exclusion, measures that can minimize poverty and strategies for reshaping the educational services to improve their suitability for students. The results have shown that education can indeed promote the reduction of social issues but it steadily needs to be reformed to fulfil its scope. The findings can be of interest for institutions that establish legislative procedures in the educational field and can help to regenerate Romanian education. For the present-time societies, enabling social and economic wellbeing is both a target and a challenge, due to the persistent need of remaining competitive and the ongoing legal and economic reorganizations that appear during every country’s existence.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Green Bonds: Between economic incentives and eco-changehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/picbe-2020-0022<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>As the investor base committed to financing sustainable companies in an attempt to combat the climate crisis expands, green financial products have become more attractive to issuers, corporate and sovereign alike. As a result, the EU is attempting to create favourable market conditions which mobilise the allocation of private capital for investments that reduce the contribution to climate change. As part of the EU Commission’s Action Plan for Sustainable Finance, it intends to create Green Bond Standards which aim to support the transition to greener securities investments. As a foundation, we provide an overview of the green bond market development. We then consider investment challenges such as incentivisation and transparency and discuss whether the Green Bond Standards shall likely resolve these issues. Furthermore, we confer that enforceability of current green securities regulations is weak to non-existent and propose possible policy approaches which address these issues.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-27T00:00:00.000+00:00The impact of international economic sanctions on national economies. The Islamic Republic of Iran - a case in pointhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/picbe-2020-0096<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper explores the impact of economic sanctions on national economies, with specific focus on Iran. It starts by conceptualizing sanctions in the set of economic policies and include them in the framework of economic statecraft, according to literature available. Several hypotheses that attempt to anticipate the form of sanctions are advanced, according to the intensity of geopolitical competition among the states. The analysis uses the case study of the regime of United States’ sanctions against the Islamic Republic of Iran. Tehran and P5+1 powers (the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council and Germany) agreed on a deal regulating the nuclear program of Iran - Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, meaning that Iran would reduce its nuclear activities drastically in exchange of lifting economic sanctions. In spite of the initial enthusiasm, United States announced in May 2018 the unilateral withdrawal from the deal and reinstating the sanctions regime, spiking new tensions in the relation with Iran. As a result, the paper discusses the context in which Iran tries to pursue economic goals in order to ensure resilience, while the US imposes more pressure. In addition, the study also approaches the dilemma whether sanctions can ultimately generate political answers and at what costs. In this context, it is identifying several alternatives in the Iranian case, together with noting the limits of conceptual refinements in terms of sanctions’ theory.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-27T00:00:00.000+00:00ICT Security Measures for the Companies within European Union Member States – Perspectives in COVID-19 Contexthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/picbe-2020-0035<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The development of ICT usage in households, by individuals or in enterprises is submitted to the requirements of security. This paper aims a statistical analysis of ICT security aspects from several perspectives: ICT policies, staff awareness of ICT security related issues, ICT security related activities. The methodology used for testing the hypotheses is based on descriptive statistics, chart case study, correlation and factor analysis. The results emphasize the importance of investing resources in cyber security, moreover, in the current pandemic situation generated by COVID-19.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Russia’s Growth as a Regional Power in the Context of the Eurasian Economic Unionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/picbe-2020-0071<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>We are currently witnessing the emergence of new poles of power, practically from the bi-polar model of the post-World War 2 world, the Russian Federation has made in the last years made great efforts to introduce a multi-polar model, in other words it is seeking to affirm itself again on the world stage and gain leadership as a pole of power for the eastern Europe. There is a direct correlation between the status of „regional leader” and the economic power of the country who wants to achieve this status. Taking into account a set of indicators such as: share in the world GDP, trade and investment flows, the European Union, USA and China are at the moment the biggest poles of economic power in the world. Russia aspires to expand its influence and within the context of the Eurasian Economic Union seeks to reach the status of regional economic power. The main research questions of the article is if Russia can achieve through the Eurasian Economic Union and strategic partnership with China, the status of regional power and be a serios contender to the European Union. The article follows a qualitative methodology and examines the possible implications of the European Union- Eurasian economic Union competition at a regional level and Russia’s perspectives to achieve, as the leading force of the Union, a greater influence from an economic and geo-political perspective. The final section analyses the impact that the growth of the Chinese economy has had on the European Union as well as the Eurasian Economic Union. In this context, Russia has moved its attention towards Asia, particularly towards China, with whom all evidence points, is trying to form an alliance against the West, and is trying to capitalize on the ongoing trade war that is enfolding between the USA and China. The article concludes that Russia needs China, as the world’s second largest economy and important regional power more than China needs Russia and their current relationship is based more on their personal need to undermine other powers than any true common visions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-27T00:00:00.000+00:00An ANP approach to estimate the market shares of the car industry companies in Romaniahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/picbe-2020-0090<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Car industry is one of the most important sectors in Romania with a significant impact on country’s GDP. This paper presents the construction and the evaluation of an Analytical Network Process (ANP) market share model, which emerged from extended in-depth interviews with top managers of the main Romanian car industry producers. ANP model was used to estimate the market share and compare the results with the actual values, expressed by Saaty’s compatibility index, then validate this model and offer comparative numerical weights of importance car industry in Romania. The conclusions of the article are in line with the research in the field and show that the automotive market shares in Romania estimated by the ANP model are confirming the companies’ calculations. The software we have used in our analysis was Super Decision 3.2 software.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Improving firm sustainable performance: the role of market orientationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/picbe-2020-0074<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>An outstanding objective of the UN and EU in recent years is to improve the environment in which firms operate. This has increased pressures on companies from consumers, governments, and shareholders alike to develop and implement sustainable business practices. Literature has covered other strategic decisions that will improve a firms’ sustainable performance but no study has looked at this from a market-orientation perspective. However, a firm’s market orientation is regarded its capability that enables it to identify and respond to customers’ desires in order to deliver superior value to them. Other literature has affirmed market orientation as the most critical source of sustainable competitive advantage. Evidently, market-oriented companies can incorporate sustainability activities into their overall business strategies but there is a gap in knowledge as to what extent this affects firm sustainable performance. This conceptual paper, therefore, fills this gap, hence, analysed the impact of market orientation on sustainable performance of firms, and provides an argument on the market orientation to sustainable performance relationship. To achieve this, the study reviewed literature obtained from several databases concerning the related fields. Literature search was conducted using the keywords search via Google scholar engine and other research databases including Scopus and Web of Science. The individual variables were used as key search terms, though a limited amount of information was found, literature on market orientation proved promising. Articles deemed relevant to this conceptual paper were retrieved and reviewed. Additionally, books on the topic were searched using the same key search terms used in the research database. The findings confirmed the relationship between market orientation and firm sustainable performance. Further, it evaluated the mediating and moderating variables that impact the relationship between market orientation and firm sustainable performance. It is recommended that an empirical study is done to prove the strength of the relationships.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Global sustainability and responsibility in hotels and cruising industryhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/picbe-2020-0029<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The tourism and hospitality industry is one of the largest industries in the world registering exponential growth over the past years. This study was conducted with the aim of highlighting various aspects of sustainable development from the hospitality industry perspective and the impact of tourism growth on the global touristic destinations. Attracting over 12 million passengers a year, the cruising industry alone contributes substantially by introducing every year a large number of mega size ships carrying over 5000 passengers on board. World renowned hotel chains have been expanding their regional presence providing services to millions of tourists and adventure seekers. The rapid development of the hospitality industry brings along undisputable challenges in environmental protection and natural landscape conservation. The methodology involves a review of the existing literature which concludes that around the world the situation is being addressed by the major players within the worlds’ biggest industry at international conferences and various interactive panel discussions in their attempt to tackle the severe issues of tourism growth and creatively find innovative solutions to ensure environmental sustainability. Our research underlines the successful implementation of the environmental management standards within the cruising industry. The objectives of the global management standards are to ensure compliance in regulatory practices intended to preserve the environment through sustainable and responsible tourism. From this perspective, our analysis indicates that the hotel industry is in a formal adoption phase, posing consistency and implementation challenges across the industry and geographical regions. The overall findings of this research are briefly discussed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-27T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1