rss_2.0Library and Information Science, Book Studies FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Library and Information Science, Book Studies and Information Science, Book Studies Feed,_Book_Studies.jpg700700Screens of the Picturesque: Aesthetics, Technology, Economy<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The 18th-century notion of the picturesque is somewhat lesser known as compared to the more celebrated categories of the beautiful and the sublime, even though it may not only help us critically reflect upon modern perceptions of the landscape, but it may also provide us a unique way to link the field of aesthetic speculation with questions of technology and economy. The article will focus on two of the major theoreticians of the picturesque (William Gilpin and Uvedale Price) and will examine their ideas in relation to Edmund Burke’s aesthetics on the one hand, and contemporary tendencies in landscape gardening (as represented by Lancelot “Capability” Brown and Humphry Repton) on the other. Such an investigation may shed light on the multiple shifts in the perception of nature and the sense of naturalness during the long 18th century, as well as on the pictorial and theatrical aspects of landscape design. But examples of the Claude glass, the ha-ha, and Humphry Repton’s Red Books may also indicate the role of technological innovations and economic interests, and thereby the relevancy of the very discourse of the picturesque to more modern or even postmodern artistic, cultural, and medial developments.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Decoding : the Metareferential Potential of Painterly References in Cinema<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The article focuses on the intermedial relationship between cinema and painting, viewed as a self-referential process, and tries to determine various ways in which this type of signifying process can be used to “encode” various messages (within the work itself), or become an integral part of this (meta)communicative operation. Starting from a broad definition of intermedial references and continuing with a brief recontextualized detour through Gérard Genette’s taxonomy of transtextual instances, the author narrows down a specific technique that exemplifies this type of “codifying” procedure, namely the <italic>tableau vivant</italic>. In accordance with Werner Wolf’s proposed terminology, he attempts to determine the metareferential potential of this extra-compositional self-referential technique. The case studies focus on films by Peter Greenaway and Lars von Trier.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Picturesque Pictures: Italian Early Non-fiction Films within Modern Aesthetic Visions<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Within early non-fiction film, the Italian travel or scenic films of the 1910s may be considered the most picturesque. They are remarkable for their presentation of landscapes and cityscapes, their co-existence of modernity and nostalgia, their accent on beauty – at times at the expense of geographic veracity and indexicality – and their focus on the transformed gaze through the use of special masks, split-screens, and other devices. The transmedial roots for this aestheticization can be found both in art (painting) and popular culture (postcards, magic lanterns, etc.). While the author was one of the firsts to write on this subject decades ago, today there is a need for radical revision and a deeper approach. This is due to the influx of recent literature first by Jennifer Peterson’s book <italic>Education in the School of Dreams</italic> (2013) and her scholarly articles. Secondly, Blom’s co-presentation on Italian early nonfiction at the 2018 workshop <italic>A Dive into the Collections of the Eye Filmmuseum: Italian Silent Cinema at the Intersection of the Arts</italic> led to the recognition that revision was needed. Finally, the films themselves call for new approaches while they are being preserved and disseminated by, foremost, the film archives of Bologna, Amsterdam, and Turin.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-03T00:00:00.000+00:00The and Social Media Culture<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The article aims to analyse the <italic>tableau vivant</italic> in social media culture by emphasizing its intermedial relation to technical visual media, particularly digital photography and film. By focusing on the living picture’s specific mimetic qualities, the study traces back the <italic>tableau vivant</italic>’s history in a media archaeological perspective primarily regarding photography. It explores the current revival of the <italic>tableau vivant</italic> within social media. The article examines living pictures and the aspect of self-staging, relevant to contemporary digital culture. The <italic>tableau vivant</italic> develops between two polarities: a primarily analytical approach that allows a profound exploration of a particular artwork and the performative aspects of self-staging.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-03T00:00:00.000+00:00“Show the Clichés:” the Appearance of Happiness in Agnès Varda’s<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p><italic>Le Bonheur</italic>, perhaps Agnès Varda’s most beautiful film, is also her most perplexing. The film’s insistently idyllic surface qualities, overtly beautiful imagery, and psychologically impenetrable, improbably content characters mystify and confuse. Of late, feminist scholars have clarified the situation, noting Varda’s incorporation of advertising and pop cultural visual rhetoric to implicate the social forces framing the picture and those insistently “happy” people: more like advertising ciphers than dramatic characters. Varda herself referenced Impressionist painting as a source of the film’s aesthetics. The purposes of this vivid, chromatic intertextual and intermedial source, in relation to the rhetoric of commercial and popular culture, demand attention. Varda studied art history and connected the milieu of <italic>Le Bonheur</italic>, the Parisian exurbs, their petit-bourgeois and working-class populace, and bucolic leisure, artisanal and industrial settings, to the modernity of 19th-century Impressionism. <italic>Le Bonheur</italic> uses an Impressionist picturesque dialectically, in relation to a pop contemporaneity, to observe and critique an ideological genealogy of capitalism and its oppression of women.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Images in Suspension: , Gesturality and Simulacra in Raul Ruiz’s film<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The article discusses Raul Ruiz’s film <italic>The Hypothesis of the Stolen Painting</italic> (1978). In the closed space of the house a parallel world emerges, where the filmic hypertext is constituted by a series of <italic>mise-en-abyme</italic> images that explore the multiple universe of <italic>tableaux vivants.</italic> The article analyses Ruiz’s appropriation of Pierre Klossowski’s concept of <italic>simulacra</italic>. The structure of <italic>The Hypothesis of the Stolen Painting</italic> is based upon the infinite reproduction of meaning since each <italic>simulacrum</italic>-<italic>tableau vivant</italic> leads to another. The author explores the gesturality of the bodies and its relevance to the use of language and sound in the film. Furthermore, he argues that Ruiz orchestrates the placement of the <italic>tableaux vivants</italic> in the filmic space in order to reveal the thought of eternal return.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Voiceless Screams: Pictorialism as Narrative Strategy in Horror Silent Cinema<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>As a complementary condition to narrative, the notion of pictorialism in film is rooted in the first decades of the medium. In their quest to demonstrate the capturing and restoring of images with various devices, early filmmakers selected views with pictorial qualities in the long-standing tradition of painting, transferring them on film in the form of non-narrative shots. The evolution of fictional narratives in silent cinema displaced the source of inspiration in theatre, assimilating its nineteenth-century tradition of pictorialism. Thus, the film audiences’ appeal for visual pleasure was elevated with balanced elements of composition, framing and acting that resulted in pictorially represented moments actively engaged in the narrative system. The paper explores the notion of “pictorial spirit” (Valkola 2016) in relation to that of “monstration” (Gaudreault 2009) aiming to describe the narrative mechanism of provoking fear by means of pictorially constructed cinematic images in a selection of short-length horror silent films belonging to the transitional era, consisting in <italic>The Haunted House</italic>/<italic>The Witch House</italic> (<italic>La Maison ensorcelée/La casa encantada,</italic> Segundo de Chomón, 1908), <italic>Frankenstein</italic> (J. Searle Dawley, 1910) and the surviving fragments of <italic>The Portrait</italic> (<italic>Портрет</italic>, Vladislav Starevich, 1915).<sup>1</sup></p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Velázquez, Wagner and the Red Skull. Intermediality and the Genesis of Meaning in a Particular Scene of<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In the 2011 superhero movie, <italic>Captain America: The First Avenger</italic> (produced by Marvel Studios, directed by Joe Johnston) the main opponent of the title character is a Nazi officer, Johann Schmidt, who turns out to be a kind of superhuman entity, the Red Skull. Throughout the movie, viewers can follow the process of him gradually leaving behind his identity as a Nazi officer, and presenting himself as the leader of the occult-high-tech terrorist organization, the Hydra. At a certain point we can see him visited by one of the scientists working for him, Doctor Zola, whom he puts wise to his plans. During the conversation a portrait is being painted of the Red Skull, but we cannot see his face, only that the artist uses a huge amount of red paint. In the background, excerpts of Wagner’s operas are being played, which is very unusual in a Marvel movie. The question is, should the viewer recognize the diegetic music and notice the possible reference to the painting <italic>Las Meninas</italic> by Velázquez? How the detection of these intermedial references and the awareness of the act of trespassing media borders would affect the semiotic processes of interpretation? And also, how would the more precise identification of the cited materials change the semiotic modality of intermediality here? The article tries to answer these questions by interpreting the scene and the role of the references in question within the entire film through the prism of intermedial semiotics.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Screening Landscapes: Film between the Picturesque and the Painterly<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Inherently connected to movement and to a sequential spatial experience in time, the picturesque has been considered as a precursor of the cinematic. In addition, the idea of the picturesque is closely connected to Heinrich Wölfflin’s notion of <italic>das Malerische</italic> or “the painterly,” which stands for a dynamic style of painting characterized by qualities of colour, stroke, and texture rather than of contour or line. Based on the keynote lecture delivered at the conference, <italic>The Picturesque: Visual Pleasure and Intermediality in-between Contemporary Cinema, Art and Digital Culture</italic> (Sapientia Hungarian University of Transylvania, 25–26 October, 2019), <sup>1</sup> the essay disentangles the complex network of connections between image and landscape, painting and film, the picturesque and the painterly.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Ephemeral Social Media Visuals and Their Picturesque Design: Interaction and User Experience in Instagram Stories<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This article examines the temporality of ephemeral visual posts to social media with an emphasis on Instagram stories. Drawing on theories of the spectacle, it is my contention that interaction and user-experience design, as it pertains to social media platforms, highlights the contemporary conditions and motivations in our society of abundant visual consumption. This article investigates what it means for a social media user to attend to such time-related visual experience. Throughout this piece, I critically survey the relationship between ephemeral Instagram stories’ popularity and the high speed temporality of the social media sphere with emphasis on the digital “picturesque.” Perishable daily sharing on social media reflects a contemplative glimpse into a personal lifespan presented as an object of mass appreciation. I examine how ephemerality as a component of design impacts online sociality through the picturesque visual mode. Contemporary boredom and competitive engagement in high-technological communication networks inform how we might direct digital publics to find alternative pathways to sociality.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Twelve Agendas on Interacting with Information: A Human-Engaged Computing Perspective<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>During the coronavirus global pandemic crisis, we have received information from authentic and inauthentic sources. Fake news, continuous rumors, and prejudiced opinions from digital platforms and social media have the capacity to disrupt social harmony, to stall personal development, and to undermine trust on all levels of human interaction. Despite the wide plurality of perspectives, the diversity of contents, the variety of voices, and the many often-conflicting reasons for publishing, our interactions with information on digital devices are progressively shaping such situations and affecting decisions on all levels. We look at the limitations of existing designs and guidelines in the current paradigm, and we ask to what extent researchers and developers can focus and contribute, through their innovations, to the reduction of uncertainty and cases of misdirection, how they can mitigate tensions between information and humans, and how they can contribute to the maintenance and enhancement of worthy human values. Human-engaged computing (HEC) calls for innate user capacities to be enhanced rather than displaced by digital technologies so that the human factor in interactions is fully exploited and truly efficient symbiotic relationships between humans and devices can be achieved. Under the framework of HEC, we propose 12 research agendas from the theoretical, principled, and practical aspects, in order to develop future synergized interactions between humans and information. The present crisis presents us with a good opportunity to reflect on the need to empower humans in relation to the tools they use and to consider the next paradigm shift for designing information interaction.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-08-04T00:00:00.000+00:00How Can Information and Data Management Be Used to Address Global Health Crisis of Knowledge Organization Systems for Health Information Exchange and Communication during the COVID-19 Pandemic<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This article aims to review the important roles of health knowledge organization systems (KOSs) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Different types of knowledge organization systems, including term lists, synonym rings, thesauri, subject heading systems, taxonomies, classification schemes, and ontologies are widely recognized and applied in both modern and traditional information systems. Apart from their usage in the management of data, information, and knowledge, KOSs are seen as valuable components for large information architecture, content management, findability improvement, and many other applications. After introducing the challenges of information overload and semantic conflicts, the article reviews the efforts of major health KOSs, illustrates various health coding schemes, explains their usages and implementations, and reveals their implications for health information exchange and communication during the COVID-19 pandemic. Some general examples of the applications, services, and analysis powered by KOSs are presented at the end. As revealed in this article, they have become even more critical to aid the frontline endeavors to overcome the obstacles due to information overload and semantic conflicts that can occur during devastating historic and worldwide events like the COVID-19 pandemic.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-06-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Building an Open Resources Repository for COVID-19 Research<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The COVID-19 outbreak is a global pandemic declared by the World Health Organization, with rapidly increasing cases in most countries. A wide range of research is urgently needed for understanding the COVID-19 pandemic, such as transmissibility, geographic spreading, risk factors for infections, and economic impacts. Reliable data archive and sharing are essential to jump-start innovative research to combat COVID-19. This research is a collaborative and innovative effort in building such an archive, including the collection of various data resources relevant to COVID-19 research, such as daily cases, social media, population mobility, health facilities, climate, socioeconomic data, research articles, policy and regulation, and global news. Due to the heterogeneity between data sources, our effort also includes processing and integrating different datasets based on GIS (Geographic Information System) base maps to make them relatable and comparable. To keep the data files permanent, we published all open data to the Harvard Dataverse (<ext-link ext-link-type="uri" xmlns:xlink="" xlink:href=""></ext-link>), an online data management and sharing platform with a permanent Digital Object Identifier number for each dataset. Finally, preliminary studies are conducted based on the shared COVID-19 datasets and revealed different spatial transmission patterns among mainland China, Italy, and the United States.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-09T00:00:00.000+00:00How American Academic Medical/Health Sciences Libraries Responded to the COVID-19 Health Crisis: An Observational Study<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has caused a pandemic and global health crisis. Although normal operation and services in many libraries have been greatly disrupted, academic libraries in the United States were reportedly responding to challenges by pivoting to new ways to meet the users’ needs. This observational study was designed to investigate the status, services, and resources disclosed via websites of academic medical/health sciences libraries (MHSLs) in the United States and document how they adapted and continued to provide support to help fight the health crisis and the resulting “infodemic” through various means. A complete list of members was obtained from the website of the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries (AAHSL). The U.S.-based AAHSL member institutions were included in this study. Each American academic MHSL website and its associated webpages were browsed; web contents were categorized and analyzed based on four research questions proposed by this study. A descriptive analysis was conducted to summarize all findings. A total of 157 AAHSL member institutions were included in the study. These libraries spread all over the United States, and 90% of them announced closures of library buildings and facilities. A significant number of MHSLs quickly adapted to the evolving situation and transitioned their services and instruction to the online environment. The COVID-19 information sources adopted by MHSLs included the following ranked by frequency from high to low: The U.S. government agencies such as Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Library of Medicine, the World Health Organization, publishing communities, professional journals, organizations, local institutions, government agencies, and news channels. In addition, MHSLs undertook a series of actions to support academic communities and local healthcare professionals including resource curation, clinical care support, education, and outreach to the public. Through library guides, MHSLs provided comprehensive and customized search queries to help researchers locate the latest and relevant publications to COVID-19, curated multiple data resources and data exploration, and visualization tools, and selected the latest biomedical and health evidence in a wide range of topics. Other featured resources and services were associated with ethical issues (i.e., racism and prejudice), educational and entertainment information (e.g., virtual tours of parks), and personal experience documentation. This observational study is the most recent investigation and documentation on the status, services, and resources of the academic MHSLs in the United States during the initial U.S. outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Although the current health crisis is taking a heavy toll on libraries nationwide, MHSLs are still managing to play a vital role in supporting the academic communities, healthcare facilities, and the general public and fighting against the pandemic and the resulting information crisis.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Investigation into Information Release of Chinese Government and Departments on COVID-19<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Information release is an important way for governments to deal with public health emergencies, and plays an irreplaceable role in promoting epidemic prevention and control, enhancing public awareness of the epidemic situation and mobilizing social resources. Focusing on the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic in China, this investigation chose 133 information release accounts of the Chinese government and relevant departments at the national, provincial, and municipal levels, including Ministries of the State Council, Departments of Hubei Province Government, and Bureaus of Wuhan Government, covering their portals, apps, Weibos, and WeChats. Then, the characteristics such as scale, agility, frequency, originality, and impact of different levels, departments, and channels of the information releases by the Chinese government on the COVID-19 epidemic were analyzed. Finally, the overall situation was concluded by radar map analysis. It was found that the information release on the COVID-19 epidemic was coordinated effectively at different levels, departments, and channels, as evidenced by the complementarity between channels, the synergy between the national and local governments, and the coordination between departments, which guaranteed the rapid success of the epidemic prevention and control process in China. This investigation could be a reference for epidemic prevention and control for governments and international organizations, such as the World Health Organization (WHO), during public health emergencies, e.g. the COVID-19 pandemic.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Beyond Information Organization and Evaluation: How Can Information Scientists Contribute to Independent Thinking?<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is making fundamental changes to our life, our society, and our thinking. The substantial influx of information on disease updates, case analysis, suggestions, and recordings leads one to contemplate what information professionals and information scientists can contribute to shorten the pandemic, improve human lives, and build a more impactful profession. This viewpoint examines concepts related to misinformation and discusses the responsibilities of information scientists, especially in the context of independent thinking. It suggests that research on and education in information science could help to develop independent thinking and train independent thinkers.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-08-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Translation and Expansion: Enabling Laypeople Access to the COVID-19 Academic Collection<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Academic collections, such as COVID-19 Open Research Dataset (CORD-19), contain a large number of scholarly articles regarding COVID-19 and other related viruses. These articles represent the latest development in combating COVID-19 pandemic in various disciplines. However, it is difficult for laypeople to access these articles due to the term mismatch problem caused by their limited medical knowledge. In this article, we present an effort of helping laypeople to access the CORD-19 collection by translating and expanding laypeople's keywords to their corresponding medical terminology using the National Library of Medicine's Consumer Health Vocabulary. We then developed a retrieval system called Search engine for Laypeople to access the COVID-19 literature (SLAC) using open-source software. Utilizing Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's FAQ questions as the basis for developing common questions that laypeople could be interested in, we performed a set of experiments for testing the SLAC system and the translation and expansion (T&amp;E) process. Our experiment results demonstrate that the T&amp;E process indeed helped to overcome the term mismatch problem and mapped laypeople terms to the medical terms in the academic articles. But we also found that not all laypeople's search topics are meaningful to search on the CORD-19 collection. This indicates the scope and the limitation of enabling laypeople to search on academic article collection for obtaining high-quality information.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Chinese E-Romance: Analyzing and Visualizing 7.92 Million Alibaba Valentine’s Day Purchases<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The days that precede Valentine’s Day are characterized by extensive gift shopping activities all across the globe. In China, where much shopping takes place online, there has been an explosive growth in e-commerce sales during Valentine’s Day over the recent years. This exploratory study investigates the extent to which each product category and each shopper group can exhibit romantic love within China’s e-market throughout the 2 weeks leading up to 2019 Valentine’s Day. Massive data from Alibaba, the biggest e-commerce retailer worldwide, are utilized to formulate an innovative romance index (RI) to quantitatively measure e-romantic values for products and shoppers. On this basis, millions of shoppers, along with their millions of products purchased around Valentine’s Day, are analyzed as a case study to demonstrate their love consumption and romantic gift-giving. The results of the analysis are then illustrated to help understand Chinese e-romance based on the perspectives of different product categories and shopper groups. This empirical information visualization also contributes to improving the segmentation, targeting, and positioning of China’s e-market for Valentine’s Day.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Interactive Evolution of Multidimensional Information in Social Media for Public Emergency: A Perspective from Optics Scattering<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Most of the current research on the information analysis of social media (SM) for public emergency focused on a single dimension such as emotion while neglecting the interaction between multidimensional information. Therefore, in this study, an information dispersing–superimposing model is proposed to explain the implicit regularity of the impact within a symbol, sentiment, and context information and their dependent evolution on the SM. Information hue, saturation, and flux (HSF) are defined to measure the interaction process. An online event was selected to verify the concept and hypothesis of this study. The results proved that the interaction among multidimensional information did exist on the SM for a public emergency. The turning points of information dispersing–superimposing often emerged when the number of online users involved had significant changes, and sentiment and context information were showed to have a strong interaction relationship and tended to be spread at the same time. It was also manifested that the dominant information component was varied at each stage of the emergency. This paper is one of the first to study the interaction of multidimensional information on the SM derived from optics scattering. The findings of the study will try to provide a theoretical explanation for why certain information components may be enhanced during the online dissemination and suggest practical support for the information predictions and interface design for SM.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-09T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1