rss_2.0Life Sciences FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Life Sciences Sciences Feed of big data technologies in smart cities of the European Union: Analysis of the importance and performance of technological factors<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The cities of the European Union are adopting big data technologies in their development towards a smart city. Given that big data technologies are complex and disruptive technologies, it is necessary to determine the importance of factors and their aspects for the adoption of big data technologies in cities. The aim of this paper is to identify the most important aspects of technological factors in the adoption of big data technologies in the cities of the European Union. In order to achieve the goal of the paper a survey was conducted on a sample of European Union cities, and on the collected data, an analysis of the map of importance and performance of factors for the adoption of big data technologies was conducted. The results of the research show that the aspects of absorption capacity and technological readiness of EU cities are of relatively high importance, but with low levels of performance in relation to organizational and environmental factors. The contribution of the paper consists of general guidelines for increasing the level of technological readiness and absorption capacity of cities in order to increase the success of the adoption of big data technologies in the cities of the European Union.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Frost resistance of cement-sand and concrete beams during unilateral freezing<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The work investigates changes in the beam structure under the action of local freezing, which leads to a change of the mechanical properties of the material and, consequently, of the beam structure. Two types of beam samples were used: from cement-sand mortar and from concrete. The work investigates the change in the development of deformations depending on the conditions of freezing of samples. The second accelerated method for assessing frost resistance was chosen according to DSTU B В.2.7-47-96. An accelerated method was chosen for assessing frost resistance at the temperature of -20 ±2 C°. After every five freeze-thaw cycles, the following changes were monitored: mass, water absorption, ultrasound transmission rate, damage coefficient, tensile bending strength, splitting strength, compressive strength, carbonization depth. The results showed that both in concrete and in mortar samples, the compressive strength after freezing was lower by 8% and 15% accordingly. The experimental results obtained confirm the assumptions made that the frost resistance of the material depends on the conditions of exposure of negative temperatures on products and structures and it can be used in a wider range of construction which will push regional development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Fine-grained Fiber Concrete on Mechanoactivated Portlandcement<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article is devoted to the study of the mechanical properties of fine-grained concrete used for flooring in industrial and civil buildings. Characterized by the well-known advantages (unlimited raw material base, manufacturability, high homogeneity), fine-grained concrete requires an increased consumption of cement to achieve the necessary mechanical characteristics - compressive strength, abrasion, impact resistance. An alternative to the known technological method is proposed an intensive separate technology (IST) for preparing fine-grained concrete mixtures using a high-speed mixer-activator in the presence of hydrophobized basalt fiber and a polycarboxylate superplasticizer Relaxol-Super PC. The use of IST leads to an increase in the strength of fine-grained concrete in compression by 1.9 times, impact resistance by a factor of 2, and a decrease in abrasion by 40... 50% in comparison with the control. The relevance of using the technology of monolithic floors for industrial and civil construction is due to a wide range of varieties of Portland cement, the grain composition of aggregates, as well as the simplicity of the technology for preparing a fine-grained concrete mixture.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-13T00:00:00.000+00:00European Cohesion Policy and Evaluating the Impact of Evidence-Based Policy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the 2014–2020 programming period, the cohesion policy focuses more on results and evaluation of programs based on facts. Due to the Commission policies, an expansion of cohesion policy counterfactual impact evaluation of programmes with new approaches can be expected in the future. In this paper, the focus is on the calculation of the impact of received European cohesion funds on the revenue of companies in Slovenian municipalities one/two years after the receipt of cohesion funds for the 2007–2013 period. Two development priorities that affect company revenue – Enterprise competitiveness and research excellence and Promoting entrepreneurship and adaptability are considered. The effect of the use of the European cohesion funds on company revenue in Slovenian municipalities is positive for 2009 and 2010 and negative for all other years examined. The results of the research can serve to policy-makers to reduce the economic, social and territorial disparities in less developed European countries and regions therefore reaching balanced regional development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Rethinking niche tourism: The example of backpacking<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This conceptual paper re-evaluates the concept of niches in tourism markets. As many regions are now attempting to address niche markets in tourism as a development strategy, understanding of the dynamics of niche markets is crucial. Current approaches are often limited to seeing niche markets as simple subsectors of larger consumer markets. We argue for a broader view of market niches as forms of social rituals involving both consumers and producers with a mutual focus of attention. Based on the work of Randall Collins we examine how interaction rituals are produced and maintained, and how these are also reflected in niche markets, such as backpacking. We illustrate the how backpacking produces a mutual focus of attention and boundaries to outsiders, helping to sustain the niche over the longer term. This analysis has implications for producers hoping to tap into niche markets, as they too need to become part of the niche community.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Durability of Modified Fiber Concrete for Rigid Pavements<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Modified concretes and fiber concretes for rigid pavements have been investigated. Four-factor experiment was conducted. The amount of Portland cement, polypropylene fiber, metakaolin and polycarboxylate superplasticizer varied in the experiment. All mixtures had the same mobility S2.</p> <p>The active mineral additive metakaolin increases the compressive strength of concrete and its tensile strength in bending. The amount of metakaolin at the level of 15.20 kg/m<sup>3</sup> is rational. Due to a decrease in W/C with an increase in the amount of superplasticizer Coral ExpertSuid-5 to 0.9.1%, the compressive strength of concrete increases by 5.7 MPa, the tensile strength in bending increases by MPa. Due to the introduction of polypropylene fiber, the tensile strength of concrete in bending increases by MPa, the frost resistance of concrete increases by 50 cycles. Due to the use of a rational amount of superplasticizer and metakaolin, the frost resistance of concretes and fiber concretes concrete increases by 50-100 cycles. The use of a rational amount of modifiers and fiber reduces the abrasion of concretes by 40.45%.</p> <p>The developed modified fiber concretes of rigid pavements, depending on the amount of Portland cement, have compressive strength from 55 MPa to 70 MPa, tensile strength in bending from 8 MPa to 9.5 MPa, frost resistance from F350 to F450, abrasion from 0.30 to 0.40 g/cm<sup>2</sup>. Such strength, frost resistance and abrasion resistance allow the use of fiber concretes in pavements with the greatest load and ensures high durability of the material and corresponds to the directions and tasks of the state scientific and technical program “National Transport Strategy of Ukraine for the period up to 2030”</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Occurrence of mental disorders in nonspecific inflammatory bowel diseases: a primary or secondary problem in relation to the biological therapy used?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> Nonspecific inflammatory bowel diseases include Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (CU – colitis ulcerosa), which are chronic diseases characterized by periods of exacerbation and remission. Extraintestinal complications caused by the disease and the applied treatment, mainly steroid therapy, constitute a predisposition to infections and mental disorders such as depressive disorders with apathy, slowness of movement or agitation, and even manic syndromes.</p> <p><bold>Aim and method:</bold> The aim of this study was to review the literature on the occurrence of primary and secondary mental disorders in the course of inflammatory bowel diseases. The literature in the Google Scholar database was reviewed using the following keywords: colitis ulcerosa, Crohn disease, depression, mental disorders, inflammatory bowel disease. The time descriptors 2011-2021 were also used.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> The review of epidemiological studies shows that the most common mental disorders in nonspecific inflammatory bowel diseases are anxiety and depression disorders. The effect of steroid therapy on the development of mental disorders is equally significant. Most of the available empirical data relating to corticosteroids confirm the correlation between the drugs and depressive symptoms, and other psychiatric effects, including mania and psychosis.</p> <p><bold>Summary:</bold> As with most chronic diseases, the prevalence of anxiety and depression disorders is higher in nonspecific inflammatory bowel diseases than in the general population.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Association of (rs 1799732), (rs1800497), (rs28363170), (exon 3 - VNTR) gene polymorphisms in the context of relapses in therapy.<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> Disorders in the field of reward system neurotransmission are mentioned as one of the most important causes of addiction. Genetic variation is assigned a special role. The literature on the subject mentions primarily the genes of dopamine neurotransmission: <italic>DAT</italic> (dopamine transporter), <italic>DRD2</italic> (dopamine receptor D2), <italic>DRD4</italic> (dopamine receptor D4). However, so far there are few literature reports on these genes in the context of innovators in addiction therapy.</p> <p><bold>The aim:</bold> Analysis of the relationship between the variability of specific polymorphisms in the <italic>DRD2</italic> (rs1799732), <italic>ANKK1</italic> (rs1800497), <italic>DAT</italic> (rs28363170), <italic>DRD4</italic> (exon 3 - VNTR) genes with the occurrence of relapses in people addicted to psychoactive substances.</p> <p><bold>Material and methods:</bold> The research was carried out on a group of 301 people addicted to psychoactive substances staying in an addiction therapy center in Lubuskie and Zachodniopomorskie voivodships in Poland. The control group consisted of 301 people with no diagnosed addiction to psychoactive substances nor mental disorders. The study of polymorphisms <italic>DRD2</italic> (rs 1799732), <italic>ANKK1</italic> (rs1800497) was performed by real-time PCR method; whereas <italic>DAT</italic> (rs28363170), <italic>DRD4</italic> (exon 3 - VNTR) was genotyped by PCR and the amplified products were visualized using ethidium bromide stained gel electrophoresis (3% agarose) and UV photography.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> This study showed that in addicts genotype frequencies of the VNTR polymorphism in the third exon of human <italic>DRD4</italic> were as follow: S/L in 33.55%, S/S - 63.12% and L/L 3.32%; while in the control group S/L - 32.56%, S/S - 58.8 % and L/L - 8.6% (χ2 = 7.617, p = 0.022). Significant differences in the frequency of <italic>DRD2</italic> gene polymorphism rs1799732 were observed (frequency of alleles; χ2 = 5.48, p = 0.0192) and <italic>DRD4</italic> VNTR polymorphism (χ2 = 7.687, p = 0.021) between the addicted to psychoactive substances who have a one-time stay in an inpatient treatment center and the control group.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Controversies involving the use of SSRIs during pregnancy and the increased risk of having a child with autism spectrum disorders – a case report and literature review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> There is an ongoing debate as to whether the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) by pregnant women increases the risk of developing autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the offspring.</p> <p><bold>Aim:</bold> The aim of the study was to</p> <p>1) present, based on a case report, the potential factors that may affect the development of ASD in a child,</p> <p>2) review the literature on the risk of ASD in the case of using SSRIs by a pregnant woman.</p> <p><bold>Case report:</bold> The case report concerns a child of a 33-year-old patient, previously treated for an episode of depression at the age of 23. At the beginning of the 15th week of planned pregnancy, when she was 28 years old, sleep disturbances were observed. Over the next few weeks, she gradually developed a full-blown depressive syndrome which required the use of sertraline. The child was born through a natural delivery, a healthy boy, who was diagnosed with ASD at the age of 2.5 years, which was the trigger for the development of the third episode of depression in the patient.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> The results of the research indicate that SSRIs can penetrate the placental barrier, influencing the processes of serotoninergic transmission in the fetus, disrupting neurodevelopmental processes. On the other hand, a higher risk of ASD development in children of depressed mothers who do not use pharmacotherapy was confirmed, compared to the general population and in the case of the occurrence of depressive episodes in mother in the past and in relation to the male fetuses. The greater risk of ASD in children of mothers who take SSRIs may not only be associated with the medication itself but also with the presence of depression and the probable common genetic basis for both disorders. In each case, other risk factors for the development of ASD should also be taken into consideration, e.g. vitamin D3 deficiencies, unsaturated fatty acids, oxytocin levels, the presence of intestinal dysbiosis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Measurement of the dimensions of personality traits in patients addicted to psychoactive substances in context of relapses<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> Recurrent use of psychoactive substances, including alcohol, affects most patients. It is an expression of the chronicity of the disease process. Understanding the causes of this phenomenon is the key to searching for effective therapeutic strategies for this disease.</p> <p><bold>The aim:</bold> Analysis of individual dimensions of personality traits in patients in the context of relapses.</p> <p><bold>Material and method:</bold> The research was carried out on a group of 301 people addicted to psychoactive substances staying in an addiction therapy center in Lubuskie and Zachodniopomorskie voivodships in Poland. The subjects were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of addicts with reported one-time therapy. The second group consisted of addicts who received at least two treatments at an addiction therapy center. The personality dimension was measured using the NEO-FFI questionnaire and the STAI questionnaire.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The following percentages of neuroticism (NF NEUR) were marked in people addicted to psychoactive substances with a single stay in an inpatient treatment center: 8.55% with low intensity, 40.13% with moderate intensity and 51.32% with high intensity. On the other hand, in people addicted to psychoactive substances with multiple stays in an inpatient treatment center, the features of low-grade neuroticism were found to be 6.85%, 25.34% of moderate and 67.81% of high intensity (χ2 = 8.643, p = 0.013).</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> A higher score on the Nervousness Scale of the Neo FFI inventory has a significant impact on the course of addiction and the occurrence of relapses.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-01T00:00:00.000+00:00White space interpretation in Hermann Rorschach’s inkblot test: An analysis of two male examinees’ responses<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> There are numerous points of controversy over the psychological interpretation of the so-called S responses – namely, the interpretation of white space in the Rorschach test. The aim of my paper was to verify the position held by Charles P. Fonda, who claims that the meaning of S responses depends on the results of the test as a whole.</p> <p><bold>Materials and methods:</bold> I have presented the responses of two young men and coded them according to the Comprehensive System developed by John E. Exner. I chose this way of processing data as the most precise, relatively well formalized, and detailed one. The two examinees gave an almost identical number of responses in the whole test and a similar number of S responses, similarly distributed across the cards of the test.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> I assessed and compared the results of the two examinees in terms of the effectiveness of their cognitive processes, self-control ability, mental resources, social adjustment, and self-esteem. Finally, I looked closely at the contents of a few responses, as in my opinion they symbolically expressed the examinees’ basic problems.</p> <p><bold>Discussion:</bold> I tried to avoid describing the examinees’ psyche in nosological terms and to focus on presenting the way in which they experienced the world, as well as on how this experience affected their behavior.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> I found that in Examinee 1 criticism towards other people may stem from an excessively idealistic attitude to the world and from the ensuing disappointments. Good cognitive functioning, resistance to stress, positive self-esteem, and the socialized emotional sphere make this man’s S responses a sign of creative engagement in the problems encountered rather than a sign of maladjustment. In the case of Examinee 2, S responses can be understood as defiance and a generalized attitude of negativism, which play the role of defense against the excessively complicated, not fully comprehensible, and inhospitable world; these responses may, in their turn, contribute to the intensification of problems and to an increase in maladjustment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Integrating national and international research, and exploring country-specific factors contributing to work addiction; Commentary to “Workaholism – psychological and social determinants of work addiction” trauma and the prevalence of alcohol dependence in adulthood<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> The experience of trauma and stress in childhood and early adulthood can lead not only to immediate physical and psychological symptoms but also to long-term effects observed in later life.</p> <p><bold>Aim and method:</bold> The objective of the following study was to search for the correlation between the occurrence of childhood trauma and its long-term outcome, that is alcohol dependence, and to review studies concerning the presence of certain personality traits in patients with such trauma experience and prognostic factors for treatment. The literature in the Google Scholar database was reviewed using the following keywords: childhood abuse, childhood trauma, alcohol addiction and alcohol use disorder. The time descriptors 2015-2021 were also used.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> On the basis of the conducted studies, it has been found that the experience of extremely stressful situations at a young age is declared by a greater part of the examined patients with alcohol dependence syndrome. It was also noticed that the most significant and most frequently reported negative childhood experiences in patients with alcohol dependence syndrome are physical violence, parental separation or divorce, and mental illness of a family member. It was found that impulsivity, disorder, pessimism, fatigue and asthenia are some of the characteristics of this group of patients.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> It can be concluded that there is a significant correlation between the occurrence of traumatic events in childhood and the tendency to develop alcohol addiction in adulthood.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-01T00:00:00.000+00:00White space interpretation in Hermann Rorschach’s inkblot test<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> The interpretation of white space in the Rorschach test has not been clearly defined. The aim of my research was to analyze the psychological meanings that can be associated with using space in Rorschach test responses. I examined a sample of healthy individuals in order to establish the basic meanings that could serve as points of reference when interpreting ill people’s responses.</p> <p><bold>Material and method:</bold> I personally examined 158 healthy subjects with the Rorschach test. The examination procedure and the way of coding and interpreting responses were based on John Exner’s Comprehensive System. I divided the sample into three groups: I (no <italic>S</italic> responses), II (one or two <italic>S</italic> responses), and I II (three or more <italic>S</italic> responses). Next, I distinguished subgroup V (four or more <italic>S</italic> responses). I analyzed the differences between the groups in terms of other variables obtained in the examination using the Rorschach test. These variables were associated with using the complexity of the presented stimuli and with organizing the stimulus field; they were also associated with the emotional sphere, social adjustment, and ways of coping with stress.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> Group III differed from groups II and I in terms of nine variables, and differences regarding further four variables approached significance. Differences between group V and the remaining examinees were more marked and concerned 14 variables.</p> <p><bold>Discussion:</bold> Examinees with more <italic>S</italic> responses were better at using the complexity of stimuli and organizing the stimulus field. A certain characteristic feature of their emotional sphere also manifested itself: these people experienced situational stress more strongly, colored their responses with aggression, and more frequently experienced loneliness and alienation; intellectualization turned out to be their typical defense mechanism.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> Based on the collected material, it can be concluded that responses are related to examinees’ creative potential. Collected from healthy individuals, the material may facilitate the interpretation of ill people’s responses, especially as such research has not been conducted in a Polish population before.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Growth and Reproduction of (Linnaeus, 1758) in Laboratory Conditions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study presents the results of observation on growth and reproduction of <italic>Planorbarius corneus</italic> (Linnaeus, 1758) (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) over the course of several years of continuous rearing in the laboratory in order to use them as test organisms for toxicity testing of chemicals. Some growth and reproduction features (shell diameter increase, fecundity, hatching time and rate, age at first reproduction, juvenile survival), which could provide more information for culturing <italic>P. corneus</italic> in the laboratory, are presented. The quantitative results of growth and reproduction in laboratory conditions were obtained: heterogenous growth varied between 0.1 mm and 5.3 mm in individual snails, production of 0.6 egg masses per snail/day and 11 eggs per snail/day. A statistically significant negative correlation between initial snail size and growth was noticed. In the second part of the experiment, the reproductive output of 4 isolated snails was compared to that of permanently grouped snails. As a result, 2-fold decreased growth and 4-fold decreased reproductive output in the progeny of isolated animals was noticed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Reproductive Cycle and Size at First Maturity in Females of Brown Crab (Stimpson 1859) in the Southwestern Gulf of California, Mexico<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The reproductive cycle of the crustacean family Portunidae on the coast of the Pacific is not well known. Therefore, the reproductive cycle and the size at first maturity of brown crab <italic>Callinectes bellicosus</italic> and its relationship with environmental factors in the El Colorado Lagoon, Ahome, Sinaloa has been determined. A total of 360 females were collected from March 2012 to March 2013. The gonads were fixed in 10% formalin, histological cuts were made by the paraffin inclusion method and the hematoxylin and eosin staining technique. The diameter of oocytes was determined by stage. The size at first maturity was estimated by a logistic model. Females showed gametogenic activity during the entire study period. The maturity period was from March to November 2012, with two spawning peaks, in September 2012 and March 2013. Maturity was inversely influenced by temperature (r = -0.4454, P &lt; 0.05) and no influence by salinity was observed (P &gt; 0.05). The diameter of the oocytes showed significant differences between the development stages of the gonad (P = 0.001). The size at first maturity was 11.57 cm of carapace width for females of <italic>C. bellicosus</italic>.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Lunar Periodicity in Reproduction of Senatorial Scallop ( Gmelin, 1791) in Asid Gulf, Masbate, Philippines<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In Masbate, senatorial scallop <italic>Chlamys senatoria</italic> is one of the five commercially important species of scallop present in Asid Gulf, but its basic biology is poorly understood in the Philippines. To provide biological information for future conservation and management, the reproductive rhythm of senatorial scallop in relation to lunar phase was investigated from October 2016 to March 2017. Scallops were collected daily from the fishers’ catches and were measured, dissected, and processed for histological analysis; whereas, fecundity and size of eggs (diameter) were also determined. Ecological parameter such as bottom water temperature was monitored during the sampling period. Results showed that <italic>C. senatoria</italic> is a highly fecund species, which ranges from 8.3 X 10<sup>5</sup> to 2.1 X 10<sup>6</sup> oocytes per female and its sizes (oocytes) ranges from 53.8 µm to 72.5 µm while Gonado-somatic index (GSI) ranges from 3.2 to 7.1. Fecundity, egg diameter, and the GSI decreased during new moon (NM) and full moon (FM). GSI indicates that the onset of spawning activity commences during NM and FM. Environmental parameters that were monitored showed significant variations in relation to lunar phase. Spawning of scallop <italic>C. senatoria</italic> follows a lunar reproductive pattern, which was initiated and influenced by the variations of different factors such as temperature, water amplitude, and light as the effect of lunar/tidal cycles. These findings indicate that reproduction and necessarily spawning in the scallop are related to factors associated with lunar phases. Strategies for managing the resource can be formulated using the temporal dimension of lunar phases.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Seascape Context as a Driver of the Fish Community Structure of Meadows in the Adriatic Sea<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Marine underwater habitats dominated by seagrass <italic>Posidonia oceanica</italic> play an essential role in fish community assembly, affecting taxonomic and functional diversity, abundance and fish behavior. The value of seagrasses as habitat depends on the spatial arrangement of the seascape elements and the availability of alternative habitats. Little is known about the effect of the seascape context of <italic>P. oceanica</italic> meadows on fish assemblages in the Mediterranean Sea. To identify <italic>P. oceanica</italic> meadows’ relative importance as a habitat for fishes, fish communities in the Croatian Adriatic Sea were investigated, using SCUBA lure-assisted visual census. The results show a significant effect of different arrangements of <italic>P. oceanica</italic> meadows’ seascape elements and surrounding habitats on fish community structure. Fragmented mosaic meadows with <italic>P. oceanica</italic> growing directly on and between rocky-algal reefs/boulders had significantly higher fish abundances compared to both types of continuous meadows (bordering rock and bordering sand). Continuous meadows bordering sand harbored the highest number of unique species. Evidence that alternative structured habitats within proximity to seagrass beds may affect the community structure of associated fish assemblages is provided, highlighting the need to consider <italic>P. oceanica</italic> meadows’ seascape context in conservation management and experimental design for fish community structure.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact of the Duration of Larval Yolk Sac Absorption on the Development of Rainbow Trout (Walbaum 1792) Fry<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Rainbow trout <italic>Oncorhynchus mykiss</italic> (Walbaum 1792) larvae that first started active feeding were separated into 3 replicate batches (1A, 1B, 1C) with 100 individuals each, while four days later, the fry that last started active feeding were also distributed in 3 replicate batches (2A, 2B, 2C) with 100 individuals. Four measurements were performed with an interval of four days between the first and second measurements, as well as between the third and fourth measurements, to compare the initial masses of individuals by groups (1ABC and 2ABC) on the same day from the beginning of active feeding. The average initial body weight of the fry per batch in each measurement was generally higher in the first group (1ABC) than in the second group (2ABC). However, when comparing the weight of both groups for the same number of days from the beginning of active feeding, it is noticed that the second group (2ABC) has a higher average individual weight than the first group (1ABC). There was no statistically significant difference (one-way ANOVA, p&gt;0.05) in SGRw between the groups in the first three measurements, while there is a statistically significant difference (one-way ANOVA, p&lt;0.05) in SGRw in the fourth measurement. Group 2ABC has a significantly higher SGRw (5.0064%day<sup>−1</sup>±0.05394) than group 1ABC (4.7711%day<sup>−1</sup>±0.01715). This leads to the conclusion that in the second group 2ABC, the backlog of 4 days in mass was compensated. It is also noted that mortality in the first group (1ABC) was only 1%, while in the second group (2ABC) it was 3.7%. Consequently, a higher density of the fry in the first group (1ABC) could have an impact on a lower growth rate.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Nodulation and biological nitrogen fixation in soybean ( L.) as influenced by phosphorus fertilization and arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can be used to promote the productivity of legumes on phosphorus- (P) deficient soils. The present study investigates the inoculation effects of three AMF species (<italic>Funneliformis mosseae</italic>, <italic>Rhizophagus intraradices</italic>, and <italic>Claroideoglomus etunicatum</italic>) and the control (uninoculated) on nitrogen fixation efficiency and growth performance of tropical soybean cultivar (TGx1448-2E) under varying P fertilizer rates (0, 20, and 40 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> ha<sup>−1</sup>) in a derived savannah of Nigeria. The results showed that shoot and root dry matter, number of nodules, relative ureide abundance (RUA), nitrogen derived from atmosphere (Ndfa), total N fixed, shoot P uptake, grain, and biomass yield significantly increased with AMF inoculation, with better performance observed in plants inoculated with <italic>Rhizophagus intraradices</italic> and <italic>Funneliformis mosseae</italic> compared to <italic>Claroideoglomus etunicatum</italic>. Similarly, the soybean growth variables, P uptake, and nitrogen fixation activities increased with increasing P application rates. Conversely, AMF root colonization significantly reduced with increasing P rate. Interaction of AMF inoculation and P rates significantly influenced soybean growth and nitrogen fixation. <italic>R. intraradices</italic> inoculation with 20 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> ha<sup>−1</sup> resulted in the highest amount of RUA, Ndfa, N fixed, and grain yield. It could be concluded from this study that <italic>R. intraradices</italic> with moderate P rate could be used to enhance nodulation, nitrogen fixation, and soybean yield in P-deficient soils.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1