rss_2.0Linguistics and Semiotics FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Linguistics and Semiotics and Semiotics Feed Corpus Consultation Compensate for the Lack of Knowledge in Legal Translation Training?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>It is generally assumed that a good knowledge of the legal field is a prerequisite to deliver legal translations. This paper will challenge this assumption by presenting a case study with third-year bachelor’s students who participated in a translation project. The students, enrolled in a course in translation practice, were trained in corpus consultation at the beginning of the academic year. Nearly at the end, they translated an extract of a supply contract without being trained in the legal field. They consulted a pre-compiled offline corpus and online bilingual dictionaries. The paper findings highlight that knowledge of the legal field would have certainly helped the students make more informed decisions and avoid some mistranslations. However, the major shortcomings were actually due to ineffective corpus or dictionary consultation. In particular, formulaic expressions and collocations were neglected. In light of the paper findings, it can be speculated that in translation training, effective corpus consultation may help users deliver high-quality legal translations. It also seemed that thorough knowledge of the legal field is not a prerequisite, at least as far as short texts are concerned.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Arabic Legal Phraseology in Positive Law and Jurisprudence: The Historical Influence of Translation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present study examines Arabic legal phraseology formation from the standpoint of positive law and jurisprudence. It claims that phraseological constructions in Arabic legislative and statutory texts are largely influenced by the translation process of Roman law texts. However, scholarly literature still relies to some extent on formulae used in the Islamic jurisprudence. To illustrate this, three examples of legal principles anchored in Islamic jurisprundence, known as <italic>legal maxims</italic>, are subjected to a comparative analysis and discussed along with their corresponding expressions in positive law in modern-day Arabic. Ultimately, the purpose of this paper is twofold: firstly, to demonstrate that the phraseology present in many Arabic positive laws is fully adapted to corresponding formulations in the Roman law, steming from a historical translation process that accompanied the codification movement in the beginning of the 20th century; secondly, to emphasize the significance of textual genre awareness in legal translation. Concretely, the introductory section provides an overview of recent studies that have addressed legal phraseologisms. It is followed by a section on the historical role of translation in the construction of certain phraseologisms. The general legal principles of (a) burden of proof, (b) presumption of innocence, and (c) the pacta sunt servanda principle are then examined in order to shed light on the influence of both the Civilist tradition and Islamic jurisprudence on the use of legal Arabic today, as well as to demonstrate how the translation of phraseologisms is dependent on the parameters of genre. The analysis leads to the conclusion that proper use of phraseologisms, whether in drafting or translation, is closely linked to knowledge of phraseology formation and the historical influence of translation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Language- And Legal Culture Peculiarities in Selected Swiss Constitutional Acts Including a Translational Perspective<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The subject of the analysis is linguaculture expressing linguistic and cultural differences occurring in every language of law. They relate to vocabulary and editing principles of law acts. It seems that preserving such differences in the target translation makes it possible to reveal specific legislation trends of a given country, which express political motivation. Their preservation in the translated text requires good knowledge of law and in-depth comparative analysis. The focus of the analysis in this text is on the expression of gender in the law texts and specifically, on the translation of feminatives and legal names relevant for cultural dimension of a given law system.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Linguistics Difficulties in Harmonisation of European Union Law: The Example of Directives on Procedural Guaranties in Criminal Matters<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Multilingual writing of European directives is faced with a few linguistic difficulties, like choosing an appropriate legal terms. All linguistic versions shall reflect the same content event though the legal system of each Member State is different and some legal concept do not have an equivalent in other legal systems. In this way, legal writing of European Directive is a very complex subject both from legal and linguistic perspective. The aim of this article is to discuss different linguistics difficulties that could appear during the harmonisation of criminal proceedings in European Union, where multilingualism is a key value and to analyse the possible solutions, when dealing with those difficulties. It seems that even if multilingualism is a big challenge to European Union, it could have a positive influence on the quality of European legislation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Verbal Dreamscapes. Dorothea Tanning’s Visual Literature<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>A Surrealist painter whose artistic vision is equally visible in her literary works, Dorothea Tanning established a solid dialogue between literature and the plastic arts. The corpus of her literary oeuvre is rather small, consisting of a novel, a volume of poetry and her memoir, Between Lives. This paper argues that Tanning can be regarded as an exemplary author of a creative transfer between verbal and plastic imagination. It also explores the tension between the two means of expression, most visible in her novel Chasm: A Weekend. Here, the imagery and enigmatic symbolism of her painting come to life in the story of a strange little girl called Destina Meridian.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Strings of Life: Memory as Myth in Porter’s Miranda Stories<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The Pulitzer-prize writer, Katherine Anne Porter, dedicates a great part of her work to the Southern history. Through Miranda’s memories, this writer questions some of the major Southern myths – the Southern belle, the Southern family. This paper aims to highlight the moulding of a feminine voice of the South, whose identity is torn between the Old and the New Order.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Syntactic and Lexical Complexity of B2 Listening Comprehension Subtests in English: A Comparative Study<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Adopting <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_rjes-2016-0015_ref_022_w2aab2b8b8b1b7b1ab1ac22Aa">Weir’s (2005)</xref> socio-cognitive validation framework, the present paper focuses on the syntactic and lexical complexity of listening comprehension subtests in three B2-level examinations: The City Guilds international examination in English, The First Certificate in English, and the General Matura in English. By analysing and interpreting the results obtained from different automated tools, the research aims to determine to what extent the three subtests are comparable. The results of the study suggest the unreliability of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) as a sole mechanism for test comparisons.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Linguists, Romglish and “Verbal Hygiene”<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Emphasising the importance of language ideological research into the attitudes of linguists (<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_rjes-2016-0017_ref_011_w2aab2b8c41b1b7b1ab1ac11Aa">Milroy 2012</xref>) and taking as points of reference concepts such as “verbal hygiene” (<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_rjes-2016-0017_ref_002_w2aab2b8c41b1b7b1ab1ab2Aa">Cameron 1995</xref>), “standard language ideology” (<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_rjes-2016-0017_ref_012_w2aab2b8c41b1b7b1ab1ac12Aa">Milroy and Milroy 1999</xref>) and “language myths” (<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_rjes-2016-0017_ref_018_w2aab2b8c41b1b7b1ab1ac18Aa">Watts 2011</xref>), the present paper focuses on two recent interviews given by prominent linguists, where the emphasis falls on “Romglish”, a much-discussed label in the contemporary Romanian media. The paper identifies (as central to these linguists’ attitudes) myths such as those relating to homogeneity and legitimacy, discussing the pertinence of such myths in the present context of globalisation.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The European Union as a Totalitarian Nightmare: Dystopian Visions in the Discourse of the UK Independence Party (UKIP)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Based on an analysis of UKIP’s discourse on the EU, particularly that of leader Nigel Farage, this paper argues that the party depicts the EU in dystopian terms; in particular it compares it to dystopian narratives such as Orwell’s 1984, totalitarian communist regimes, Nazi Germany and ‘failed states’ such as North Korea.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The Influence of Classroom Management Quality on the Students’ Behaviour<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The value of a teacher depends, among others, on their ability to transfer information from the scientific level to that of the efficient reception and understanding of each beneficiary of education, depending on individual features and age.</p><p>The present study investigates the teachers’ and students’ beliefs and visions about student behaviour management.</p><p>Starting from the assumption that the identification of the line between formative supervision vs punitive supervision or between formative supervision vs the absence of supervision is a sensitive issue, the present study analyses these forms of supervision in order to provide support for high quality professional development and training.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Eighteenth-Century Garden Manuals: Old Practice, New Professions<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This article sketches the cultural significance that garden manuals had in England, from exemplifying a pleasurable and an aesthetic activity to encouraging the setting up of a profitable business. By investigating gardening manuals and treatises from the period, this study argues that eighteenth-century gardening manuals played an important role in shaping the cultural meanings of English gardens, in conveying “a practical knowledge of gardening, to gentlemen and young professors, who delight in that useful and agreeable study” (Abercrombie, The Preface, 1767) and in producing an original type of discourse which was employed to describe and represent the newly created professions.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Human (In)Consistencies in Ian McEwan’s<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Ian McEwan’s Amsterdam has supplied its readers with psychological, moral and social topical issues presented in an easy flowing and exhilarating style. Starting from the assumption that life consists of a series of inconsistencies which are inherent and bring their contribution to the individual’s formation, the paper aims at demonstrating that the protagonists’ judgmental and moral inconsistencies, which are used as a plot generator and are environmentally determined, reveal features of their personality.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Kingsley Amis: The Prescriptivist<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In <italic>The King’s English: A Guide to Modern Usage</italic>, Kingsley Amis identified H. W. Fowler as his great predecessor. Amis revealed himself as a soldier in the army of prescriptivists, voices that settle ‘modern linguistic problems’ while proudly parading as non-linguists. The book exposed Amis’s acrimonious dispute with descriptive linguists, while the writer delivered his very own brand of linguistics to his readers. This paper looks at the success of Amis’s book and its similarities with Fowler’s. It also emphasizes the continuity and popularity of usage handbooks while presenting some of their chief characteristics as exemplified by Amis’s work.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Phrase Structure Patterning and Licensing for English and Serbian Speaker-Oriented Adverb Subclasses<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper attempts to set phrase structure rules for English and Serbian speaker-oriented adverb subclasses. Adverbs are looked at here as specifiers licensed by the semantic feature [ILLOCUTIONARY FORCE]. The results suggest that illocutionary, evaluative and evidential adverbs normally merge within the complementizer layer and the inflectional layer, and that English epistemic adverbs are in most cases preferably integrated into the inflectional layer, whereas Serbian epistemic adverbs tend to occur in the sentence-initial position.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Conceptual Metaphors with the Source Domain of Insanity in English and Serbian<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The paper explores the conceptual metaphors with the source domain of <sc>insanity</sc> in English and Serbian, focusing on the features of the source domain that are transferred into target domains. It is shown that the experience that shapes these metaphors relies on the manifestations of mental illness and the common beliefs about mental illness that hold in both languages.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Profiling Pragmatic Competence of Foreign Language Learners<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The purpose of this study is to explore the components that foreign language learners need to acquire in order to develop their pragmatic competence. This paper presents a description of phase one of an ongoing research project at Goce Delcev University-Stip, Republic of Macedonia, on developing pragmatic competence of foreign language learners. We first define pragmatic competence; then we discuss data collection instruments and procedures; and we conclude with an outlook on further research.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Metaphors of Happiness in English and Russian<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>According to <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_rjes-2016-0012_ref_004_w2aab2b8c25b1b7b1ab1ab4Aa">Ekman et al. (1972)</xref>, happiness is one of the six universal basic human emotions. <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_rjes-2016-0012_ref_010_w2aab2b8c25b1b7b1ab1ac10Aa">Kövecses (2000)</xref> claims that certain aspects of the conceptualization of emotions are universal or nearuniversal. The paper compares linguistic expressions to discuss the question of the universality of the emotion happiness and its metaphors in English and Russian.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The Dumbing Down of Literature<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper proposes to prove that in the late 20<sup>th</sup> and early 21<sup>st</sup> century commodification, commercialization and consumerism have, so to say, joined forces and led to a decrease in high literature and the increase of cheap volumes which are of low quality but in high demand.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The Role of Personifying Metaphors in English and Romanian Legal Texts<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper attempts to carry out an analysis of metaphors in a corpus of legal documents, within the theoretical framework of the cognitive metaphor theory as conceived by <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_rjes-2016-0018_ref_004_w2aab2b8c38b1b7b1ab1ab4Aa">Lakoff and Johnson (1980)</xref>. There is a notable use of conceptual metaphors and framings in the law we live by which, undoubtedly, have a major impact on the way millions of people in the world act and react in their attempt of decoding legal messages. Since metaphors are basically cognitive constructs, their meaning can be grasped only through a process of transfer of significance from a source domain to a target one, leading thus, to an interpretation of the legal discourse.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00“”: The Mythopoeic Dimension of Neil Gaiman’s<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper aims to address the mythopoeic aspect of Neil Gaiman’s <italic>American Gods</italic>, so as to disclose the elements of American cultural identity embedded in the novel. It is an attempt to analyse its legends, myths, folklore, popular culture figures, intertwined with Old World mythology, assessing their viability as modern myths, through the lens of formalist and structuralist reading.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1