rss_2.0Literary Studies FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Literary Studies Studies Feed and Ethnicity: Life Stories of Jewish-American Immigrant Women in the First Half of the Twentieth Century<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the first half of the twentieth century, immigrants left oral and written testimonies of their experience in the United States, many of them housed in various ethnic-American archives or published by ethnic historical societies. In 1942, the Yiddish Scientific Institute in New York City encouraged Jewish-American immigrants to share their life stories as part of a written essay contest. In 2006, several of these autobiographical accounts were translated and published by Jocelyn Cohen and Daniel Soyer in a volume entitled <italic>My Future Is in America</italic>. Thus, this essay examines the autobiographies of two Jewish-American immigrant women, Minnie Goldstein and Rose Schoenfeld, with a view to comparing how their gendered identity (as women and as members of their families) has impacted their choices and lives in their home countries and in the United States in the first part of the twentieth century.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Phonological Patterns in the Translations of Poe’s “The Bells” into Romanian<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Of all translation work in the world at any given time, poetry makes up just a small proportion. And of all theorists in translation, only a few tackled the issue of poetry translation for reasons that need no expatiation. The article below discusses two translations into Romanian of Edgar Allan Poe’s “The Bells,” focusing on the approaches and techniques used by the translators in what concerns the transfer of phonological patterns from English into Romanian. The aim is to determine to what extent the target-language texts are faithful replicas in terms of orchestration and aesthetic function, and, whether the outcome has suffered any meaning transformation as a result of the transfer of phonological patterns.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Japan’s Food Culture – From (Dumplings) to (Moon-Viewing) Burgers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this essay is to present how Japanese eating habits have changed in the context of globalization. We start from the premise that eating is not merely about meeting a basic need, but about creating a relationship with nature. It can be regarded as a ritual practice because it reveals a culture and its people’s beliefs, values and mind-sets. As Geert Hofstede et al. note, life in Japan is highly ritualized and there are a lot of ceremonies (192). Starting from the idea that food consumption is based on rituals too, we intend to explain the relationship between eating habits and lifestyle change in contemporary Japan. Considering that the Japanese diet is based on whole or minimally processed foods, we ask ourselves how Western food habits ended up being adopted and adapted so quickly in the Japanese society. With this purpose in mind, we intend to describe some of the most important festivals and celebrations in Japan, focusing on the relationship between special occasions and food. In other words, we aim to explain the cultural significance of food and eating and to see if and how these habits have changed in time.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-12T00:00:00.000+00:00The Image of the River in Kazuo Ishiguro’s<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This essay focuses on the theme of the river in Kazuo Ishiguro’s <italic>A Pale View of Hills</italic> which will be analyzed in relation to the nuclear devastation of WWII. Rivers have a special meaning to the inhabitants of Nagasaki since the rivers were filled with the corpses of people who were exposed to radiation after the atomic bombing. It is also known in Nagasaki that unidentifiable fireballs called <italic>onibi</italic> float over marsh ground at night in summer. Especially in his first novel, <italic>A Pale View of Hills</italic>, the river evokes the image of <italic>Sanzu No Kawa</italic>, a river which, in Japanese Buddhism, the souls of the dead are believed to be crossing on the seventh day of afterlife. The river imagery signifies the boundary between life and death, and it has been used as a metaphor for the transience of time. As such, the river displays an ephemeral texture. In <italic>A Pale View of Hills</italic>, the protagonist Etsuko reminisces about her days in Nagasaki. In her memories, she becomes friends with Sachiko and her daughter Mariko. One night, Mariko confesses to Etsuko that she sees a ghostly woman coming from the other side of the river. Ishiguro also writes about the rivers in other novels. For example, in <italic>Never Let Me Go</italic>, he uses the river as a metaphor for Kathy and Tommy’s fate. In <italic>The Buried Giant</italic>, at the end of the novel, Axl sets Beatrice free and lets the boatman carry her alone to the island, which can be read as Beatrice’s departure from life. My analysis explores Ishiguro’s intentions when using the river and various apparitions in his novels, with a special focus on <italic>A Pale View of Hills.</italic></p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Mihaela Ursa (coordinator). . Ed. Adrian Tătăran and Alexandra Turcu. Piteşti: Paralela 45, 2019“People Eat Their Dinner, Just Eat Their Dinner…”: Food Discourse in Anton Chekhov’s and Beth Henley’s<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The essay sets out to explore the functions of food discourse in the plays <italic>Three Sisters</italic> by Anton Chekhov and <italic>Crimes of the Heart</italic> by Beth Henley. Based on the critically established continuity between the two plays, the essay looks at the ways the dramatists capitalize on food imagery to achieve their artistic goals. It seemed logical to discuss the alimentary practices within the framework of everyday life studies (Edmund Husserl, Alfred Schütz, Fernand Braudel, Bernhard Waldenfels and others), moved to the forefront of literary scholarship by the anthropological turn in the humanities. Enhanced by a semiotic approach, this perspective enables one to understand food products and consumption manners as performing a variety of functions in each play. Most obviously, they are instrumental in creating the illusion of “everydayness” vital for new drama. Then, for Chekhov, food comes to epitomize the spiritless materiality of contemporary life, while in Henley’s play it is predominantly used, in accordance with the play’s feminist agenda, as a grotesque substitute for the lack of human affection. Relying upon the fundamental cultural distinction between everyday and non-everyday makes it possible to compare representations of festive occasions in the two plays seen through the gastronomical lens of “eating together.” Despite substantial differences, the emphases on alimentary practices in the plays serve to realize the inexhaustible dramatic potential inherent in the minutiae of quotidian life.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-12T00:00:00.000+00:00The Challenges of Translating into Romanian<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A classic of American literature, Mark Twain’s <italic>The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn</italic> has had a huge impact not only on American literature but also on world literature. Its bold and freshly creative style, its humor and the author’s endless verve and vitality, the multifaceted and novel approach to life have all contributed to its success and popularity. However, Twain’s greatest merit probably lies in the way in which he used language, crafting art out of the speech of ordinary people. His experiments with language, the vernacular in particular, have meant a huge step forward in American literature and have been a source of inspiration for many writers. However, the translation of the novel has generated huge challenges related to the linguistic register appropriate for the translation of the novel and the strategies for rendering dialect, the African-American one in particular. It has also divided Romanian translators with regard to the target readership the original novel addressed: children, adults or both.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-12T00:00:00.000+00:00“The Reason for War is War”: Western and Eastern Interrogations of Violence in Michael Ondaatje’s<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Michael Ondaatje’s <italic>Anil’s Ghost</italic> (2000) is set in civil war-torn Sri Lanka. This contemporary violent moment becomes a rupture through which the writer interrogates the division between Western and Eastern ways of approaching a violent situation. This essay sets out to investigate historical instances of violence and justifications for violence in the Buddhist context. The essay then turns to Buddhist scholars’ contemporary critical examination of violence and war in light of the teachings of ancient Buddhist texts. Then, having established the Buddhist history and contemporary debate around violence and war, the essay explores how Ondaatje comments on this history through the contemporary moment of civil war in Sri Lanka. The essay argues that rather than illustrating the need for a purer Buddhism or the separation between the political and the religious, as some scholars have argued in relation to <italic>Anil’s Ghost</italic>, according to Ondaatje, the only way to approach the problem of violence with any hope of reaching understanding is through appreciating the different ways of knowing offered by the East and the West.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-12T00:00:00.000+00:00On the Shapes of the Polish Word: Phonotactic Complexity and Diversity<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The aim of this contribution is to identify the dominant shapes of the Polish word with reference to three criteria: cluster complexity (i.e., cluster size), saturation (the number of clusters in a word), and diversity (in terms of features of consonant description). The dominant word shape is understood as the most <italic>frequent</italic> or <italic>typical</italic> skeletal pattern, expressed by means of alternations or groupings of Cs (consonants) and Vs (vowels), e.g., CVCCV etc., or by means of specific features (of place, manner, voice, and the sonorant/obstruent distinction). Our work focuses on 2 aspects of Polish phonotactics: (1) the relation between cluster complexity and saturation of words with clusters, (2) the degrees of diversity in features of place, manner, and voice within clusters. Using corpus data, we have established that only 4.17% of word shapes have no clusters. The dominant word shape for a one-cluster word is CVCCVCV. The most frequent scenario for a word shape is to contain two clusters, of which 67% are a combination of a word initial and a word medial cluster. We have found that: (1) cluster length is inversely proportional to the number of clusters in a word; (2) nearly 73% of word types contain clusters of the same size, e.g., two CCs or two CCCs (Polish words prefer saturation over complexity); (3) MOA is more diversified than POA across clusters and words.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-04T00:00:00.000+00:00A Lesson for Covidiots About Some Contact Induced Borrowing of American English Morphological Processes Into Dutch<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper discusses morphological borrowing from American-English to Dutch. Three processes of non-morphemic word formation are studied: embellished clipping (<italic>Afro</italic> from <italic>African</italic>), libfixing (extracting segments from opaque wordforms such -<italic>topia</italic> from <italic>utopia</italic> and -(<italic>po</italic>)<italic>calypse</italic> from <italic>apocalypse</italic>) and blending (<italic>stagflation</italic> &lt; <italic>stagnation</italic> + <italic>inflation</italic>). It will be shown that the borrowing of these processes started with borrowing of English lexical material followed by a process of reinterpretation, which subsequently led to the (re-)introduction of the processes in Dutch. Therefore, the traditional distinction between MAT and PAT borrowing turns out to be inadequate. Instead of a clear-cut difference between lexical and morphological borrowing a borrowing cline will be proposed. The respective ends of this cline are MAT and PAT.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Dissecting the Word: The Use of the Lexeme in Selected Performances of Comedian Dave Chappelle’s Stand-Up Routine<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The paper explores the use of the lexeme <italic>shit</italic> in the corpus of Dave Chappelle’s stand-up specials released between 2000 and 2019. It consists of two parts: theoretical and analytical. The first one presents theoretical and pragmatic considerations connected with stand-up routines, touches upon slang semantics, and depicts the links between Dave Chappelle’s stage persona and the hip hop community. Lastly, it presents the reader with the past and present-day status of the lexeme at issue. In the analytical section of the paper the use of <italic>shit</italic> in the aforesaid corpus is scrutinized from the semantic angle. The discussion is supplemented with the results culled from the corpus of rap lyrics compiled at the Faculty of English at Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań. The paper argues that (i) <italic>shit</italic> has lost its taboo status and is mainly used in both corpora as a less formal equivalent of <italic>stuff</italic>, <italic>anything</italic> and <italic>something</italic> and (ii) Chappelle’s stage use of <italic>shit</italic>, even though present in a different context and serving context-specific purposes, corresponds to the use of African American rappers in their song lyrics (assuming that rap lyrics depict African American English, this conclusion can be extended to the sociolect of African Americans).</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Spatio-Temporal Systems in Shakespeare’s Dialogues: A Case from<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The purpose of this paper is to conduct the first systematic analysis of the spatio-temporal systems in Shakespeare’s dialogues along the lines of historical pragmatics and discourse analysis. The text used for analysis is <italic>The Riverside Shakespeare</italic> edited by Evans (1997).</p><p>Language employs spatio-temporal systems by which the speakers judge how distant the situations they wish to express are from their domain. Such relationships of space and time are embodied by spatio-temporal elements such as pronouns, demonstratives, adverbs, tenses, and modals, with a proximal (close) and distal (distant) distinction. These elements can be related to each other to take either a proximal or distal perspective not only in either the spatial or temporal domain, but also in the integrated spatio-temporal domain. The speakers can continue to take the same perspective, or alternate different perspectives, in discourse. However, few studies have attempted such a comprehensive analysis of spatio-temporal systems in the development of English, not to mention in its Early Modern period.</p><p>This paper performs both quantitative and qualitative analyses of the spatio-temporal systems in <italic>Julius Caesar</italic>. First, a quantitative analysis of how frequently each element of space and time is employed shows which perspective, i.e., proximal or distal, is likely to be taken. Second, a qualitative analysis reveals how these elements are related with each other to take either proximal or distal perspective, and how these perspectives change in discourse. In these analyses, the present paper pays attention to the interactions between the interlocutors in order to investigate how these interactions in dialogues impact the selection of elements of space and time.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-04T00:00:00.000+00:00How to choose the proper words? The process of vocabulary standardization in<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>As with most fields of life, China can trace its history of word standardization back to ancient times, when the first dictionaries (such as <italic>Erya</italic>, ca. 3<sup>rd</sup> century B.C.) appeared. Modern Standard Chinese used in Mainland China – Putonghua – has been subject to standardization since its proclamation as the official national language of China in 1956. The definition states quite clearly that its base is formed by the Northern dialects. This statement concerns also vocabulary.</p> <p>However, it is not a simple matter to make a choice of words which are to be used throughout the country. On the one hand, the so-called “Northern dialects” are spoken by almost 70% of the Han Chinese population, i.e. by about 800 million people. Although the Northern dialects are said to be quite uniform, the vast area that they cover must bring diversity in vocabulary. On the other hand, the remaining 30% of the Han Chinese speak a range of mutually unintelligible tongues, which are bound to penetrate the Northern dialects.</p> <p>The aim of this paper is to show how the lexicon of Putonghua is being codified. An attempt will be made to reveal how the basic vocabulary was selected during the forming of Putonghua in the 1950s. Some of the tools used by the State Language Commission in order to control the process of vocabulary standardization will be described. Moreover, the paper intends to describe the ongoing changes in the Chinese lexicon. It will show the sources of new words that are gradually accepted into the authoritative dictionaries of modern Chinese.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Reviews: Mieczysław Jerzy Künstler. 2019. . Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 322 grammatical distinction between count nouns and mass nouns in Mandarin Chinese<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this paper is to prove the Mass Noun Hypothesis wrong. The hypothesis claims that all common nouns in classifier languages like Mandarin Chinese are mass nouns. The objection against it consists in displaying its implausible deduction, where false conclusions have been drawn due to relying on the grammar of English, which is incongruent with the grammar of Chinese. Consequently, this paper defends the Count Noun Thesis, stating that in Chinese there are count as well as mass nouns. In support of this statement, first, the typology of numeral classifiers had to be established, which resulted in gathering and completing all the reasons to distinguish classifiers from measure words. After only this necessary differentiation was made, it was possible to show that the count/mass distinction exists in Mandarin Chinese. That is, count nouns by default have only one classifier, with certain disclaimers. Apart from that, count nouns, as in every language, may undergo some measurement with measure words. Mass nouns, however, in the context of quantification may appear only with measure words, but not with classifiers. These conditions naturally follow from the ontological status of the two types of nouns’ referents, i.e. bounded objects denoted by count nouns, and scattered substances denoted by mass nouns.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Chinese vocabulary and elements of culture reflected in the lexical meaning as a challenge in the teaching of Chinese as a foreign language<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper describes the elements of Chinese culture enclosed in vocabulary and in the meaning of words; it is divided into four parts. Firstly, it is pointed out that, due to the fact that words are written down with Chinese characters, teachers of Chinese should purposefully help the students understand the rich culture contained in Chinese words, especially disyllabic compounds. Secondly, the article presents the investigation methods concerning compound words applied by the researchers of Chinese lexicon;It also assesses their applicability with regard to teaching a second language. Thirdly, the paper discusses five ways of incorporating Chinese culture during the process of formation of compound words, and points out their relationship with second language teaching. Finally, the paper discusses the methods applied in teaching Chinese vocabulary, and puts forward two methods of teaching vocabulary and their strategies at different levels.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-04T00:00:00.000+00:00The Comparison of Kinship Terminology in the Yulin Dialect and in Cantonese<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Yulin dialect is a sub-dialect of Cantonese, only used in Yuzhou and Fumian districts of the city of Yulin, located in the southeast of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. The kinship terms in Yue dialects include direct and indirect address terms, and usually are a combination of morphemes used to embody referential features (synthetic relation terms) and morphemes that distinguish the degree of kinship (ranking, collateral, spousal, generation and gender terms). This article offers a comparison, in terms of morphology, of kinship terms between the Yulin dialect and Cantonese. It is argued that the Yulin dialect and Cantonese have the same pattern of combining kinship terms, but approximately half of the compared kinship term logograms in the Yulin dialect are totally different from those in Cantonese as used in Canton, and the same terms are used in less than one-fourth of the cases.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Speech shadowing as a teaching technique in the CFL classroom<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this paper is to present speech shadowing (the listener’s repetition of a word, phrase or sentence immediately after hearing it) as an effective teaching technique. Shadowing has been practiced in English classes in Japan for decades and many studies have confirmed its effectiveness for improving learners’ listening comprehension and pronunciation skills. Even though some studies have already indicated that this technique is successfully used in teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language (CFL) (Zajdler &amp; Chu 2019), its potential has not been widely utilized in the Chinese classroom in Poland. Thus, the present paper will first discuss the auditory and cognitive underpinnings of shadowing, then a classification of the types of shadowing will be proposed. Finally, practical aspects of shadowing as an effective in-class CFL teaching technique will be presented.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Trends and challenges of Chinese-Polish translation and interpretation industry in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>China is Poland’s largest Asian trade partner. Increased trade in recent years, combined with a visible growth of interest in Asian cultures, has contributed to the development of the Polish translation industry, especially in the Polish-Chinese language pair. Although the number of sworn translators registered with the Ministry of Justice remains small (16), the dynamic increase in the number of people dealing with regular translations makes similar services more and more available. The article aims to outline the general situation of Chinese translators in Poland. The methodological basis of the article is a survey conducted in August 2018, in which 67 respondents took part, who declared themselves translators in the aforementioned pair of languages. The survey consisted of 17 questions to which one or more answers could be given. Respondents were asked about the most frequently translated content, aids, and materials used at work, as well as the particularly difficult topics. The image that emerges from these data allows an assessment of the maturity of the industry and the prospects for its further development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Tradition and the Individual Canadian Talent<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the twenty-first century, Canadian writers have been doing something they did infrequently in the past: acknowledging and referencing the work of past Canadian writers. Although declining pedagogical and academic interest in Canadian literature has made this development hard to see, writers themselves have been quietly building upon and contributing to something that looks very much like a literary tradition. Canadian writers of course continue to read and be influenced by writers outside Canada, just as they always have: but in their own words, they are now telling us that they are reading, learning from, and responding to other Canadian writers – that there is a Canadian literary tradition that crosses generational and regional borders, and that Canadian writers (and publishers, and readers) are aware of parts of that tradition, the parts that matter to them.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-13T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1