rss_2.0Literary Studies FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Literary Studies Studies Feed“DO YOU WANT TO BE KRAMPUS?” Santa Claus, globality and locality of Christmas tradition<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In this paper the author argues that the Christmas holidays, notwithstanding their international standing as a religious and commercial season, are most productively understood as a <italic>glocal</italic> phenomena, a concept intended to link the local with the global in a dialectics of homogenization and particularism. Juxtaposing data from Hungary and Eastern Europe, the author provides an anthropological analysis that highlights the transformative power Christmas traditions and Santa Claus have played in diverse cultural settings since the late twentieth-century. For even the imposition of communist ideology, conceived as a globalizing force, failed to eradicate images of Santa Claus; both his persona and that of his devilish imp, Krampus, survived such ruthless attempts at indoctrination with only the slightest of modifications. In view of its economic and cultural significance, this paper argues in favor of international recognition of Saint Nicholas day, December 6<sup>th,</sup> as a glocal civil holiday.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00The glocal as scale and provocation in Hungarian Studies<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This introduction reconstructs the arguments of the editors and contributors of a thematic cluster of the Hungarian Studies Yearbook that focuses on the possible methodological uses of the glocal both as a scale and as a methodological challenge for contemporary Hungarian studies.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Practices of Colonization in Regional Literary Histories<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The discourses on 20th century Eastern European regional literatures are predominantly determined by the use of terminology and interrelationships of national and ethnic literatures, which originated in social and state organizational embeddedness. Besides, the majority–minority relation is significantly present in the discourse on these literatures, with this relation representing a – sometimes implicit, sometimes explicit – approach of colonization. If ethnic (or minority) literatures are not only examined as opposed to national (or majority) literatures, it might occur that ethnic literatures themselves often resorted to practices of colonization when describing the literary context. This paper aims at examining the processes of literary history writing of German and Hungarian literatures from Romania, and by looking at them from a transnational perspective, identifying the in-between space where the mutually oppressive spatial practices are eliminated.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00The Sovietization of Creative Writing in Romania. The Role of the Mihai Eminescu School of Literature and Literary Criticism (1950–1955)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Within the paradigm of socialist realism, one of the means of introducing new models of producing literature in Romania and other neighbouring countries was the Soviet idea and practice of literary training. In the Romanian context, the Mihai Eminescu School of Literature and Literary Criticism from Bucharest was intended to produce the new, young generation of writers that would articulate the new system of values. Reports about the School show that the social origin of the students was carefully monitorized, and ethnic diversity also played a role in the process of the sovietization of the whole Romanian literary field. The personal level of experiencing the cultural and political practice of the School shows the possibilities and also the limitations of the project. The paper examines the history of the School through official party documents and also personal accounts, in order to analyze the particular strategies and also the difficulties of adapting certain Soviet institutional models within the Romanian context.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Digital Genealogy<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper demonstrates how methods of digital genealogy can be used to trace personal histories in innovative ways to uncover potentially significant details of settlement history where information in historical sources is scarce. It uses the example of a mid-18th century Roman Catholic settler and his family in Szentes, a small town on the Great Hungarian Plain, at a time when mass migration into this region was happening from overpopulated regions of the Kingdom of Hungary. Records of the settlement history of the town are meagre at best, but this important aspect of social history can be supplemented through meticulous research into the Family Search genealogy database.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00The Glocality of the Acta Comparationis Litterarum. Local Interpretations of Educational Freedom, Coercive Innovation and Comparative Literature<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p><italic>The Present Tasks of Comparative Literature</italic> (<italic>Vorläufige Aufgaben der Vergleichenden Litteratur</italic>) is the most often-cited essay of the first international journal of comparative literature, the ActaComparationis Litterarum Universarum. The article proposes a revision of the generally established explanations of this pioneering text, and traces back the microcultural genealogy of the idea of freedom and autonomy associated with the emerging modern discipline of comparative literature in the essay. In this new intellectual framework both the essay and its broad horizon are interpreted as a glocal interplay of recycled and enthrallingly reinvented transnational ideas.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Two Relative Contact Phenomena in the Language use of Hungarians in Transylvania<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The paper discusses two peculiarities of language use generally taken to be relative contact phenomena in case of Hungarian in bilingual, non-dominant context: the preference of analytical linguistic variants and non-standard plural forms. The data come from two sociolinguistic surveys conducted in Transylvania (in 1996 and 2009). The surveys were carried out with the participation of a representative sample of speakers. The 1996 survey was conducted with a quota sample (N = 216 in Romania and N = 107 in Hungary) and the 2009 sample with a representative sample (N = 4058 in Romania). The hypothesis that Romanian-dominant bilingual speakers tend to exhibit relative contact phenomena to a larger extent was supported with respect to these two issues. The results show that the occurrence of these phenomena is determined both by the language competence of the dominant language and by the regional characteristics of the bilingualism. The results confirm the possibility that the spoken-language properties under discussion are relative contact phenomena.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Loanwords and Expressions Denoting Hues in Old Hungarian<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The study presents loanwords and expressions referring to hues in the old Hungarian language. It relays mostly on data collected from the <italic>Historical Dictionary of Hungarian Language from Transylvania</italic> (SzT.), and it also uses data from the <italic>Hungarian Etymological Dictionary</italic> (TESz.). A number of studies have been written about the Hungarian colour terms presenting usage and distribution, yet only few of them dealt with their etymology and their historical usage. The present paper focuses on the etymology of terms denoting hues, and aims to present reasons for naming and using these loan colour terms. The study investigates whether these terms appearing in old Transylvanian texts were loanwords, loan expressions or they were simply used as a result of linguistic interference.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Reinventing Linguistic Ethnographic Fieldwork During the COVID-19 Pandemic<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Our paper discusses the methodological implications of an ethnographic linguistic research project in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic of 2020. Starting from pertinent definitions of linguistic ethnography and interpretations of the field, we offer a demonstration of the process in which this particular participatory research project was faced with the fact that the field became unavailable and inaccessible for the non-local participants. We argue that moving the research online in this case does not mean a shift to “virtual ethnography” (Hine) or “digital ethnography” (Varis), but provides an example for the research site as an emerging construct which adds to the complexities of ethnographic research.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Will to Language, Culture, and Power. Dániel Berzsenyi and his Martial Poetry<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In his article “Will to Language, Culture, and Power” Gábor Vaderna investigates different discourses of violence in early 19<sup>th</sup>-century Hungary. According to Norbert Elias, violence has not disappeared from modern society but the individual has transferred the institution, opportunity, and protocols of violence to the state. There are also aesthetic consequences of this process. The question is whether institutionalized violence was a tool of power to stabilize modern societies or rather it was in fact a threat to aesthetic beauty. From the analysis of a poem by the Hungarian poet, Dániel Berzsenyi (1776–1832), written in wartime, Vaderna concludes that the Central European noble classes perceived a tension between the eternal virtue and real history. The exercise of power, the possession of violence and the nation-building potential of culture were closely intertwined in their political language.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Book Review: . By Hans Sauer & Piotr P. Chruszczewski (eds.). Academic Publishing, 2020. Pp. xii + 555 Relations and Female Agency in Claire Keegan’s<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Claire Keegan is one of the most prominent voices within the contemporary Irish short story panorama. Internationally acclaimed, her prose has been praised for its frank and bitter portrayal of a rural world, whose outdated values, no matter how anchored in the past they might be, still prevail in a modern milieu. Keegan’s unsympathetic views on society, mainly on the Catholic Church and the family, are the main targets of her harsh criticism. Issues like gender and sexuality, two social constructs with which to validate an uneven distribution of power, constitute the pillars of most of her plots. Bearing these aspects in mind, my proposal focuses on the analysis of Keegan’s first collection of short stories, <italic>Antarctica</italic> 1999, in light of gender relations and female agency, in an attempt to find patterns of – often thwarted – female emancipation in the context of the rapid changes of a society that is still adjusting to a globalised world. This article will also engage in the discussion of her second collection, <italic>Walk the Blue Fields</italic> 2007, and her long short story <italic>Foster</italic> 2010.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Polish LGBTQ+-Related Anglicisms in a Language Contact Perspective<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Research on anglicisms in Polish has nearly a century-long tradition, yet it was Jacek Fisiak’s 1960s–1980s studies on English loanwords that initiated continuous academic interest in anglicisms, coinciding with more intensive English-Polish language contact in post-war Poland. While English loans have been well-researched in the last four decades, the ongoing intensity of English lexical influence on Polish, yielding not only new loans but also new loan types, calls for further studies, especially in the area of quickly developing professional jargons and sociolects. The influx of English-sourced lexis is reflected in the diversity of semantic fields, whose number has grown from 18 (identified in <italic>Słownik warszawski</italic> 1900–1927 ) to 45 (Mańczak-Wohlfeld 1995). A semantic field that has been underresearched in studies on Polish anglicisms is the LGBTQ+-related lexis, which has drawn from American English gayspeak, shaped by the post-Stonewall gay rights movement initiated in the 1970s. The language data analysed in this study have been collected in a two-stage procedure, which included manual extraction of anglicisms sourced in a diversified corpus of LGBTQ+-related written texts, published in Polish between 2004 and 2020. The second stage involved oral interviews which served a verification function. The aim of this study is to contribute to the lexicographic attempts at researching English-sourced LGBTQ+-related vocabulary in Polish through its identification, excerption, and classification. Assuming an onomasiological approach to borrowing, we arrange LGBTQ+-related anglicisms on a decreasing foreignness scale to identify the borrowing techniques adopted by the recipient language speakers in the loan nativization process. We also address issues related to the identification and semantics of loans, and sketch areas of research on loan pragmatic functions that need further studies.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Mauro Antonelli (2018): Vittorio Benussi in the History of Psychology. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-96682-3, ISBN 978-3-319-96684-7, , 384 Seiten, 106,99 Euro (hardcover), 85,59 Euro (ebook). affordances in gestalt perception as well as in emotional facial expressions and gestures<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Methodological problems often arise when a special case is confused with the general principle. So you will find affordances only for ‚artifacts’ if you restrict the analysis to ‚artifacts’. The general principle, however, is an ‚invitation character’, which triggers an action. Consequently, an action-theoretical approach known as ‚pragmatic turn’ in cognitive science is recommended. According to this approach, the human being is not a passive-receptive being but actively produces those action effects that open up the world to us (through ‚active inferences’). This ‚ideomotor approach’ focuses on the so-called ‚epistemic actions’, which guide our perception as conscious and unconscious cognitions. Due to ‚embodied cognition’ the own body is assigned an indispensable role. The action theoretical approach of ‚enactive cognition’ enables that every form can be consistently processualized. Thus, each ‚Gestalt’ is understood as the process result of interlocking cognitions of ‚forward modelling’ (which produces anticipations and enables prognoses) and ‚inverse modelling’ (which makes hypotheses about genesis and causality). As can be shown, these cognitions are fed by previous experiences of real interaction, which later changes into a mental trial treatment, which is highly automated and can therefore take place unconsciously. It is now central that every object may have such affordances that call for instrumental or epistemic action. In the simplest case, it is the body and the facial expressions of our counterpart that can be understood as a question and provoke an answer/reaction. Thus, emotion is not only to be understood as expression/output according to the scheme ‚input-processing-output’, but acts itself as a provocative act/input. Consequently, artifacts are neither necessary nor sufficient conditions for affordances. Rather, they exist in all areas of cognition—from Enactive Cognition to Social Cognition.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Max Wertheimer (2020): Productive Thinking. New edition by Viktor Sarris. Birkhäuser/Springer Nature, ix + 257 pages, 485s/ w- Abbildungen; Paperback/Euro 35, 30 – ISBN 978-3-030-36065-8, eBook/Euro 26,75 – ISBN 978-3-030-36063-4.Éric Trémault: Structure and sensation, Vrin, Paris, 2020, 196 ppänomenologischer Realismus. Voluntative und intentionalistische Realitätsbegründung bei Scheler und Husserl<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this text I argue that a phenomenological conception of reality cannot simply consider ‚reality’ to be a feature of the objects of our experience, nor can ‚reality’ be understood as a somehow subconscious experience of resistance, as Max Schelers notion of a „primary resistance“ tries to show. In opposition to these insufficient conceptions I suggest – following some husserlian inspirations – that the notion of ‚reality’ is to be understood as a elementary feature of our <italic>experience</italic> of objects – not of the objects of our experience. Is this perspective accepted, a minimal ‚realism’ appears as a presupposition of the concept of intentionality.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Words in Motion: Slurs in Indirect Report<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Slurs are pejorative epithets that express negative attitudes toward a class of individuals sharing the same race, country of origin, sexual orientation, religion, and the like. The aim of this paper is to show what happens in communication when slurs are reported. It focuses on the derogatory content of such expressions and on the persistence of their performative effects in reported speech. In this respect, the question concerning the attribution of responsibility for the derogatory content conveyed by the slurs is relevant. Indeed, reporting a slur involves quoting not only the content but also the speaker’s personal commitment and (negative) attitude. Different theories on the status of the derogatory component of slurs make different predictions about their offensiveness in reported speech and about the speaker’s “responsibility” for the attitude and feelings conveyed by that word, be she the original speaker or the reporter. The results of a questionnaire show empirically that no single theory can provide a conclusive statement on this matter.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Gestalt as a Determinant of Brand Management – A Sociological Perspective on Branding in German-Speaking Discourse<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>For almost 40 years, a specific form of brand management with scientific and practical resonance has been evolving in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland – along with a multitude of microeconomic schools and authors. This form of brand management goes by the term “Brand Sociology” and sees the brand as a Gestalt system of alliances. Brand Sociology fills a gap in the classical economic approach and makes it possible to understand the central target variables of brand management as social dynamics and to direct them in a targeted manner. The following article traces for the first time the foundations and history of a Gestalt sociological approach to brand research and relates its contribution in the field of interplay between Gestalt research, sociology, and identity-based brand economics.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-31T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1