rss_2.0Medicine FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Medicine Feed and Antibiogram of Bacterial Species in Litter of Selected Poultry Farms in Idi-Ayunre Community, Oyo State, Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The misuse and overuse of antibiotics within poultry sector of the animal agriculture threatens public health due to its aftermath effect arising from the release of resistant pathogens to the environment. This study investigated the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility status of bacterial species isolated from litter of selected poultry farms within Idi Ayunre, a poultry-dense community in Oyo State. Poultry droppings (5 g) was collected each from six (6) randomly selected farms and bacteria isolated using Brain Heart Infusion agar (BHI), MacConkey agar (MCA), Eosin methylene blue agar (EMB) and Salmonella Shigella agar (SSA) media respectively via pour plate technique. Bacterial isolates were identified via morphological and biochemical tests and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern determined via Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method using multi-disc antibiotics. Farm A had highest Total Heterotrophic Count (THC, 8.43 Log<sub>10</sub>CFU/mL) and Total Enterobacteriaceae Count (TEC, 6.32 Log<sub>10</sub>CFU/mL). However, Farm C had lowest THC and TEC (7.18 Log<sub>10</sub>CFU/mL and 4.48 Log<sub>10</sub>CFU/mL respectively), while Farm B had lowest Total Coliform Count (TCC, 4.70 Log<sub>10</sub>CFU/mL) with the highest being Farm D (6.08 Log<sub>10</sub>CFU/mL). Also Farm D had the highest (8.15 Log<sub>10</sub>CFU/mL) Salmonella-Shigella Count (SSC) with Farm E having the lowest (4.85 Log<sub>10</sub>CFU/mL). Isolates obtained were identified as <italic>Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus</italic> sp., <italic>Bacillus</italic> sp., <italic>Pseudomonas</italic> sp, <italic>Klebsiella</italic> sp., <italic>Escherichia coli, Citrobacter</italic> sp., <italic>Salmonella</italic> sp., <italic>Enterobacter</italic> sp. and <italic>Shigella</italic> sp. Across the farms, <italic>S. aureus, Bacillus</italic> sp. and <italic>E. coli</italic> were isolated, while <italic>Shigella</italic> sp. was isolated only from Farm D. The bacteria isolates were found to be multidrug resistant towards the tested antibiotics, showing susceptibility only to gentamicin and ofloxacin. This study therefore showed that birds’ droppings from poultry farms in Idi Ayunre community serve as carrier of multidrug resistant pathogens. Hence, the need for a cautious use of antibiotics among Idi Ayunre poultry farmers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of diabetic kidney disease: A network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec><title style='display:none'>Objectives</title><p>To evaluate and compare the effectiveness and safety of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of diabetic kidney disease (DKD).</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title><p>We searched articles in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, which are published from 2010 to 2021, to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) by comparing SGLT2 inhibitors with placebo. A network meta-analysis (NMA) was conducted within a frequency framework using a random-effects model.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>We included 16 studies involving 51,925 patients in the analysis. Only empagliflozin significantly lowered urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) than a placebo (mean differences [MD]: −83.01, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: −117.74 to −48.27). With regard to the composite kidney outcomes, canagliflozin (relative risk [RR] = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.69–0.80), dapagliflozin (RR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.68–0.85), empagliflozin (RR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.63–0.76), and ertugliflozin (RR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68–0.99) were significantly associated with a lower risk than placebo.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title><p>The UACR-lowering effects of empagliflozin were greater than most other SGLT2 inhibitors. There were few clinically significant differences in the renal protective effects among these drugs.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact of polymorphism on DNA damage, expression, and risk of colorectal cancer development<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_raon-2022-0031_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>AKT, also called protein kinase B, is a serine-threonine kinase that functions as a mediator of PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway and plays an important role in an array of cellular processes. Many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in <italic>AKT</italic> gene have been observed to be associated with various types of cancers. In the current research the association of a functional SNP rs1130233 in <italic>AKT</italic>, depicting G to A transition, was studied with AKT activation, DNA damage, an early response B-cell translocation gene 2 (Btg2) expression and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) development.</p></sec> <sec id="j_raon-2022-0031_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Patients and methods</title> <p>A total 197 population-based controls and 200 CRC patients were genotyped for SNP rs1130233. AKT expression, activation and <italic>BTG2</italic> expression were determined in GG, AG and AA genotype carriers. DNA damage was determined through comet assay.</p></sec> <sec id="j_raon-2022-0031_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The heterozygous AG genotype (55.67%) was more prevalent in the local population compared to homozygous wild type GG (37.78%) and homozygous AA genotypes (6.55%). Moreover, AG and AA alleles were observed to be significant contributors (P = 0.01, OR = 1.80, CI = 1.18 to 2.74, and P = 0.001, OR = 5.00, CI = 1.90 to 13.18, respectively) in increasing the risk of CRC. The immunoblot analysis revealed that G to A transition decreased the expression and activation of AKT. Moreover, AG and AA genotypes of <italic>AKT1</italic> rs1130233 showed a significant increase in DNA damage and Btg2 expression.</p></sec> <sec id="j_raon-2022-0031_s_009"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>The data concludes that G to A substitution is a risk factor for CRC development involving a decrease in AKT expression and activation and increase in DNA damage.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Nanosecond electric pulses are equally effective in electrochemotherapy with cisplatin as microsecond pulses<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_raon-2022-0028_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>Nanosecond electric pulses showed promising results in electrochemotherapy, but the underlying mechanisms of action are still unexplored. The aim of this work was to correlate cellular cisplatin amount with cell survival of cells electroporated with nanosecond or standardly used 8 × 100 μs pulses and to investigate the effects of electric pulses on cisplatin structure.</p></sec> <sec id="j_raon-2022-0028_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Materials and methods</title> <p>Chinese hamster ovary CHO and mouse melanoma B16F1 cells were exposed to 1 × 200 ns pulse at 12.6 kV/cm or 25 × 400 ns pulses at 3.9 kV/cm, 10 Hz repetition rate or 8 × 100 μs pulses at 1.1 (CHO) or 0.9 (B16F1) kV/cm, 1 Hz repetition rate at three cisplatin concentrations. Cell survival was determined by the clonogenic assay, cellular platinum was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Effects on the structure of cisplatin were investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry.</p></sec> <sec id="j_raon-2022-0028_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Nanosecond pulses equivalent to 8 × 100 μs pulses were established <italic>in vitro</italic> based on membrane permeabilization and cell survival. Equivalent nanosecond pulses were equally efficient in decreasing the cell survival and accumulating cisplatin intracellularly as 8 × 100 μs pulses after electrochemotherapy. The number of intracellular cisplatin molecules strongly correlates with cell survival for B16F1 cells, but less for CHO cells, implying the possible involvement of other mechanisms in electrochemotherapy. The high-voltage electric pulses did not alter the structure of cisplatin.</p></sec> <sec id="j_raon-2022-0028_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>Equivalent nanosecond pulses are equally effective in electrochemotherapy as standardly used 8 × 100 μs pulses.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Early isolated subarachnoid hemorrhage versus hemorrhagic infarction in cerebral venous thrombosis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_raon-2022-0029_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare cerebral vascular disease, the presentation of which is highly variable clinically and radiologically. A recent study demonstrated that isolated subarachnoid hemorrhage (iSAH) in CVT is not as rare as thought previously and may have a good prognostic significance. Hemorrhagic venous infarction, however, is an indicator of an unfavorable outcome. We therefore hypothesized that patients who initially suffered iSAH would have a better clinical outcome than those who suffered hemorrhagic cerebral infarction.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_raon-2022-0029_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Patients and methods</title> <p>We selected patients hospitalized due to CVT, who presented either with isolated SAH or cerebral hemorrhagic infarction at admission or during the following 24 hours: 23 (10 men) aged 22–73 years. The data were extracted from hospital admission records, our computer data system, and the hospital radiological database.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_raon-2022-0029_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The iSAH group consisted of 8 (6 men) aged 49.3 ± 16.2 and the hemorrhagic infarction group included 15 (4 men) aged 47.9 ± 16.8. Despite having a significantly greater number of thrombosed venous sinuses/deep veins (Mann-Whitney Rank Sum Test, p = 0.002), the isolated SAH group had a significantly better outcome on its modified Rankin Score (mRs) than the hemorrhagic infarction group (Mann-Whitney Rank Sum Test, p = 0.026). Additional variables of significant impact were edema formation (p = 0.004) and sulcal obliteration (p = 0.014).</p> </sec> <sec id="j_raon-2022-0029_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>The patients who suffer iSAH initially had a significantly better outcome prognosis than the hemorrhagic infarction patients, despite the greater number of thrombosed sinuses/veins in the iSAH group. A possible explanation might include patent superficial cerebral communicating veins.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Abbreviated C-mixed triglyceride breath test for detection of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency performs equally as standard 5-hour test in patients after gastrectomy performed for gastric cancer<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_raon-2022-0034_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p><sup>13</sup>C-mixed triglyceride breath test (<sup>13</sup>C-MTGT) is a non-invasive test for the detection of moderate and severe pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI), but it requires prolonged breath sampling. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic power of abbreviated <sup>13</sup>C-MTGT in detecting PEI in patients after subtotal and total gastrectomy performed due to gastric cancer.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_raon-2022-0034_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Subjects and methods</title> <p>This cross-sectional observational study included 3 groups of subjects; healthy controls, patients with subtotal and patients with total gastrectomy. Demographic and clinical data of patients were collected. Stool samples to determine faecal elastase (Fe-1) and chymotrypsin were collected and measured by ELISA. All subjects performed 5-hour <sup>13</sup>C-MTGT breath test. The concentration and relative content of <sup>13</sup>C in exhaled air was measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS). PEI was confirmed as values of <sup>13</sup>C-exhalation &lt; 26.8% after 5 hours.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_raon-2022-0034_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Overall, 65 participants were included into analysis, 22 having PEI (n = 11 after subtotal and n = 11 after total gastrectomy, both performed for gastric cancer). <sup>13</sup>C-MTGT breath test showed difference in percent of exhaled <sup>13</sup>C between PEI and non-PEI patients already after 60 minutes (p = 0.034). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that cut-off value of 13.74% after 150 minutes is showing equivalent diagnostic power to the longer test with sensitivity and specificity both above 90% for the exclusion of PEI in patients after subtotal and/or total gastrectomy.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_raon-2022-0034_s_009"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>In this study abbreviated <sup>13</sup>C-MTGT test could be shortened from 5 to 2.5 hours without decrease in its diagnostic accuracy for detection of PEI in patients with subtotal or total gastrectomy performed for gastric cancer. This allows significant time savings in the diagnostics of PEI in this subgroup of patients.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Real-life long-term outcomes of upfront surgery in patients with resectable stage I-IIIA non-small cell lung cancer<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_raon-2022-0030_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>Treatment of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is rapidly evolving. When introducing novelties, real-life data on effectiveness of currently used treatment strategies are needed. The present study evaluated outcomes of stage I–IIIA NSCLC patients treated with upfront radical surgery in everyday clinical practice, between 2010–2017.</p></sec> <sec id="j_raon-2022-0030_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Patients and methods</title> <p>Data of 539 consecutive patients were retrieved from a prospective hospital-based registry. All diagnostic, treatment and follow-up procedures were performed at the same thoracic oncology centre according to the valid guidelines. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS) analysed by clinical(c) and pathological(p) TNM (tumour, node, metastases) stage. The impact of clinicopathological characteristics on OS was evaluated using univariable (UVA) and multivariable regression analysis (MVA).</p></sec> <sec id="j_raon-2022-0030_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>With a median follow-up of 53.9 months, median OS and 5-year OS rate in the overall population were 90.4 months and 64.4%. Five-year OS rates by pTNM stage I, II and IIIA were 70.2%, 60.21%, and 49.9%, respectively. Both cTNM and pTNM stages were associated with OS; but only pTNM retained its independent prognostic value (p = 0.003) in MVA. Agreement between cTNM and pTNM was 69.0%. Next to pTNM, age (p = 0.001) and gender (p = 0.004) retained their independent prognostic value for OS.</p></sec> <sec id="j_raon-2022-0030_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>The study showed favourable outcomes of resectable stage I–IIIA NSCLC treated with upfront surgery in real-life. Relatively low agreement between cTNM and pTNM stages and independent prognostic value of only pTNM, observed in real-life data, suggest that surgery remains the most accurate provider of the anatomical stage of disease and important upfront therapy.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Radiation therapy for melanoma brain metastases: a systematic review<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec id="j_raon-2022-0032_s_006"><title style='display:none'>Background</title><p>Radiation therapy (RT) for melanoma brain metastases, delivered either as whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) or as stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), is an established component of treatment for this condition. However, evidence allowing comparison of the outcomes, advantages and disadvantages of the two RT modalities is scant, with very few randomised controlled trials having been conducted. This has led to considerable uncertainty and inconsistent guideline recommendations. The present systematic review identified 112 studies reporting outcomes for patients with melanoma brain metastases treated with RT. Three were randomised controlled trials but only one was of sufficient size to be considered informative. Most of the evidence was from non-randomised studies, either specific treatment series or disease cohorts. Criteria for determining treatment choice were reported in only 32 studies and the quality of these studies was variable. From the time of diagnosis of brain metastasis, the median survival after WBRT alone was 3.5 months (IQR 2.4–4.0 months) and for SRS alone it was 7.5 months (IQR 6.7–9.0 months). Overall patient survival increased over time (pre-1989 to 2015) but this was not apparent within specific treatment groups.</p></sec> <sec id="j_raon-2022-0032_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>These survival estimates provide a baseline for determining the incremental benefits of recently introduced systemic treatments using targeted therapy or immunotherapy for melanoma brain metastases.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Cone-beam computed tomography guided nusinersen administrations in adult spinal muscular atrophy patients with challenging access: a single- center experience<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_raon-2022-0033_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>The challenging anatomic predispositions in adult patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) preclude the conventional lumbar punctures. Consequently, an introduction of alternative method for intrathecal delivery of nusinersen is required. Cone-beam CT (CBCT) allows volumetric display of the area of interest, pre-procedural planning and real time needle guidance which results in accurate anatomic navigation. The aim of the study was to evaluate technical success, safety, and feasibility of CBCT lumbar intrathecal delivery of nusinersen in the adult SMA patients with challenging anatomical access.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_raon-2022-0033_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Patients and methods</title> <p>Thirty-eight adult SMA patients were treated in our institution. Patients with challenging access were selected by multidisciplinary board for image guided administration of nusinersen either due to implantation of the posterior fusion instrumentation, severe scoliosis defined as Cobb’s angle &gt; 40º or body mass index over 35. Technical success, radiation exposure and occurrence of adverse events were assessed.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_raon-2022-0033_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Twenty patients were selected, and 108 CBCT-guided procedures were performed. Each patient underwent at least 4 administrations. Transforaminal approach was performed in 82% of patients. The technical success was 100%, with primary success of 93.5%. The median radiation effective dose of the administrations was 5 mSv, the mean value equalled 10 mSv. Only mild adverse events were reported in the study.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_raon-2022-0033_s_009"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>CBCT-guided lumbar intrathecal administrations of nusinersen in an adult SMA population with challenging access was feasible and safe image guided method.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Determination of anti-phage antibodies in calf sera following application of and -specific bacteriophages<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0041_s_005"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>The widespread occurrence of drug-resistant bacteria has increased interest in alternatives to antibiotics for combatting bacterial infections, among which bacteriophages play an important role. The ability of phage proteins to induce an anti-phage immune response can significantly limit the effectiveness of treatment, which was the basis for the study described in this article. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of bacteriophages on the induction of an anti-phage humoral response in calves.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0041_s_006"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>The study was conducted using phage components of experimental preparations and sera from calves treated and not treated with phages. Levels of G, M and A immunoglobulins were analysed by ELISA. The assay plates were coated with whole <italic>Escherichia coli</italic> and <italic>Mannheimia haemolytica</italic> phages and selected phage proteins obtained in sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and two-dimensional electrophoresis. Neutralisation of phages by immunoglobulins was assessed by determining phage titres using double-layer plates.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0041_s_007"><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The results confirmed an increased anti-phage response affecting all immunoglobulin classes in the calf sera. The highest significant (P ≤ 0.05) level of antibodies was observed for IgG in the sera of calves receiving phages. The phage neutralisation test showed a significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) in the reduction of phage titres in comparison to untreated calves.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0041_s_008"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Despite the induction of an anti-phage response, no significant negative effect on the antibacterial activity of phages was observed <italic>in vitro</italic>.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-12T00:00:00.000+00:00The occurrence of (Bassi, 1875) in the wild cervid population in the Lower Silesian Wilderness – epidemiological and pathological aspects<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0042_s_005"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p><italic>Fascioloides magna</italic> is a parasite of high veterinary importance due to its pathogenicity for wild and domestic ruminants. The aim of our study was to describe the presence of trematode infection in the red deer population in the Lower Silesian Wilderness, one of the established fascioloidosis foci in Central Europe, and to assess the overall prevalence of <italic>F. magna</italic> in the studied area. In order to achieve this, a coprological study of different cervid species was performed.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0042_s_006"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>The livers of 99 red deer were collected over three years and examined for the presence of trematodes. Prevalence and infection intensity was estimated and a histopathological analysis was performed. In addition, 172 faecal samples from red deer, fallow deer and roe deer were examined.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0042_s_007"><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>By year, <italic>Fascioloides magna</italic> was isolated from the livers of 2/30 (6.7%), 9/34 (26.5%) and 10/35 (28.6%) red deer. Severe hepatic lesions, including massive tissue damage, extensive fibrosis, and cirrhotic changes in the liver parenchyma were observed. Faecal examination revealed the presence of <italic>F. magna</italic> eggs, with a prevalence of approximately 40%, 50% and 53% in roe deer, fallow deer and red deer, respectively.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2022-0042_s_008"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The eggs of <italic>F. magna</italic> may be commonly excreted in the faeces of roe deer, as well as those of red deer and fallow deer. The presence of <italic>F. magna</italic> throughout the cervid population in the Lower Silesian Wilderness favours the risk of the trematode’s transmission to livestock or farmed deer.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Retraction Note Note of Hematological and Serum Biochemistry Parameters in Dogs with Acute Diarrhea Due to Different Etiologies<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Acute diarrhea (AD) has a complex etiology and may lead to life-threatening conditions. Hematological and serum biochemistry analyses can be useful for a differential diagnosis and for determining the severity of diarrhoea. Dogs with AD (n=72) were divided into Isospora (n=18), Toxocara (n=18), Parvoviral Enteritis (n=18), and Dietary Diarrhea (n=18) subgroups following clinical and laboratory examinations. The study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of certain hematological and serum biochemistry parameters. Clinical examinations, rapid diagnostic tests, complete blood count (CBC), and biochemical analyses were performed. White blood cell count (WBC), granulocyte, and mean hemoglobin concentration (MCH) levels were lower in the Parvoviral Enteritis Group compared with the other groups (p&lt;0.01). Isospora, Parvoviral Enteritis, and Toxocara groups had lower glucose and total protein, and higher creatinine levels than those of the Control and Dietary Diarrhea groups (p&lt;0.0001). The albumin level of the Dietary Diarrhea Group was higher compared with the other groups (p&lt;0.0001). Parvoviral Enteritis and Isospora groups had higher ALP levels than those of the other groups (p&lt;0.0001). Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), C-reactive protein (CRP), and cholesterol levels were determined to be highest in the Parvoviral Enteritis Group (p&lt;0.0001). The total bilirubin level was higher in Parvoviral Enteritis and Toxocara groups compared with the Control, Isospora, and Dietary Diarrhea groups (p&lt;0.0001). As a result, it was concluded that in cases of AD due to parvoviral enteritis and <italic>Toxocara canis</italic>, serum biochemistry abnormalities may be more severe, can provide more clinical information than CBC, and can be useful in forming a differential diagnosis list, especially in triage.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessment of dietary intake by self-report in adult patients with type 1 diabetes treated with a personal insulin pump<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Appropriate nutrition is an element affecting the metabolic control of patients with diabetes. There are only a few studies assessing the implementation of dietary recommendations in adult patients with type 1 diabetes; none of them assessed the implementation of nutritional standards. Our study aimed to assess the implementation of dietary recommendations and their relation to metabolic control in adults with T1DM treated with personal insulin pumps.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and Methods</title> <p>The study included 48 adult patients who were divided into two subgroups and compared, based on HbA1c above and below 6.5%. Each patient's nutrient, vitamin, and mineral intake was assessed on self-reported 3-day 24-hour surveys of food consumption. Records were introduced into the dietetic software DietaPro, (source: <ext-link ext-link-type="uri" xmlns:xlink="" xlink:href=""></ext-link>) which revealed nutrient content. We evaluated the percentage of patients with nutrient consumption below recommended values based on current recommendations.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The studied population was characterized by insufficient consumption of most nutrients and vitamins: sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, iodine, manganese, vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, vitamin C. Patients’ diet did supply correct amounts of phosphorus, and too much fatty acid and cholesterol. There were no statistically significant differences in most of the nutrient intakes across the two groups. Nevertheless, we observed a significant difference in the polyunsaturated fatty acids, sodium, niacin, and calcium intakes.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>The studied patients consumed too much saturated fatty acid and dietary cholesterol. The consumption amounts of most nutrients and vitamins were associated with the risk of deficiency. The obtained results indicate the need for further dietary education for patients with T1DM.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Ketamine used in the therapy of depressive disorders impacts protein profile, proliferation rate, and phagocytosis resistance of enterococci<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>A low concentration of ketamine is used to cause an anti-depressive effect. The mechanism of ketamine's action in depression is believed to result, among others, from its anti-inflammatory activity. Despite the fact that only high concentrations of ketamine inhibit bacterial growth, it is clear that even a sub-inhibitory concentration of chemicals may change bacterial properties. Considering the above, in the current study we aimed to evaluate the in vitro influence of ketamine on proliferation of enterococci and their interactions with monocytes.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and Methods</title> <p>The studied strains were isolated as etiological agents of infection at Medical University of Gdansk. The proliferation and metabolic activity were determined using the FACSVerse flow cytometer after addition of CFDA-SE to bacterial suspension. For the determination of phagocytosis resistance, THP-1 human monocytes cell line was used. Suspension of monocytes which engulfed CFDA-SE–stained bacteria was then stained with propidium iodide to evaluate cytotoxicity of enterococci.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The result of the study showed unexpected response of bacterial cells to ketamine at an early stage of culture. In 57.7% of strains, both proliferation rate and metabolic activity were boosted. This group of strains was also less susceptible to phagocytosis than in culture without ketamine. Different response of isolates to ketamine was also visible in changes of proteins’ profile determined by MALDI-TOF.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>The analysis of bacteria at an early stage in the growth curve demonstrated the bacterial diversity in response to ketamine and let us set the hypothesis that microbiome susceptibility to ketamine may be one of the elements which should be taken into consideration when planning the successful pharmacotherapy of depression</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Genetic basis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML): The most common molecular changes in patients with normal karyotype<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a clonal disorder that results from errors in proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow stem cells from myeloid lineage. According to the Gilliland “two-hit” model, genes of both groups related to proliferation (e.g., <italic>FLT3</italic>) and differentiation (e.g., <italic>CEBPA</italic>) must be mutated for full development of AML. The genetic background of AML is very complicated and varied, from single nucleotide mutations or changes in gene expression to cytogenetic aberrations. The DNA sequencing results enable identification of important gene alterations that occur first and may lead the whole leukemogenesis (driver mutations). Some of them have prognostic significance – that is, they are related to the overall survival (OS), complete remission rate, and event-free survival (EFS). The most common molecular changes in AML are mutations in <italic>NPM1</italic>, <italic>CEBPA</italic>, <italic>FLT3,</italic> and <italic>DNMT3A</italic>. Alterations in <italic>NPM1</italic> gene are associated with a good prognosis but simultaneous mutation in <italic>FLT3</italic> may change this prognosis. <italic>DNMT3A</italic> mutations are very often correlated with <italic>NPM1</italic> mutations and are associated with short OS.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Acute caffeine mouth rinse does not affect attention and hand-eye coordination in recreationally active adults<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acute effect of different four caffeine mouth rinse intervention (caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, placebo, control) on attention and hand-eye coordination.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: Sixty-five healthy, recreationally active female (n = 41) (age 22.89 ± 3.94 years; body mass index 20.87 ± 2.63 kg/m<sup>2</sup>) and male (n = 24) (age 29.91 ± 12.06 years; body mass index 22.56 ± 2.21 kg/m<sup>2</sup>) volunteered to participate in this randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. The Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT) and Mirror-Tracing Test (MTT) was used. Participants first completed a SCWT or MTT, then rinsed and expectorated 25 ml of caffeinated coffee (containing 0.13% caffeine) or decaffeinated coffee or placebo (water) or control that did not rinse for 10 s, followed by SCWT or MTT again. Data were analyzed using a 4 (mouth rinse interventions) × 2 (pre-test and post-test) repeated measures ANOVA.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: SCWT time, MTT draw time and MTT number of error measures were not significantly different between four mouth rinse interventions (p &gt; 0.05).</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: Caffeinated coffee or decaffeinated coffee mouth rinse for 10 s provided immediately prior to SCWT or MTT did not affect attention and hand-eye coordination.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Hematological Findings and Alteration of Oxidative Stress Markers in Hospitalized Patients with SARS-COV-2<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Background/aim</bold>: Hematological parameters are the starting point in COVID-19 severity classification. The aim of this study was to analyze oxidative stress in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and to determine its association with D-dimer, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and platelets to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) as markers for disease progression.</p> <p><bold>Materials and method</bold>s: 52 patients with moderate and severe forms of COVID-19 were enrolled. A hematological and coagulation profile was performed for each patient. PAT (total antioxidant power, iron-reducing) and d-ROMs (plasma peroxides) were determined in serum at admission and 7 days after hospitalization.</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>: The severe group presented parameters that indicated a poor prognosis. Patients that recovered had a significant reduction in d-ROM (t-test, p&lt;0.01) and improvement in oxidative stress index (t-test, p&lt;0.05). Patients that died had significantly decreased PAT (p&lt;0.01) resulting in an increase in oxidative stress. Except for d-ROM vs PLR in both groups and d-ROM vs D-dimer in the severe group, a good correlation between oxidative stress parameters and D-dimer, PLR, and NLR was demonstrated (p&lt;0.01).</p> <p><bold>Conclusion</bold>: Our results show that oxidative stress markers can be used as a tool for disease progression in COVID-19. This analysis is easily accessible and affordable in addition to conventional hematological parameters performed for severity classification.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Hospital management priorities and key factors affecting overall perception of patient safety: a cross-sectional study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objective</title><p>Evaluating a staff's perception of safety culture is a critical factor in hospital management, and the knowledge of value and efficiency in hospitals is still inadequate. This study aimed to investigate the perceptions of safety culture among medical staffs and determine priorities for clear and better management.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title><p>A cross-sectional survey of 595 medical staff members was conducted at 2 tertiary hospitals in Western China using a hospital survey on patient safety culture (HSOPSC) and its value and efficiency in the hospital.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>The dimensions with a disadvantaged positive response were nonpunitive response to error (44.6%) and staffing (42.0%). Five dimensions can explain 37.7% of the variation in the overall perception of patient safety, and handoffs and transitions are the most important dimensions (standardized coefficients 0.295).</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title><p>Hospital managers should pay more attention to nonpunitive management and staffing. Handoffs and transitions are the most important areas of potential improvement in patient safety in hospitals.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-03T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1