rss_2.0Medicine FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Medicinehttps://www.sciendo.com/subject/MDhttps://www.sciendo.comMedicine Feedhttps://www.sciendo.com/subjectImages/Medicine.jpg700700The Role of Morphometric Characteristics of Anterior Maxilla in Planning the Interventions Accompanied by Orthodontic Teeth Movement – An Overviewhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sjecr-2021-0062<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The anterior maxilla or premaxilla is part of the upper jaw and the most significant content of this region, from the aspect of orthodontic therapy, are the incisor teeth. The frequency of complications during orthodontic movement of the upper incisors refers to a more detailed evaluation of the anatomical structures of the premaxilla. The aim of this study was to investigate morphological and morphometric characteristics of the anterior maxilla by cone beam computed tomography, which could be of interest for planning orthodontic teeth movement. By reviewing the available literature, we compared the values of the alveolar bone height, the distance between the alveolar crest and enamel – cement boundary, total alveolar bone width, the thickness of the buccal, and palatal plate, nasopalatine canal, and accessory canals of the anterior maxilla. The results of our study show changes in the labial and palatal aspects of the alveolar bone height during orthodontic interventions. Different results of the alveolar bone width are in correlation with gender, age, and type of orthodontic tooth movement. Distance between the nasopalatine canal and maxillary central incisors was estimated at the value from 4 to 6 mm, which is below the recommended value for maximum incisal retraction by Proffit. Research results show variations in shape, length, and diameter of the nasopalatine canal, which indicates individual varieties detected on cone beam computed tomography. Other anatomical structures and measures show an insignificant correlation with orthodontic teeth movement. According to the contradictory results of the available articles, it is required to achieve an individual approach to orthodontic interventions in the area of the anterior maxilla.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-17T00:00:00.000+00:00A Case Report on a Patient Whose Road Traffic Injury Severity Was Determined by the MAIS (Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale) Scorehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sjecr-2021-0056<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>There are numerous definitions and classifications of severe trauma. Due to the observed heterogeneity in the existing definitions and the lack of a uniform definition of serious bodily injury, in January 2013 the High Level Group on Road Safety EU (HLGRS) published the definition of serious bodily injury in road traffic as a non-fatal injury with Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS) between 3 and 6, including the limit values. However, determining the MAIS score is not easy even for doctors with many years of experience. A female patient, injured as a pedestrian in a traffic accident, was examined prehospitally, and was transported to the hospital in the optimal golden hour from the time of the injury. The patient was intubated and mechanically ventilated in the Critical Care Resuscitation Unit. After the entire diagnostic procedure, diagnoses were made according to the ICD classification of diseases. During further examination, each code of the diagnosis of the disease was assigned an AIS code and the highest AIS score - AIS 5 was determined, which indicated that the patient was critically injured. Our patient's MAIS score was 5. After 39 days she was discharged from hospital. The neurological findings at discharge corresponded to left hemiparesis – ASIA D impairment grade. In conclusion, a novelty in the assessment of severe bodily injury is the introduction of the AIS/MAIS score. However, to avoid a subjective assessment of these scores, AIS dictionaries should be obtained for physicians, or a software solution should be developed to convert ICD-10 diagnoses into the AIS / MAIS injury scale.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-17T00:00:00.000+00:00The Effects of Antidepressant Therapy on Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients with a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Depressive Symptomshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sjecr-2021-0068<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Background.</bold> Symptoms of depression are often present in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and treatment of depression may substantially improve the quality of life of such patients. The aim of our study was to investigate factors that influence the efficacy of antidepressant therapy in terms of the quality of life in patients with COPD and a depressive disorder.</p> <p><bold>Materials and Methods.</bold> The study was designed as a prospective cross-sectional study and conducted between October 2016 and December 2019 in the Primary Health Center, Kragujevac, Serbia. The study sample included 87 patients. Associations between putative risk factors and change in the quality-of-life score were tested by a multivariate linear regression model and interpreted by the regression coefficients.</p> <p><bold>Results.</bold> Our study showed a clear positive effect of therapy with SSRIs on the severity of depression symptoms and the quality of life of patients with co-occurrence of COPD and depression. However, multiple linear regression shows that the effect of SSRIs was more prominent in patients with a higher degree of COPD severity since patients with lower FEV<sub>1</sub> values had a more extensive increase in the Q-LES-Q-SF score (B=-0,034; p=0,020).</p> <p><bold>Conclusion.</bold> Treatment of depression that accompanies COPD is an important segment of managing such patients, which significantly improves HRQoL. Patients with more severe COPD would especially benefit from such treatment since their response to SSRIs is more pronounced.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-17T00:00:00.000+00:00The Advertising Approach Differentiation of Indonesia’s Halal Toothpaste Productshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mjhr-2022-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aims to understand how the Halal Toothpaste Products in Indonesia differentiate themselves from one another through Advertising. This study was conducted to provide strategic Advertising recommendations. The study used the framework of the Elaboration Likelihood Theory Model and the Advertising concepting approaches to analyze the applied techniques on the executed Advertising materials. This qualitative descriptive try to describe narratively and visually the TV Advertising material that was collected from the official YouTube account of each brand. Data were collected from relevant literature, documents, and online publications. The result of the study shows that all the Halal Toothpaste products utilized the central route and approaches whereas each of the product Advertising materials elaborates their respective product ingredients and their benefits. Each of the Advertising materials communicates Halal and its nuances both verbally and visually. The Halal label of the Toothpaste is mainly influenced by the ingredient within the product that is perceived to be correlated with the Islamic culture by the Indonesian consumers, Siwak. To create differentiation, each of the Advertising materials applied the combination of several Advertising concepting approaches. In practice, the result of the study can be a reference for Strategic Planners and Creative Professionals in Advertising Agencies on ‘What to Say’ and How to Say’ in the Halal Product Category. Academically, the study will be a reference for more research ideas in the future on Halal Advertising Strategy and Halal Product Campaign.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Refeeding syndrome in patients with anorexia nervosa - case reportshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cpp-2021-0017<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> Refeeding syndrome RS is a life-threatening acute hormonal and metabolic disorder that occurs in patients with moderate or severe malnutrition as a result of improperly administered nutritional therapy.</p> <p><bold>Material and method:</bold> The aim of this study is to describe the cases of two female patients suffering from anorexia nervosa, who developed a refeeding syndrome after starting nutritional therapy. Additionally, the available literature was reviewed in order to characterize the issue, including negative consequences and prevention of the refeeding syndrome.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> In both cases, the development of the refeeding syndrome was found in the patients, resulting from the excessive supply of energy and nutritional substrates in a short time, preceded by a previous, months long period of starvation and exhaustion of the organism (both patients had a decrease in the body mass index - BMI - to the value of about 14 kg / m<sup>2</sup>). In patient 1, the symptoms concerned mainly the cardiovascular system: a significant increase in the concentration of N-terminal B-type natriuretic propeptide (NT-proBNP) and tachycardia, as well as a decrease in the concentration of inorganic phosphates and hypokalemia. On the other hand, in the case of patient 2, symptoms such as confusion or deep disturbances of consciousness, which led to hospitalization in the intensive care unit, dominated the clinical picture.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> Refeeding syndrome may develop during nutritional rehabilitation, especially in the case of a sudden, inadequately planned supply of nutrients. Particular care should be taken in patients with extremely low BMI when reintroducing nutrition.</p> <p>The presented case reports draw attention to the possibility of cardiological complications and mental disorders of the realimentation syndrome, and indicate the behavior of patients (eating excessive food) that may lead to the development of the refeeding syndrome.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Working conditions and satisfaction with working conditions among Slovenian family medicine trainees: A cross-sectional studyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sjph-2021-0032<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_sjph-2021-0032_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>In order to achieve a high standard in training programmes for future family medicine specialists, it is essential to have good tutors with well-organised family medicine practices. Proper working conditions for young doctors are essential for their satisfaction and future professional development. The aim of our study was to check the current working conditions of family medicine trainees in the practical modular part of the training programme in Slovenia, and to determine their satisfaction with working conditions.</p></sec> <sec id="j_sjph-2021-0032_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>A cross-sectional study was conducted. The data was collected through a questionnaire distributed to 105 family medicine trainees undergoing the practical modular part of their training programme.</p></sec> <sec id="j_sjph-2021-0032_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The study showed that the following 7 out of 25 organisational and labour law factors are significantly associated with a trainee’s general satisfaction with working conditions: the location where work with patients takes place, the privacy of the premises, the accessibility of the main tutor, a constant patient population, suitable places for rest, paid out-of-hours substitutions, and appropriate pay grade.</p></sec> <sec id="j_sjph-2021-0032_s_009"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The results we obtained can be used to address certain aspects of trainees’ working conditions in Slovenia that need improvement. By determining which working conditions significantly affect a trainee’s satisfaction, we have the opportunity to modify these conditions and thereby improve the training programme. This could result in a less stressful and more efficient residency programme.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Students in danger: Binge drinking behaviour and associated factors in Hungaryhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sjph-2021-0033<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_sjph-2021-0033_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Among young adults, high rates of binge drinking were observed in certain European countries. Binge drinking is associated with several health problems (unplanned pregnancy, HIV infections, problems with memory, and injuries). The aim of this questionnaire-based study was to measure the frequency of binge drinking and its association with sociodemographic, familial, lifestyle factors and school performance among secondary and university students (n=2449) in Csongrád County, Hungary.</p></sec> <sec id="j_sjph-2021-0033_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>In this cross-sectional study the students’ sociodemographic data, parents’ educational and economic level, and students’ academic performance and self-reported use of tobacco, drugs, and alcohol were collected by a questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and multivariable binary logistic regression analyses were applied using SPSS 24.0 software.</p></sec> <sec id="j_sjph-2021-0033_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Altogether 2449 Hungarian secondary school students and university students participated in the study. Nearly one-third of the students were classified as binge drinkers, significantly more male university students. Tobacco or illicit drug use resulted in higher odds of being a binge drinker in both subgroups. Poor school performance and binge drinking were significantly correlated especially among secondary school students.</p></sec> <sec id="j_sjph-2021-0033_s_009"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>Targeting alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use together, including education, parent interventions, and public health policies, are crucial in the prevention of possible serious consequences.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Habits of energy drink consumption among teens in Slovenia – Focus group findingshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sjph-2021-0031<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_sjph-2021-0031_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Teachers in Slovenia have been noticing the increased consumption of energy drinks among pupils. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate habits that contribute to the frequency of energy drink consumption.</p></sec> <sec id="j_sjph-2021-0031_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Method</title> <p>36 teens participated in the study: elementary school pupils (6th and 8th grades), general upper secondary school pupils, and secondary technical school pupils (1st and 3rd year). In the course of the study 6 group interviews were held to help investigate young people’s habits and their reasons for energy drink purchase and consumption. Moreover, we investigated the influence of age on the consumption and knowledge about energy drink ingredients, as well as their influence on the body.</p></sec> <sec id="j_sjph-2021-0031_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Interview analysis showed that energy drink consumers are predominantly secondary school pupils. Their choice most frequently depends on the price, their taste, or the brand. What influences elementary school pupils’ purchasing decisions are price, packaging, and advertisements, while secondary school pupils choose their drinks according to the lack of energy and how tired they feel. The predominant factors preventing energy drink consumption are health problems among family members and friends. Secondary school pupils know more about energy drink ingredients than elementary school pupils.</p></sec> <sec id="j_sjph-2021-0031_s_009"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>On the basis of these findings, we will design a survey questionnaire for Slovenian teenagers and teachers, didactic material, and suggestions for improving educational programmes.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-20T00:00:00.000+00:00E-learning as an effective method in the prevention of patient fallshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sjph-2021-0034<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_sjph-2021-0034_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Objectives</title> <p>Patient falls deteriorate patients’ functional condition and quality of life, and increase their treatment costs. E-learning is considered an effective way to gain knowledge and competencies for quality and safety in nursing practice. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of an e-learning course for nurses in preventing in-patient falls.</p></sec> <sec id="j_sjph-2021-0034_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>The research design was mixed. In the first phase of the study, a five-year retrospective analysis of 2,280 in-patient falls was performed. Based on the analysis of risk factors for patient falls and group interviews with clinic managers an e-learning course was designed and completed by 250 nurses from five surgical and internal departments. The course’s effectiveness was evaluated based on the incidence of patient falls and the consequences of the falls before and after e-learning.</p></sec> <sec id="j_sjph-2021-0034_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>At surgical departments, there was a statistically significant decrease in patient fall indices after the implementation of the e-learning course (from 4.4 to 2.6 falls per 1,000 patients; p=0.022). On the contrary, in internal departments, this index increased in the monitored period (from 19.0 to 26.9 falls per 1,000 patients; p=0.001). In all departments, there was a decrease in the incidence of patient injuries caused by falls after the implementation of the e-learning course; in internal medicine, this decrease was statistically significant (from 54.5% to 33.3%; p=0.014).</p></sec> <sec id="j_sjph-2021-0034_s_009"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>The study confirmed that e-learning forms of education for healthcare professionals have a positive effect in preventing patient falls.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Relationship between quality of life indicators and cardiac status indicators in chemotherapy patientshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sjph-2021-0028<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_sjph-2021-0028_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Aim</title> <p>With the aim of improving personalized treatment of patients on chemotherapy, the objective of the study was to assess the degree of association between selected Quality of life (QoL) indicators and both clinical and imaging cardiac status indicators when detecting deterioration in QoL of these patients.</p></sec> <sec id="j_sjph-2021-0028_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>In a cohort clinical study in Hamburg, from August 2017 through October 2020, 59 cancer patients, aged 18-80 years, were evaluated before chemotherapy, and at several follow-ups, using EQ-5D and SF-36 QoL questionnaires, fast strain-encoded (fast-SENC) cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), conventional CMR, and echocardiography, and further received a clinical and biomarker examination. Data was analyzed using survival analyses. A decline of more than 5% in each observed QoL metric value was defined as the observed event. Patient were separated into groups according to the presentation of cardiotoxicity as per its clinical definition, the establishment of the indication for cardioprotective therapy initiation, and by a worsening in the value of each observed imaging metric by more than 5% in the previous follow-up compared to the corresponding pre-chemotherapy baseline value.</p></sec> <sec id="j_sjph-2021-0028_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Among clinical cardiac status indicators, the indication for cardioprotective therapy showed statistically good association with QoL scores (EQ-5D p=0.028; SF-36 physical component p=0.016; SF-36 mental component p=0.012). In terms of imaging metrics, the MyoHealth segmental myocardial strain score was the only one demonstrating consistently good QoL score association (EQ-5D p=0.005; SF-36 physical component p=0.056; SF-36 mental component p=0.002).</p></sec> <sec id="j_sjph-2021-0028_s_009"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>Established fast-SENC CMR scores are capable of highlighting patients with reduced QoL, who require more frequent/optimal management.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Self-reported sexually transmitted infections and healthcare in Slovenia: Findings from the second national survey of sexual lifestyles, attitudes and health, 2016-2017https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sjph-2021-0030<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_sjph-2021-0030_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Objectives were to estimate the lifetime prevalence of self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and describe STIs healthcare.</p></sec> <sec id="j_sjph-2021-0030_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>Data was collected in the period 2016-2017 from a probability sample of the general population, 18-49 years old, at respondents’ homes by a combination of face-to-face interviews and self-administration of more sensitive questions. Statistical methods for complex survey data were used to account for stratification, clustered sampling, and weighting.</p></sec> <sec id="j_sjph-2021-0030_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Approximately every tenth sexually experienced individual reported to have had genitourinary symptoms suggestive of STIs, but only a minority of them reported to have had those respective STIs diagnosed. The proportion of sexually experienced individuals that reported to have ever been diagnosed with an STI (excluding trichomoniasis, pubic lice for men and women, and pelvic inflammatory disease, vaginal thrush, bacterial vaginosis for women) was 2.4% for men and 6.7% for women (p&lt;0.001). Independent risk factors associated with self-reported STIs in women included at least 10 lifetime sexual partners and having been forced into sex. The majority of the last STI episodes in women were treated by gynaecologists accessible at the primary healthcare level and in men by a dermatovenerologist, after referral by a general practitioner. Approximately half of STI patients were counselled for safer sex and majority reported to have notified their sexual contacts.</p></sec> <sec id="j_sjph-2021-0030_s_009"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>Our estimates for lifetime prevalence of self-reported STIs in a probability sample of Slovenian sexually experienced men and women, 18-49 years old, indicate a substantial national burden of STIs. The results will inform national STI prevention and control policies and strategies.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Frequency of four-dimensional oral health problems across dental fields – A comparative survey of Slovenian and international dentistshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sjph-2021-0029<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_sjph-2021-0029_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Objectives</title> <p>To compare the frequency of patients’ oral health problems and prevention needs among Slovenian and international dentists with the aim to validate the four oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) dimensions across six clinical dental fields in all World Health Organization (WHO) regions.</p></sec> <sec id="j_sjph-2021-0029_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>An anonymous electronic survey in the English language was designed using Qualtrics software. A probability sampling for Slovenia and a convenience sampling strategy for dentist recruitment was applied for 31 countries. Dentists engaged in six dental fields were asked to categorize their patients’ oral health problems and prevention needs into the four OHRQoL dimensions (Oral Function, Orofacial Pain, Orofacial Appearance, and Psychosocial Impact). Proportions of patients’ problems and prevention needs were calculated together with the significance of Slovenian and international dentists’ differences based on dental fields and WHO regions.</p></sec> <sec id="j_sjph-2021-0029_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Dentists (n=1,580) from 32 countries completed the survey. There were 223 Slovenian dentists (females: 68%) with a mean age (SD) of 41 (10.6) years and 1,358 international dentists (females: 51%) with a mean age (SD) of 38 (10.4). Pain-related problems and prevention needs were the most prevalent among all six dental fields reported by dentists; Slovenian (37%) and 31 countries (45%). According to Cohen, differences between Slovenia, the broader European Region, and 31 countries were considered non-significant (&lt;0.1).</p></sec> <sec id="j_sjph-2021-0029_s_009"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>According to the dentists’ responses, the frequency of patients’ oral health problems and prevention needs are proportionate between Slovenia and 31 countries, regionally and globally. The four OHRQoL dimensions can be considered universal across all dental fields.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-20T00:00:00.000+00:00A questionnaire for rating health-related quality of lifehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sjph-2021-0035<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_sjph-2021-0035_s_006"><title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>Translations of instruments for measuring quality of life developed in certain, mostly more developed, parts of the world usually do not cover regionally specific aspects of health-related quality of life, even after transcultural validation. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a reliable questionnaire in Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, and Montenegrin languages suitable for measuring health-related quality of life in adults.</p></sec> <sec id="j_sjph-2021-0035_s_007"><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>The study was of a cross-sectional type, assessing the reliability and validity of a newly developed questionnaire for measuring health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adults residing in western Balkan states (WB-HRQoL). It was conducted on a sample of 489 adults from Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia &amp; Herzegovina, and Montenegro, with a mean age of 52.2±14.4 years and a male/female ratio of 195/294 (39.9%/60.1%).</p></sec> <sec id="j_sjph-2021-0035_s_008"><title style='display:none'>Result</title> <p>The definitive version of the WB-HRQoL scale with 19 items showed very good reliability, with Cronbach’s alpha 0.905. The scale was temporally stable, and satisfactory results were obtained for divergent and convergent validity tests. Exploratory factorial analysis brought to the surface four domains of health-related quality of life, namely the physical, psychical, social, and environmental.</p></sec> <sec id="j_sjph-2021-0035_s_009"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The WB-HRQoL scale is a reliable and valid generic instrument for measuring HRQoL that takes into account the cultural specifics of the western Balkan region.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Measurement of health and social behaviors in schoolchildren: Randomized study comparing paper versus electronic modehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sjph-2019-0001<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec id="j_sjph-2019-0001_s_006_w2aab2b8b4b1b7b1aab1c16b1Aa"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title><p>Electronic survey mode has become a more common tool of research than it used to be previously. This is strongly associated with the overall digitization of modern society. However, the evidence on the possible mode effect on study results has been scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the comparability of findings on health and behaviours using a paper-versus-electronic mode of survey with randomization design among schoolchildren.</p></sec><sec id="j_sjph-2019-0001_s_007_w2aab2b8b4b1b7b1aab1c16b2Aa"><title style='display:none'>Methods</title><p>A randomized study was conducted using a mandatory questionnaire on international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study in Lithuania, enrolling 531 schoolchildren aged 11–15 years. The questionnaire included health and social topics about physical activity, risk behaviours, self-reported health and symptoms, life satisfaction, bullying, fighting, family and school environment, peer relationships, electronic media communication, sociodemographic indicators, etc. The schoolchildren within classes were randomly selected for electronic or paper mode.</p></sec><sec id="j_sjph-2019-0001_s_008_w2aab2b8b4b1b7b1aab1c16b3Aa"><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>It was found that by study mode differences are inconsistent and in the majority of cases do not exceed 5%-point difference between the modes. The only significant difference was that in the paper survey the participants reported more exercise than in the electronic survey (OR=8.08, P&lt;.001). Other trends were nonsignificant and did not show a consistent pattern – in certain behaviours the paper mode was related to healthier choices, while in others - the electronic.</p></sec><sec id="j_sjph-2019-0001_s_009_w2aab2b8b4b1b7b1aab1c16b4Aa"><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title><p>The use of electronic questionnaires in surveys of schoolchildren may provide findings that are comparable with concurrent or previously conducted paper surveys.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2019-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Validation of the Slovenian version of short sense of coherence questionnaire (SOC-13) in multiple sclerosis patientshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sjph-2019-0004<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec id="j_sjph-2019-0004_s_006_w2aab2b8b1b1b7b1aab1c16b1Aa"><title style='display:none'>Aim</title><p>To validate the Slovenian version (SOC-13-SVN) of Sense of Coherence 13-item instrument (SOC-13) in Slovenian multiple sclerosis (MS) patients.</p></sec><sec id="j_sjph-2019-0004_s_007_w2aab2b8b1b1b7b1aab1c16b2Aa"><title style='display:none'>Methods</title><p>A consecutive 134 Slovenian MS patients were enrolled in a cross-sectional study in 2013. The reliability of the SOC-13-SVN was assessed for internal consistency by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α), dimensionality by the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and criterion validity by Pearson correlation coefficient (r) between SOC-13-SVN global score and MSQOL-54 composite scores – Mental Health Composite score (MHC) and Physical Health Composite score (PHC).</p></sec><sec id="j_sjph-2019-0004_s_008_w2aab2b8b1b1b7b1aab1c16b3Aa"><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>For the SOC-13-SVN instrument as a whole, internal consistency was high (α<sub>total</sub>=0.88) while it was low for three subscales (α<sub>comprehensibility</sub>=0.79; α<sub>manageability</sub>=0.66; α<sub>meaningfulness</sub>=0.69). The results of the CFA confirmed a three-factor structure with good fit (RMSEA=0.059, CFI=0.953, SRMR=0.065), however, the correlations between the factors were very high (r<sub>comprehensibility/manageability</sub>=0.938; r<sub>comprehensibility/meaningfulness</sub>=0.811; r<sub>manageability/meaningfulness</sub>=0.930). The criterion validity analysis showed a moderate positive strength of relationship between SOC-13-SVN global score and both MSQOL-54 composite scores (MHC: r=0.597, p&lt;0.001; PHC: r=0.437, p&lt;0.001).</p></sec><sec id="j_sjph-2019-0004_s_009_w2aab2b8b1b1b7b1aab1c16b4Aa"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>Analysis of some psychometric properties confirmed that this instrument is a reliable and valid tool for use in Slovenian MS patients. Despite the three-dimensional structure of the instrument, the use of the global summary score is encouraged due to the low reliability of the subscale scores and high correlations between them.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2019-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Semantic and cultural equivalence of the working alliance inventory short-revised scale for therapeutic alliance in family medicine: Lessons learned in Sloveniahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sjph-2019-0003<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec id="j_sjph-2019-0003_s_007_w2aab2b8b7b1b7b1aab1c16b1Aa"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title><p>Therapeutic alliance is a term most commonly associated with psychotherapeutic treatment, but recently its use has become increasingly significant in the other fields of medicine. An increasing amount of evidence implies that the quality of the therapeutic alliance between the doctor and patient substantially affects treatment outcomes. A European consensus chose the Working Alliance Inventory – Short Revised (WAI-SR) scale as the most efficient for European primary care. This paper presents the process of establishing the semantic and cultural equivalence of the two WAI-SR scales in Slovene.</p></sec><sec id="j_sjph-2019-0003_s_008_w2aab2b8b7b1b7b1aab1c16b2Aa"><title style='display:none'>Method</title><p>As a part of a larger international project, a group of four experts translated the two WAI SR scales (physician and patient versions) from English into Slovene. Twenty-six Slovenian family medicine doctors participated in the process of obtaining semantic, idiomatic, experiential and conceptual equivalence in translation using a Delphi consensus procedure. Afterward, a cultural equivalence was made to adapt the translations within the national context.</p></sec><sec id="j_sjph-2019-0003_s_009_w2aab2b8b7b1b7b1aab1c16b3Aa"><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>Agreement on translation was achieved after two Delphi rounds. The back-translation and cultural equivalence were accomplished without major problems, with some minor additional linguistic corrections.</p></sec><sec id="j_sjph-2019-0003_s_010_w2aab2b8b7b1b7b1aab1c16b4Aa"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>A Slovene version of the WAI-SR scale was successfully adapted and is available for further scale validation and research on therapeutic alliance.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2019-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Acceptance of seasonal influenza vaccination among Slovenian physicians, 2016https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sjph-2019-0006<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec id="j_sjph-2019-0006_s_006_w2aab2b8c10b1b7b1aab1c16b1Aa"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title><p>Vaccination against seasonal influenza is recommended for all healthcare workers including physicians in Slovenia to protect vulnerable individuals and reduce transmission of influenza viruses. The aim of our study is to determine the uptake of seasonal influenza vaccination among Slovenian physicians, to identify factors associated with that vaccination and assess their attitudes and beliefs regarding vaccination and vaccine-preventable diseases.</p></sec><sec id="j_sjph-2019-0006_s_007_w2aab2b8c10b1b7b1aab1c16b2Aa"><title style='display:none'>Methods</title><p>A cross-sectional survey was performed among physician members of the Slovenian Medical Chamber. The link to the anonymous web-based questionnaire was sent to 8,297 physicians. We estimated the overall proportion of physicians who vaccinate against influenza, while the possible associations with collected explanatory variables were explored in univariate analyses.</p></sec><sec id="j_sjph-2019-0006_s_008_w2aab2b8c10b1b7b1aab1c16b3Aa"><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>The response rate to the survey was 10.8%. 75.9% (95% CI: 73.1–78.7%) physicians vaccinate themselves against influenza (regularly or occasionally) and 24.1% (95% CI: 21.2–26.8%) do not vaccinate (not any more or never). In univariate analysis only, the area of work was statistically significant when associated with vaccinating against influenza (p=0.002). Among physicians who expressed some misconceptions regarding vaccination and vaccine-preventable diseases (it is better to overcome disease naturally as vaccines pose a higher risk than disease) the proportion of vaccinated against influenza was low (43.2%; 95% CI: 27.9–58.4%, 27.3%; 95% CI: 7.1–47.5%).</p></sec><sec id="j_sjph-2019-0006_s_009_w2aab2b8c10b1b7b1aab1c16b4Aa"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>Not trusting in vaccination or professional recommendations regarding vaccination and some misconceptions regarding vaccination and vaccine-preventable diseases may influence the decision to be vaccinated against seasonal influenza among Slovenian physicians.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2019-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Socio-demographic factors associated with smoking habits among university students in Belgrade, Serbiahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sjph-2019-0002<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec id="j_sjph-2019-0002_s_006_w2aab2b8c13b1b7b1aab1c16b1Aa"><title style='display:none'>Background</title><p>Smoking rates in Serbian adults are among the highest in Europe. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of smoking and smoking-related behaviours of Belgrade University students depending on their sociodemographic characteristics and faculty group.</p></sec><sec id="j_sjph-2019-0002_s_007_w2aab2b8c13b1b7b1aab1c16b2Aa"><title style='display:none'>Methods</title><p>A cross-sectional study was carried out among 2,608 Belgrade University students (59.6% female) in 2015. A self-administered questionnaire was applied to the opportunity sample to collect the data describing students’ smoking habits and attitudes across all 30 faculties of the university.</p></sec><sec id="j_sjph-2019-0002_s_008_w2aab2b8c13b1b7b1aab1c16b3Aa"><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>30.5% of students reported smoking: 26.4% of medical, and 31.1% of non-medical ones. Smoking rate among female students was 31.2% vs. 29.5% among males. Age (p=0.001), relationship (&lt;0.001) and employment status (p=0.002) had statistically significant influence on smoking status, while the differences in smoking status between genders (p=0.141) and medical and non-medical group of students (p=0.066) were not statistically significant. The highest percentage of students started smoking during high school (66.2%). As the most common reason to start smoking, respondents cited peer influence (36.5%). 44.3% of students who smoked unsuccessfully tried to quit smoking.</p></sec><sec id="j_sjph-2019-0002_s_009_w2aab2b8c13b1b7b1aab1c16b4Aa"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>To combat high smoking prevalence among a younger population, the formal education of students about the adverse impacts of smoking should be integrated in all active anti-smoking programs. Medical students, as future healthcare professionals, can play an important role in smoking rates reduction among both younger and general populations, if properly trained and educated about smoking prevention and cessation techniques.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2019-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00What can we learn from each other about undergraduate medical education in general practice/family medicine?https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sjph-2018-0019<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec id="j_sjph-2018-0019_s_006_w2aab3b7b5b1b6b1aab1c18b1Aa"><title style='display:none' id="d7463596e12698_w2aab3b7b5b1b6b1aab1c18b1aAa">Introduction</title><p>There is a dearth of published literature on the organisation of family medicine/general practice undergraduate teaching in the former Yugoslavia.</p></sec><sec id="j_sjph-2018-0019_s_007_w2aab3b7b5b1b6b1aab1c18b2Aa"><title style='display:none' id="d7463596e12706_w2aab3b7b5b1b6b1aab1c18b2aAa">Methods</title><p>A semi-structured questionnaire was sent to the addresses of 19 medical schools in the region. Questions covered the structure of Departments of Family Medicine (DFM), organisation of teaching, assessment of students and their involvement in departmental activities.</p></sec><sec id="j_sjph-2018-0019_s_008_w2aab3b7b5b1b6b1aab1c18b3Aa"><title style='display:none' id="d7463596e12715_w2aab3b7b5b1b6b1aab1c18b3aAa">Results</title><p>Thirteen medical schools responded, of which twelve have a formal DFM. Few DFM have full-time staff, with most relying upon external collaborators. Nine of 13 medical schools have family doctors teaching other subjects, covering an average of 2.4 years of the medical curriculum (range: 1-5). The total number of hours dedicated to teaching ranged from 30 - 420 (Md 180). Practice-based teaching prevails, which is conducted both in city and rural practices in over half of the respondent schools. Written exams are conducted at all but two medical schools, with the written grade contributing between 30 and 75 percent (Md=40%) of the total score. Nine medical schools have a formal method of practical skills assessment, five of which use Objective Structured Clinical Examinations. Student participation is actively sought at all but three medical schools, mainly through research.</p></sec><sec id="j_sjph-2018-0019_s_009_w2aab3b7b5b1b6b1aab1c18b4Aa"><title style='display:none' id="d7463596e12724_w2aab3b7b5b1b6b1aab1c18b4aAa">Conclusion</title><p>Most medical schools of the former Yugoslavia recognise the importance of family medicine in undergraduate education, although considerable variations exist in the organisation of teaching. Where DFM do not exist, we hope our study will provide evidence to support their establishment and the employment of more GPs by medical schools.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2018-06-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Empathy and burnout in Slovenian family medicine doctors: The first presentation of jefferson scale of empathy resultshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sjph-2018-0020<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec id="j_sjph-2018-0020_s_006_w2aab3b7b6b1b6b1aab1c18b1Aa"><title style='display:none' id="d7463596e15519_w2aab3b7b6b1b6b1aab1c18b1aAa">Background</title><p>Study aimed to assess the burnout prevalence and level of empathic attitude in family medicine doctors (FMDs) and its associations with demographic factors, working conditions and physician health, using the Jefferson Scale of Empathy – Health Professional version (JSE-HP).</p></sec><sec id="j_sjph-2018-0020_s_007_w2aab3b7b6b1b6b1aab1c18b2Aa"><title style='display:none' id="d7463596e15527_w2aab3b7b6b1b6b1aab1c18b2aAa">Methods</title><p>Slovenian FMDs (n=316, response rate 56%) completed an online socio-demographic questionnaire, with questions on working conditions, physician health, and the Slovenian versions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and the JSE-HP. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used, applying linear regression to calculate associations between demographic variables, factors of empathy and burnout dimensions, P&lt;0.05 was set as a limit of statistical significance.</p></sec><sec id="j_sjph-2018-0020_s_008_w2aab3b7b6b1b6b1aab1c18b3Aa"><title style='display:none' id="d7463596e15535_w2aab3b7b6b1b6b1aab1c18b3aAa">Results</title><p>Of the 316 participants, aged 40±10.2 years, 57 (18%) were men. The FMDs achieved mean scores on the JSE-HP (JSE<sub>tot</sub> of 112.8±10.2 and on the MBI 27.8±11.6 for EE, 10.8±5.5 for D and 33.5±6.0 for PA. High burnout was reported in one dimension by 24.8% of participants, in two by 17.2%, and by 6% in all three dimensions. Multivariate analysis revealed a higher EE and D and lower PA in specialists as opposed to trainees. Higher EE was also identified in older physicians having longer work experience, working in a rural setting, dealing with more than 40 patients/day and having a chronic illness. The latter was also associated with higher JSE<sub>tot</sub>. JSE<sub>tot</sub> was negatively associated with D, while PA was positively associated with JSE<sub>tot</sub> and Perspective Taking.</p></sec><sec id="j_sjph-2018-0020_s_009_w2aab3b7b6b1b6b1aab1c18b4Aa"><title style='display:none' id="d7463596e15555_w2aab3b7b6b1b6b1aab1c18b4aAa">Conclusion</title><p>The incidence of burnout warns both physicians and decision-makers against too heavy workload, especially in older professionals.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2018-06-21T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1