rss_2.0Materials Sciences FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Materials Scienceshttps://www.sciendo.com/subject/MShttps://www.sciendo.comMaterials Sciences Feedhttps://www.sciendo.com/subjectImages/Material_Sciences.jpg700700Innovative Technology of Accelerated Composting of Chicken Manure to Obtain an Organic Fertilizer with a High Content of Humic Acidshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/agriceng-2022-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>One of the most important fractions of soil organic matter which has significant environmental and agricultural importance is humus. The specific humus compounds of soil include the complex of amorphous organic humic substances which include humic acids, fulvic acids and humins. The effectiveness of the natural formation of active humic substances during composting processes depends on the chemical composition of organic residues and the environmental conditions influencing the development and activity of native microorganisms. The aim of the project was to build innovative composting boxes for chicken manure that allow to effectively obtain a fertilizer with the highest possible content of humic acids, by creating perfect and controlled conditions for the rapid development of indigenous thermophilic microorganisms and by combining it with the owned bio-acceleration technology. For perfect conditions (temperature, humidity, oxygen, pH) for the controlled growth of microorganisms, an algorithm of the dependence of the box operation parameters on the course of the biological process, was built. The product obtained after composting is an easily digestible complex organic fertilizer of brown-black colour, pH 7.5-8.0 and NPK 5:3:4 and a high content of native humic acids. Its use increases the growth of green mass of plants and improves soil fertility, which has been proved by the conducted pot research.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-15T00:00:00.000+00:00The Effect of Adjuvant Concentration on Changes of Spray Characteristics and Spraying Parameters for Selected Types of Nozzleshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/agriceng-2022-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents the results of the research on the influence of the adjuvant concentration on the size of the drops produced by the spray nozzles of agricultural sprayers. For the tests, adjuvant Normaton with the composition of total nitrogen, amide nitrogen (N-NH<sub>2</sub>) and phosphorus pentoxide (P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>) was used. The adjuvant was added to the water taken from the municipal water supply system of the city of Lublin. The tests were carried out for three concentrations, i.e. 75%, 100%, and 125% of the adjuvant concentration recommended by the manufacturer, and water without the adjuvant. The surface tension of water with adjuvant was examined for each nozzle. Then, the size of the obtained droplets was measured for each adjuvant concentration. Two types of nozzles were used for spraying, standard nozzle AP 120-03 and 6MSC injector nozzle, both with the same nozzle flow rate, but with a different design. The size of the droplets produced was measured on a HELOSVARIO laser diffractometer by Sympatec. The droplet measurement was performed at a pressure of 3 bar. The nozzle was placed 50 cm above the diffractometer laser light line. The droplet size was measured in three places of the sprayed liquid, i.e. in the position of the nozzle axis, 30 and 60 cm from the nozzle axis. It was shown that the addition of the adjuvant influenced the number of droplets produced in the indicated droplet size classes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-15T00:00:00.000+00:00A Novel Approach to Teaching a General Education Course on Astrobiologyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/gsr-2022-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>It is often a challenge to arouse much interest, motivation, and engagement in physical science courses among non-STEM majors. We attempt to address this difficulty and at the same time strive to achieve high levels of student learning by choosing a novel as the main text of the course. We created a context-rich course on astrobiology—the science of life in the universe—that uses Carl Sagan's <italic>Contact</italic> as the main text. We were able to teach the entire subject matter of a conventional course without omitting any topic. A typical class session included discussion of the science content of one chapter of Contact after students are assigned to read it and answer questions before the lecture. We assessed our approach with pretests and posttests that measure students’ knowledge of the key content areas, as well as students’ perceptions. We then calculate the students’ normalized gains, the effect size, and perform hypothesis testing. Our results show that this approach can result in substantial learning gains for students and at the same time improve students’ self-assessment and perceptions of science while not compromising the absolute learning gains.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Investigation of defective reinforced concrete beams with obtained damage of compressed area of concretehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.27<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the building industry, it is a frequent cause of damage to elements at different stages: during transportation, operation, installation, etc. Since replacing an element is not always possible due to various circumstances, it entails significant financial losses, logistics, and others. For this reason, the expediency of studying the effect of damage on the bearing capacity of reinforced concrete elements is growing. This effect is dependent on its type and has significant variability. In the case of the combination of the defect and damage in reinforced concrete elements, the complexity of the research of this element increases significantly. In this article is discussed: a review of damaged reinforced concrete elements; researching the influence of the damage and additional factors on the element; developed testing methodology for bending reinforced concrete elements with damage to concrete in a compressed zone with insufficient reinforcement, when performing damage to the action of the load and during the action of the load, is presented; the influence on the deformability and bearing capacity of the variability of damage on the sample with insufficient reinforcement is reflected, taking into account the factor of change in the load at which the damage is performed; a comparison is made of the dependence of the change in the actual height of the compressed zone on the change in the load on the elements; implementation of conclusions on the result of the study.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Improvement and evaluation of the financial (accounting) services quality in the era of SARS-COV-2https://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.35<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The changes brought about by the spread of COVID-19 require from entrepreneurs a new approach to the way they manage their businesses. Accounting offices are also facing a major challenge these days. In addition to the constant changes in tax regulations and the implementation of many new provisions concerning anti-crisis shields, the way of customer service in accounting offices has also changed as they had to adapt to the new reality. The aim of this article is to present the importance of improving the quality of accounting services in the pandemic era. The first part of the paper includes the scope of services and theoretical aspects of customer service in accounting offices in the era of SARS-CoV-2 as well as the characteristics of the concept of quality. Subsequently, the results of an anonymous survey conducted among entrepreneurs who are clients of accounting offices are presented, which contributed to the formulation of conclusions on the significance of customer service quality in accounting offices. The article highlights the significant changes in the way tasks are performed in accounting firms and financial departments. Among the modern methods of providing accounting services, two have been selected which (according to the respondents) will significantly effect on the service providing quality (in particular by limiting personal contact of contractors).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00The use of combined quality management instruments to analyze the causes of non-conformities in the castings of the cover of the rail vehicle bearing housinghttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.36<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The most critical activities influencing the success of each company are continuous improvement of the quality of manufactured products and monitoring of the production process. Skillful use of available technologies and quality management tools allows for eliminating casting non-conformities and preventing their repetition in the future. The research aimed to analyze the types of defects occurring in castings, the location of their most frequent occurrence areas, and to identify the causes of defects in castings of bearing housings used in rail vehicles. The benefits of a combination of quality management tools for diagnosing material discontinuities in the analyzed castings are presented in this article.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00How car producers are driving toward sustainable supplier developmenthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.33<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Sustainable supplier development helps to improve mutually the supplier’s as well as the buying company sustainability performance. The producer could choose guidance, compliance or capacity building activities to develop its supplier or implement them all. This paper aims to present how the car producers practice sustainable supplier development taking into account different types of approaches and implementation tools. The authors applied content analysis to investigate approaches of six car producers from EU member states. The data was collected from the sustainability reports and complemented with the available information of the supplier sustainability requirements and the code of conduct of each car producer. The findings revealed that analysed car producers use similar approaches to develop their suppliers in the context of sustainability. All of them use mix of activities from all identified categories and collaborate within industry initiatives devoted to spread sustainability in supply chain.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Sustainable consumption among children and adolescentshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.32<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Young consumers (children and adolescents) play an increasingly important role in the functioning of the modern consumer market. Accordingly, it is becoming more important to promote sustainable, ecological consumption patterns among this group. The authors of the article analysed the results of a survey conducted on a group of 1326 children aged 9 to 15. The purpose was to diagnose the awareness and functioning patterns of consumption among the studied group of young consumers from the Polish market and to formulate a set of recommendations for the process of their ecological, economic and social education aimed at building sustainable consumption patterns. During the research process, an attempt was made to diagnose the ability to identify eleven selected, popular, pro-ecological graphic symbols placed on consumer products, aimed at assessing the skills of young consumers to identify products with better environmental parameters. The collected empirical data was analysed with the R-project program using the following methods: descriptive statistics, nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test and Pearson Chi-square test of independence. As a result of the use of the comparative analysis method, the results of research in individual age groups of young consumers were compared and interpreted. After the research, the authors concluded that the education system lacks actions to consolidate the acquired knowledge in the field of ecolabeling, which results in large disproportions in the recognition of eco-labels both in individual age groups and in relation to selected symbols. It is disturbing that only 12.2% of the interviewed learners indicated the eco-label as a decisive factor in purchasing a food product. The authors of the article believe that among the group of young consumers, actions should be taken to raise awareness of sustainable consumption, and this requires consistent and differentiated steps at all levels of their education.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Influence of Shot Peening on the Wear Behaviour of Medium Carbon Steelhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.29<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Influence of shot peening on the wear behaviour of medium carbon, C55 steel was experimentally verified. Experimental work included determination of the chemical composition, heat treatment, microstructure evaluation, mechanical properties measurement, shot peening treatment, the magnitude of the compressive residual stresses was evaluated, roughness profiles measurement and finally the friction tests. The results evidence the significant role played by the applied shot peening on wear behaviour of medium carbon steel. An important effect of surface roughness has been demonstrated. The coefficient of friction after shot peening compared to ground surface increased, 1.44 – 1.85 times.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Verification of the probability of elastomers degradation in natural environmentshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.34<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A wide range of elastomers allows to manufacture products that meet high demands of consumers. They are prepared from a mixture of several rubbers, rubber chemicals, additives and reinforcing materials (fibres), which allows you to obtain the desired properties of the products. The other components of rubber compounds are fillers, carbon blacks and plasticizers. Rubber chemicals supplement the mixture in small quantities of related products, which affect vulcanization and regulate their properties, so they have an irreplaceable role in the preparation of rubber products. The aim of experimental part is to assess the properties of the degradation environment on samples of rubber composites to change their properties. The result of the performed mechanical tests to evaluate and compare the obtained values of mechanical properties of rubber compounds and to predict the possibility of biological degradation of the tested material.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Experimental studies of the possibility of laser processing as a cleaner method of achieving a surface with good adhesionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.28<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In manufacturing processes many technological operations are designed, in which the adhesive properties of the treated surface are very important. These are processes related to application of any coating on the surface, such as gluing, painting, varnishing and others. Durability of coatings depends on proper preparation of the surface to which they are going to be applied. Conventional methods, such as grinding, sandblasting with subsequent washing and degreasing, as well as galvanic treatment applied to e.g. aluminium alloys - require the use of not only specific equipment but also chemical substances. They often lead to a significant burden on the environment due to their harmful properties. In an experimental study, attention was drawn to the significant environmental aspects of such a technological process and work was carried out to demonstrate whether it is possible to eliminate toxic and hazardous substances and to create good adhesion conditions by laser processing. To this purpose, samples were made out of two representative materials: X6Cr17 steel and AW-2024 aluminium alloy, abrasive surface treatment or in a galvanic bath and then washed, degreased and dried. Laser surface treatment without the use of additional chemicals was proposed as an environmentally cleaner technology. Surface roughness and adhesion of the test polymer coating were measured for comparative evaluation of the applied treatment methods. Obtained results were discussed in terms of the possibility of eliminating harmful influences and implementing laser treatment as a cleaner technology in the production of components requiring coating.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00E-commerce and last mile delivery technologies in the European countrieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.26<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Society, companies and institutions are involved in a digital transformation that can be pervaded in various industries or sectors, and this also applies to communication, sales and distribution channels. The possibilities of e-commerce have also increased and world trade has been further developed. In 2020, more than two billion people bought goods or services over the Internet. Customer satisfaction depends on the solution of the last mile process, the method of picking up shipments as well as the time and place of picking up the shipment. The most common forms of off-premises delivery are automated parcel locker or machine (APM) and pick-up and drop-off delivery (PUDO). The aim of the paper is to analyse the level of the PUDO and APM network in European countries and in the V4 countries with regard to the size of the country and the population. For this purpose, it was necessary to focus on determining the population per 1 PUDO and the number of inhabitants per 1 APM in individual European countries and subsequently in the V4 countries. The obtained data were processed and recalculated in Excel. The results showed that within European countries the best values were achieved by Finland with 526 inhabitants per 1 PUDO and Spain with 188 inhabitants per 1 APM. Regarding the V4 countries, the Czech Republic achieved the best value in the case of inhabitants on PUDO with 729 inhabitants per 1 PUDO and in the case of APM Poland with 3,184 inhabitants per 1 APM.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of the maturity of process monitoring in manufacturing companieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.30<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The economic progress of recent years has contributed to the fact that both the quality of products and services offered and ISO standardization have become priority criterion that determines the success of manufacturing enterprises. Therefore, the monitoring and supervision of processes carried out in manufacturing companies is a key issue. These aspects support the achievement of key economic and quality objectives. The paper presents the results of a study on manufacturing enterprises in the context of process monitoring maturity. The research objective of the study was to determine the level of maturity in the use of process monitoring techniques and methods in manufacturing enterprises. The subject of the research were the techniques and methods used by the surveyed enterprises in such areas as: production management, machinery park management, warehouse management, transport management, inventory and supply management and IT tools. In order to determine the level of maturity, the author’s model was used, according to which the level of maturity of a manufacturing enterprise in the area of process monitoring depends on the instrumentation that is used in it.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Pro-ecological possibilities of using metallurgical waste in the production of aggregateshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.31<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Waste management is a very important issue for the sustainable development of the modern world. The metallurgical industry is an industry that has been generating and still generates large amounts of waste that may have a negative impact on the natural environment and human health. Metallurgical waste comes from current production and is collected in landfills/heaps. Any research enabling the management of waste, including metallurgical waste, is justified. This study presents the results of research on waste that can be used in the production of aggregates – research related to natural radioactivity and the introduction of hazardous substances into water or soil. The study highlights the diversified chemical composition of metallurgical waste, which requires detailed research of the waste before it is directed to the production of aggregates. Aggregate, as a building material, is subject to specific legal (normative) regulations. Metallurgical waste that meets the requirements for the protection of the natural environment and human health should be used for the production of building materials - it is an environmentally friendly activity that implements the principles of sustainable development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Employee perception of CSR and its effects on the company’s imagehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.25<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Understanding and promoting the CSR is an important societal issue, and circumstances force modern-minded management to abandon the classical model of only the necessary fulfilment of legally set obligations. There has been a lot of study done on employee perceptions of CSR in the workplace, but very little has been done on how employees comprehend CSR and how they received it at their work-place in chosen countries. Research was carried out based on a questionnaire survey with data collection from September 2020 to March 2021, with a total of 1103 respondents. The aim of the article is to describe the CSR concept among employees meaning in selected countries: Zimbwabwe, Czech Republic, Poland. The measuring instrument used in the study was the questionnaire method, in which the research tool is a questionnaire CAWI - Computer Assisted Web Interview. It was shown that enterprises apply CSR activities, but they are not fully aware of the CSR benefits.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Selection Method of Flow Modifier Polymers for Chemical Enhanced Oil Recoveryhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.33924/amt-2022-01-04<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Chemically enhanced oil recovery methods can provide a solution to increase oil recovery. Of these, surfactant- polymer flooding is common. Efficient selection of polymers and surfactants is essential for a successful EOR project. Detailed selection of polymers is a lengthy task that involves a number of studies. Our goal is to create a fast polymer selection method based on which the most promising polymer can be selected.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-20T00:00:00.000+00:00High Heat Input Welding of NSSC 2120 Type Lean Duplex Steelhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.33924/amt-2022-01-08<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Duplex stainless steels offer a high strength alternative to stainless steel, while providing excellent corrosion resistance, due to their dual-phase microstructure. This microstructure can be significantly influenced during welding, thus the maximum recommended heat input is usually 2.5 kJ/mm. In this research, we inspected the high heat input (3 kJ/mm) weldability of NSSC 2120 lean duplex stainless steel, which is designed and developed specifically for this purpose. The welds were evaluated by metallographic techniques and corrosion tests. It was found the NSSC 2120 grade can be welded with high heat input without deterioration in the phase balance and microstructure.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Investigation of the Application of Coagulants in Case of Domestic Greywater Fractionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.33924/amt-2022-01-06<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>During our research work, we examined the removal of contaminants from synthetically produced bathing waters using different coagulants and studied the efficiency and the mechanism of coagulation-flocculation processes in detail. In our work, we performed experiments with two different types of coagulants (iron(III) chloride and polyelectrolyte) and compared their efficiencies. The zeta potential and its change were monitored as a qualifying parameter while other water quality parameters were also analyzed. In our experiments, a newly acquired flocculator device was also used to study the coagulation-flocculation processes of larger volume samples. The main goal of our research is to promote the sustainable management of drinking water quality and to study the bathing water reuse possibilities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Reinforced Matrix Syntactic Foams Filled with Ceramic Hollow Sphereshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.33924/amt-2022-01-05<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Metal matrix syntactic foams are cellular materials in which the matrix is metal and within that matrix are non-metallic cells formed by filler material. These materials have low density, and besides that, they have high compressive strength and energy absorption. The main goal was to improve these properties by reinforcing the matrix with ceramic grains. During the experiment, molten A356 aluminium (7Si-0,3Mg) was infiltrated between the mixture of the filler and the reinforcement material. The specimens were produced with low-pressure infiltration. Different reinforcement materials were used: aluminium-oxide with three different grain sizes and colour designations and one type of silicon carbide. After heat-treatment, standardised compression tests were executed on the specimens. The results were compared to the results of the non-reinforced samples.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Estimation of Dislocation Distribution at Mid Thickness for 1050 Alhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.33924/amt-2022-01-02<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The current study reports three different techniques to estimate the distribution of dislocation density at the mid thickness of 1050 Al alloy. It is well known that the strain distribution is inhomogeneous through the thickness of rolled materials, which affects the evolution of dislocation density during the process of deformation. In this study, the number of dislocations was calculated experimentally using indentation technique in 46.8% cold rolled 1050 Al sheet and the result was verified by two numerical methods.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-20T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1