rss_2.0Pharmacy FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Pharmacy Feed of mental disorders in nonspecific inflammatory bowel diseases: a primary or secondary problem in relation to the biological therapy used?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> Nonspecific inflammatory bowel diseases include Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (CU – colitis ulcerosa), which are chronic diseases characterized by periods of exacerbation and remission. Extraintestinal complications caused by the disease and the applied treatment, mainly steroid therapy, constitute a predisposition to infections and mental disorders such as depressive disorders with apathy, slowness of movement or agitation, and even manic syndromes.</p> <p><bold>Aim and method:</bold> The aim of this study was to review the literature on the occurrence of primary and secondary mental disorders in the course of inflammatory bowel diseases. The literature in the Google Scholar database was reviewed using the following keywords: colitis ulcerosa, Crohn disease, depression, mental disorders, inflammatory bowel disease. The time descriptors 2011-2021 were also used.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> The review of epidemiological studies shows that the most common mental disorders in nonspecific inflammatory bowel diseases are anxiety and depression disorders. The effect of steroid therapy on the development of mental disorders is equally significant. Most of the available empirical data relating to corticosteroids confirm the correlation between the drugs and depressive symptoms, and other psychiatric effects, including mania and psychosis.</p> <p><bold>Summary:</bold> As with most chronic diseases, the prevalence of anxiety and depression disorders is higher in nonspecific inflammatory bowel diseases than in the general population.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Association of (rs 1799732), (rs1800497), (rs28363170), (exon 3 - VNTR) gene polymorphisms in the context of relapses in therapy.<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> Disorders in the field of reward system neurotransmission are mentioned as one of the most important causes of addiction. Genetic variation is assigned a special role. The literature on the subject mentions primarily the genes of dopamine neurotransmission: <italic>DAT</italic> (dopamine transporter), <italic>DRD2</italic> (dopamine receptor D2), <italic>DRD4</italic> (dopamine receptor D4). However, so far there are few literature reports on these genes in the context of innovators in addiction therapy.</p> <p><bold>The aim:</bold> Analysis of the relationship between the variability of specific polymorphisms in the <italic>DRD2</italic> (rs1799732), <italic>ANKK1</italic> (rs1800497), <italic>DAT</italic> (rs28363170), <italic>DRD4</italic> (exon 3 - VNTR) genes with the occurrence of relapses in people addicted to psychoactive substances.</p> <p><bold>Material and methods:</bold> The research was carried out on a group of 301 people addicted to psychoactive substances staying in an addiction therapy center in Lubuskie and Zachodniopomorskie voivodships in Poland. The control group consisted of 301 people with no diagnosed addiction to psychoactive substances nor mental disorders. The study of polymorphisms <italic>DRD2</italic> (rs 1799732), <italic>ANKK1</italic> (rs1800497) was performed by real-time PCR method; whereas <italic>DAT</italic> (rs28363170), <italic>DRD4</italic> (exon 3 - VNTR) was genotyped by PCR and the amplified products were visualized using ethidium bromide stained gel electrophoresis (3% agarose) and UV photography.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> This study showed that in addicts genotype frequencies of the VNTR polymorphism in the third exon of human <italic>DRD4</italic> were as follow: S/L in 33.55%, S/S - 63.12% and L/L 3.32%; while in the control group S/L - 32.56%, S/S - 58.8 % and L/L - 8.6% (χ2 = 7.617, p = 0.022). Significant differences in the frequency of <italic>DRD2</italic> gene polymorphism rs1799732 were observed (frequency of alleles; χ2 = 5.48, p = 0.0192) and <italic>DRD4</italic> VNTR polymorphism (χ2 = 7.687, p = 0.021) between the addicted to psychoactive substances who have a one-time stay in an inpatient treatment center and the control group.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Controversies involving the use of SSRIs during pregnancy and the increased risk of having a child with autism spectrum disorders – a case report and literature review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> There is an ongoing debate as to whether the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) by pregnant women increases the risk of developing autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the offspring.</p> <p><bold>Aim:</bold> The aim of the study was to</p> <p>1) present, based on a case report, the potential factors that may affect the development of ASD in a child,</p> <p>2) review the literature on the risk of ASD in the case of using SSRIs by a pregnant woman.</p> <p><bold>Case report:</bold> The case report concerns a child of a 33-year-old patient, previously treated for an episode of depression at the age of 23. At the beginning of the 15th week of planned pregnancy, when she was 28 years old, sleep disturbances were observed. Over the next few weeks, she gradually developed a full-blown depressive syndrome which required the use of sertraline. The child was born through a natural delivery, a healthy boy, who was diagnosed with ASD at the age of 2.5 years, which was the trigger for the development of the third episode of depression in the patient.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> The results of the research indicate that SSRIs can penetrate the placental barrier, influencing the processes of serotoninergic transmission in the fetus, disrupting neurodevelopmental processes. On the other hand, a higher risk of ASD development in children of depressed mothers who do not use pharmacotherapy was confirmed, compared to the general population and in the case of the occurrence of depressive episodes in mother in the past and in relation to the male fetuses. The greater risk of ASD in children of mothers who take SSRIs may not only be associated with the medication itself but also with the presence of depression and the probable common genetic basis for both disorders. In each case, other risk factors for the development of ASD should also be taken into consideration, e.g. vitamin D3 deficiencies, unsaturated fatty acids, oxytocin levels, the presence of intestinal dysbiosis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Measurement of the dimensions of personality traits in patients addicted to psychoactive substances in context of relapses<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> Recurrent use of psychoactive substances, including alcohol, affects most patients. It is an expression of the chronicity of the disease process. Understanding the causes of this phenomenon is the key to searching for effective therapeutic strategies for this disease.</p> <p><bold>The aim:</bold> Analysis of individual dimensions of personality traits in patients in the context of relapses.</p> <p><bold>Material and method:</bold> The research was carried out on a group of 301 people addicted to psychoactive substances staying in an addiction therapy center in Lubuskie and Zachodniopomorskie voivodships in Poland. The subjects were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of addicts with reported one-time therapy. The second group consisted of addicts who received at least two treatments at an addiction therapy center. The personality dimension was measured using the NEO-FFI questionnaire and the STAI questionnaire.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The following percentages of neuroticism (NF NEUR) were marked in people addicted to psychoactive substances with a single stay in an inpatient treatment center: 8.55% with low intensity, 40.13% with moderate intensity and 51.32% with high intensity. On the other hand, in people addicted to psychoactive substances with multiple stays in an inpatient treatment center, the features of low-grade neuroticism were found to be 6.85%, 25.34% of moderate and 67.81% of high intensity (χ2 = 8.643, p = 0.013).</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> A higher score on the Nervousness Scale of the Neo FFI inventory has a significant impact on the course of addiction and the occurrence of relapses.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-01T00:00:00.000+00:00White space interpretation in Hermann Rorschach’s inkblot test: An analysis of two male examinees’ responses<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> There are numerous points of controversy over the psychological interpretation of the so-called S responses – namely, the interpretation of white space in the Rorschach test. The aim of my paper was to verify the position held by Charles P. Fonda, who claims that the meaning of S responses depends on the results of the test as a whole.</p> <p><bold>Materials and methods:</bold> I have presented the responses of two young men and coded them according to the Comprehensive System developed by John E. Exner. I chose this way of processing data as the most precise, relatively well formalized, and detailed one. The two examinees gave an almost identical number of responses in the whole test and a similar number of S responses, similarly distributed across the cards of the test.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> I assessed and compared the results of the two examinees in terms of the effectiveness of their cognitive processes, self-control ability, mental resources, social adjustment, and self-esteem. Finally, I looked closely at the contents of a few responses, as in my opinion they symbolically expressed the examinees’ basic problems.</p> <p><bold>Discussion:</bold> I tried to avoid describing the examinees’ psyche in nosological terms and to focus on presenting the way in which they experienced the world, as well as on how this experience affected their behavior.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> I found that in Examinee 1 criticism towards other people may stem from an excessively idealistic attitude to the world and from the ensuing disappointments. Good cognitive functioning, resistance to stress, positive self-esteem, and the socialized emotional sphere make this man’s S responses a sign of creative engagement in the problems encountered rather than a sign of maladjustment. In the case of Examinee 2, S responses can be understood as defiance and a generalized attitude of negativism, which play the role of defense against the excessively complicated, not fully comprehensible, and inhospitable world; these responses may, in their turn, contribute to the intensification of problems and to an increase in maladjustment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Integrating national and international research, and exploring country-specific factors contributing to work addiction; Commentary to “Workaholism – psychological and social determinants of work addiction” trauma and the prevalence of alcohol dependence in adulthood<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> The experience of trauma and stress in childhood and early adulthood can lead not only to immediate physical and psychological symptoms but also to long-term effects observed in later life.</p> <p><bold>Aim and method:</bold> The objective of the following study was to search for the correlation between the occurrence of childhood trauma and its long-term outcome, that is alcohol dependence, and to review studies concerning the presence of certain personality traits in patients with such trauma experience and prognostic factors for treatment. The literature in the Google Scholar database was reviewed using the following keywords: childhood abuse, childhood trauma, alcohol addiction and alcohol use disorder. The time descriptors 2015-2021 were also used.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> On the basis of the conducted studies, it has been found that the experience of extremely stressful situations at a young age is declared by a greater part of the examined patients with alcohol dependence syndrome. It was also noticed that the most significant and most frequently reported negative childhood experiences in patients with alcohol dependence syndrome are physical violence, parental separation or divorce, and mental illness of a family member. It was found that impulsivity, disorder, pessimism, fatigue and asthenia are some of the characteristics of this group of patients.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> It can be concluded that there is a significant correlation between the occurrence of traumatic events in childhood and the tendency to develop alcohol addiction in adulthood.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-01T00:00:00.000+00:00White space interpretation in Hermann Rorschach’s inkblot test<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> The interpretation of white space in the Rorschach test has not been clearly defined. The aim of my research was to analyze the psychological meanings that can be associated with using space in Rorschach test responses. I examined a sample of healthy individuals in order to establish the basic meanings that could serve as points of reference when interpreting ill people’s responses.</p> <p><bold>Material and method:</bold> I personally examined 158 healthy subjects with the Rorschach test. The examination procedure and the way of coding and interpreting responses were based on John Exner’s Comprehensive System. I divided the sample into three groups: I (no <italic>S</italic> responses), II (one or two <italic>S</italic> responses), and I II (three or more <italic>S</italic> responses). Next, I distinguished subgroup V (four or more <italic>S</italic> responses). I analyzed the differences between the groups in terms of other variables obtained in the examination using the Rorschach test. These variables were associated with using the complexity of the presented stimuli and with organizing the stimulus field; they were also associated with the emotional sphere, social adjustment, and ways of coping with stress.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> Group III differed from groups II and I in terms of nine variables, and differences regarding further four variables approached significance. Differences between group V and the remaining examinees were more marked and concerned 14 variables.</p> <p><bold>Discussion:</bold> Examinees with more <italic>S</italic> responses were better at using the complexity of stimuli and organizing the stimulus field. A certain characteristic feature of their emotional sphere also manifested itself: these people experienced situational stress more strongly, colored their responses with aggression, and more frequently experienced loneliness and alienation; intellectualization turned out to be their typical defense mechanism.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> Based on the collected material, it can be concluded that responses are related to examinees’ creative potential. Collected from healthy individuals, the material may facilitate the interpretation of ill people’s responses, especially as such research has not been conducted in a Polish population before.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Influence of chromium (III), cobalt (II) and their mixtures on cell metabolic activity<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Chromium (III) and cobalt (II) are necessary elements required for the proper functioning of the organism, but their excess can cause toxic effects. They are the basic components of implants and are also commonly used in medicine as components of dietary supplements, vitamin and mineral products and energy drinks. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cobalt (II) and chromium (III) and their combination on BJ cells. In the study, BJ cells were exposed to CoCl<sub>2</sub> or CrCl<sub>3</sub> at concentrations ranging from 100 to 1400 µM, and the cytotoxicity of chromium (III) and cobalt (II) and their mixtures was assessed by MTT reduction, LDH release and NRU assays. The outcome of this work reveals the cytotoxic effects of chromium (III) and cobalt (II) and their mixtures on BJ cells. In the cytotoxicity assays, at low concentrations of CoCl<sub>2</sub> and CrCl<sub>3</sub>, stimulation of cell proliferation was observed. In higher concentrations, the cell viability decreased for the tested line in all the assays. During the simultaneous incubation of fibroblasts with 200 µM of CrCl<sub>3</sub> and 1000 µM of CoCl<sub>2</sub>, antagonism was observed: chromium (III) at the concentration of 200 µM induced protection from cobalt (II) toxicity; in the case of interaction of chromium chloride at 1000 µm and cobalt chloride at 200 µM, the protective effect of CrCl<sub>3</sub> on CoCl<sub>2</sub> was not observed. In the latter case, synergism between these elements was noted. Our work indicates that cobalt (II) and chromium (III) show cytotoxic properties. These metals have a destructive effect on the cell membrane, lysosomes and mitochondria, which leads to disorders of cell metabolism.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Studies on perchlorate levels in powdered infant formulas available on the Polish market<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Perchlorate has been acknowledged as a health threat due to its ability to interfere with iodine uptake by the thyroid gland. Infants and developing newborns have been considered as the most vulnerable groups to the perchlorate toxicity. A crucial source of perchlorate ingestion are powdered infant formulas. This study was designed to measure perchlorate content in thirty-one powdered infant formulas available on the Polish market. A rapid and sensitive ion chromatography method – conductivity cell detection – was applied to determine <inline-formula> <alternatives> <inline-graphic xmlns:xlink="" xlink:href="graphic/j_cm-2021-0024_ineq_001.png"/> <mml:math xmlns:mml="" display="inline"><mml:mrow><mml:msubsup><mml:mrow><mml:mtext>ClO</mml:mtext></mml:mrow><mml:mn>4</mml:mn><mml:mo>−</mml:mo></mml:msubsup></mml:mrow></mml:math> <tex-math>{\rm{ClO}}_4^ - </tex-math> </alternatives> </inline-formula> content. Limit of detection (0.150 µg/L) and limit of quantification (0.450 µg/L) were assessed. Collected samples were classified by the age of consumers: first stage, until the baby is six months old and follow-on formula for older children. Geometric mean of perchlorate concentration of 1.041 µg/L and 0.857 µg/L in the groups of the first stage and follow-on formulas were calculated, respectively. A health risk assessment revealed that the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for perchlorate (0.3 µg/kg body weight/day) was exceeded only in a few milk samples. The findings suggest that perchlorate contamination of powdered infant formulas may not to be an immediate health issue, yet testing for <inline-formula> <alternatives> <inline-graphic xmlns:xlink="" xlink:href="graphic/j_cm-2021-0024_ineq_001.png"/> <mml:math xmlns:mml="" display="inline"><mml:mrow><mml:msubsup><mml:mrow><mml:mtext>ClO</mml:mtext></mml:mrow><mml:mn>4</mml:mn><mml:mo>−</mml:mo></mml:msubsup></mml:mrow></mml:math> <tex-math>{\rm{ClO}}_4^ - </tex-math> </alternatives> </inline-formula> should continuously be conducted. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study concerning perchlorate content in infant formulas in Poland.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Methods of isolation and bioactivity of alkaloids obtained from selected species belonging to the Amaryllidaceae and Lycopodiaceae families<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Alkaloids obtained from plants belonging to the Amaryllidaceae and Lycopodiaceae families are of great interest due to their numerous properties. They play a very important role mainly due to their strong antioxidant, anxiolytic and anticholinesterase activities. The bioactive compounds obtained from these two families, especially galanthamine and huperzine A, have found application in the treatment of the common and incurable dementia-like Alzheimer’s disease. Thanks to this discovery, there has been a breakthrough in its treatment by significantly improving the patient’s quality of life and slowing down disease symptoms – albeit with no chance of a complete cure. Therefore, a continuous search for new compounds with potent anti-AChE activity is needed in modern medicine. In obtaining new therapeutic bioactive phytochemicals from plant material, the isolation process and its efficiency are crucial. Many techniques are known for isolating bioactive compounds and determining their amounts in complex samples. The most commonly utilized methods are extraction using different variants of organic solvents allied with chromatographic and spectrometric techniques. Optimization of these methods and modification of their procedures potentially allows researchers to obtain the expected results. The aim of this paper is to present known techniques for the isolation of alkaloids, especially from three species Narcissus, Lycopodium and Huperzia that are a rich source of AChE inhibitors. In addition, innovative combinations of chromatographic and spectrometric methods and novel TLC-bioautography will be presented to enable researchers to better study the bioactivity of alkaloids.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Investigation of excipients influence on rheological behaviour of hydrogels with dimethindene maleate and dexpanthenol: conditions of controlled shear rate<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Every year, the number of cases of hypersensitivity to insect bites increases. Thus, particular attention needs to be paid to the treatment of insect allergy in children, as scratching the bites can complicate the healing process and lead to infection. Therefore, a topical issue for modern medicine and pharmacy is the development of a gel of combined anti-allergic, reparative and anti-inflammatory action for the treatment of local manifestations of allergic skin reactions. Rheological studies are one of the stages of pharmaceutical development of soft dosage forms. In this study, we perform rheological studies of hydrogels containing 0.1% dimethindene maleate and 3.0% dexpanthenol made on different carriers of dispersed structures: Carbopol™ Polymers carbomer Ultrez 10 NF, Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) of brand Metolose SR-90SH-100000SR, Ziboxan F200 xanthan gum. The rheological studies were undertaken using a rheometer in controlled shear rate mode CSR. Basic structural and mechanical indices of the dispersed systems were determined. These included: yield stress, structural viscosity, viscosity at infinite shear rate, the hysteresis loop area. Moreover, dynamic liquefaction coefficients have been calculated. Based on the rheological studies of hydrogels containing 0.1% dimethindene maleate and 3.0% dexpanthenol prepared with various carriers, the use of 1.8% and 2.0% HPMC hydrogels, 2.0% and 2.5% xanthan gum hydrogels, 0.5% and 0.75% carbomer gels is recommended for further biopharmaceutical studies. The application of one of these formulations as the final composition, provides adhesion and will not complicate the scaling-up of the process.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Susceptibility of clinical isolates to the selected azoles<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Candida</italic> spp. is the most prevalent cause of fungal infection worldwide, and their increasing resistance to anti-fungal agents, especially to azoles, has become problematic. The aim of this work was to establish the susceptibility to fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole of 50 clinical <italic>C. albicans</italic> isolates from hematooncological patients. This has been evaluated using the following parameters: MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration), MIC<sub>50</sub> (MIC required to inhibit the growth of 50% of organisms), as well as MIC<sub>90</sub> (MIC required to inhibit the growth of 90% of organisms). Susceptibility of the studied clinical isolates to all azoles was high, being 86% for itraconazole, 90% for fluconazole and posaconazole and 92% for voriconazole. The resistance rates ranged from 8% (voriconazole), to 12% (itraconazole). The emergence of azole-resistant yeast strains creates a necessity to determine and monitor the sensitivity of the isolated <italic>Candida</italic> spp., including <italic>C. albicans</italic>, especially in patients predisposed to life-threating fungal invasive disease.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00An educational review on Probiotics<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Probiotics are live microorganisms that appear to provide health benefits when swallowed or introduced to the body. They are present in dairy and other fermented foods, as well as in dietary supplements and cosmetics. While many people still believe bacteria and other microorganisms are harmful “germs”, many are beneficial. Certain bacteria aid in the digestion of food, destroy disease-causing cells and absorb vitamins. Some of the microorganisms found in probiotic products are similar to or identical to those found naturally in our bodies. This article provides sufficient data to support the use of probiotics in a variety of uncommon clinical diseases, including skin disorders, Parkinson's disease, psychiatric disorders, liver transplantation, diabetic foot and periodontal care.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Treatment modality, diabetic control and blood homeostasis in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Basra<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study is aimed at investigating the relationship between treatment modality, glycemic control and blood homeostasis as represented by prothrombin time (PT) and activated thromboplastin time (APTT) in T2DM patients. Sixty-four type 2 diabetic patients (40 males and 24 females) on metformin or insulin or both for not less than six months of ages between 20 and 75 years were selected during their visit to Diabetes Endocrine and Metabolism Centers in two General Hospitals in Basra. Socioeconomic characteristics and treatment plans were recorded. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profiles and hematological parameters measured in blood samples were taken. Lower mean HbA1c (p = 0.0383) was found in patients on metformin alone, higher percentage of hemoglobin was found in patients on insulin treatment, and higher levels of LDL (P = 0.0018) and HDL (P = 0.0241) in patients on metformin and insulin. Treatment manner had no effect on mean PT or APTT, however, there was a significant inverse correlation of PT with LDL (P = 0.0042), and a direct correlation of APTT with HbA1c (p = 0.0209) and an inverse correlation of APTT with platelets count (P = 0.0324) in patients on insulin treatment. In addition, there was a significant direct correlation of APTT with triglycerides (TG) (P = 0.0069) in patients on metformin treatment. In conclusion, lower mean of HbA1c was found only in patients receiving metformin drug alone, higher Hb percentage were found in patients treated with insulin alone, higher LDL and higher HDL levels were found in patients treated with both metformin and insulin for at least six months. Treatment manner had no effect on mean PT or APTT and further studies are needed to bring about understanding of diabetic control and blood homeostasis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of perinatal administration of flavonoid-rich extract from to feed-restricted rats, on offspring postnatal growth and reproductive development<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Developmental programming is a process where stimulus or insult acting during critical periods of growth and development might permanently alter tissue anatomy and physiology so as to produce adverse effects in adult life. Most forms of exposure include maternal nutrient deprivation, nutrient excess, exogenous glucocorticoid excess and endogenous glucocorticoid due to maternal stress. <italic>Hibiscus sabdariffa</italic> (<italic>Hs</italic>) are highly rich in phenolic compounds with marked physiological activities, the sweetened aqueous extract of Hs, commonly known as “Zobo’ in Nigeria, is consumed by humans including pregnant and lactating mothers. This study aimed at determining effects of perinatal administration of flavonoid-rich extract from Hs to feed-restricted rats, on offspring postnatal growth and reproductive development. Twenty-five pregnant female rats were used. Rats were randomly placed into five groups of five rats per group (one animal per cage): Group I (Normal control); Group II (feed-restricted control); Group III (5 mg/kg extract + 70% feed-restricted diet); Group IV (10 mg/kg extract + 70% feed-restricted diet); Group V (20 mg/kg extract + 70% feed-restricted diet). Dams were allowed to nurse only 8 pups. Pups were weaned to <italic>ad libitum</italic> feed and water and were observed daily for puberty onset. Weights, lengths and body mass index (BMI) of pups were measured at delivery, weaning and puberty onset. At onset of puberty in each of the rats, blood samples were collected for determination of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol and testosterone. Reproductive organs were excised and weighed for histology. The extract caused significant increase in postnatal weight, length and BMI of offspring at birth, weaning and puberty onset and significantly delayed puberty onset in both sexes. There was significant increase in absolute and relative weights of testes and ovaries with alterations in histology. This study has shown that maternal consumption of flavonoid-rich extract of <italic>Hs</italic> during pregnancy and lactation may accelerate offspring postnatal growth with delay in onset of puberty.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Neurological manifestation of cancer – paraneoplastic syndromes<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Neurological paraneoplastic syndromes (NPS) belong to a heterogeneous group of disorders affecting the nervous system. NPS occur as a result of immunological reaction to the tumor. As a result, the isolated syndrome is formed and manifests itself in many different ways, for example: limbic encephalitis, ataxia, dominant cerebellar degeneration, psychiatric disturbances, myasthenia gravis or diffuse encephalomyelitis. Detection of NPS is solely based on the presence of specific anti-neural antibodies. Although NPS had been previously considered unresponsive to therapy, some research has shown that there are effective therapies, including cancer- and immunotherapy targeted therapies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Histopathological nephrotoxic features of high oral doses of ubiquinone in rats<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Co-enzyme Q10 (Co-Q10) plays a key role in the cellular respiration for the production of ATP. The toxicity of quinones to the kidney appears to depend on variety of factors, including genetic polymorphisms and the individual’s comorbidites. The aim of the present study was to assess histologically the nephrotoxic effects of 6 weeks daily oral intake of Co-Q10 in experimental animals.</p> <p>Twenty-five Wistar rats weighing between 220-270 g were randomly divided into two groups: experimental “treated” and control “untreated” groups (n=15, n=10, respectively). The animals of the experimental group received 300 mg/kg daily dose of gelatinous capsules of Co-Q10 by oral gavage for six weeks. At the end of the study, all animals were sacrificed under general anesthesia and samples of the kidneys were excised for microscopic histopathological assessment of renal tissue using stain. The experimental group showed a range of mild to severe dilatation of Bowman’s space, with a mean corpuscular diameter of 294±38 µm that was significantly higher (p &lt;0.05) than that of the untreated control group 208±31 µm. Shrinkage to complete destruction of the glomeruli was observed in the experimental group only. The long-term use of high doses of Co-Q10 had revealed a selective nephrotoxicity towards podocytes. This might be a risk factor leading to renal proximal tubular necrosis in rats and the subsequent renal function deterioration.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Design, synthesis and molecular modeling study of substituted indoline-2-ones and spiro[indole-heterocycles] with potential activity against Gram-positive bacteria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Longstanding and firsthand infectious diseases are challenging community health threats. A new series of isatin derivatives bearing β-hydroxy ketone, chalcone, or spiro-heterocycle moiety, was synthesized in a good yield. Chemical structures of the synthesized compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic techniques and elemental analysis. Antibacterial activities of the compounds were then evaluated <italic>in vitro</italic> and by <italic>in silico</italic> modeling. The compounds were more active against Gram-positive bacteria, <italic>Staphylococcus aureus</italic> (<italic>MIC</italic> = 0.026–0.226 mmol L<sup>−1</sup>) and <italic>Bacillus subtilis</italic> (<italic>MIC</italic> = 0.348–1.723 mmol L–1) than against Gram-negative bacteria (<italic>MIC</italic> = 0.817–7.393 mmol L<sup>–1</sup>). Only 3-hydroxy-3-(2-(2,5-dimethylthiophen-3-yl)-2-oxoethyl)indolin-2-one (<bold>1b</bold>) was found as active as imipenem against <italic>S. aureus</italic> (<italic>MIC</italic> = 0.026 mmol L<sup>–1</sup>). <italic>In silico</italic> docking of the compounds in the binding sites of a homology modeled structure of <italic>S. aureus</italic> histidine kinase-Walk allowed us to shed light on the binding mode of these novel inhibitors. The highest antibacterial activity of <bold>1b</bold> is consistent with its highest docking score values against <italic>S. aureus</italic> histidine kinase.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Application of neurotoxin- and pesticide-induced animal models of Parkinson’s disease in the evaluation of new drug delivery systems<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neuro-degenerative disease after Alzheimer´s disease. It is characterized by motor symptoms such as akinesia, bradykinesia, tremor, rigidity, and postural abnormalities, due to the loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons and a decrease in the dopa-mine contents of the caudate-putamen structures. To this date, there is no cure for the disease and available treatments are aimed at controlling the symptoms. Therefore, there is an unmet need for new treatments for PD. In the past decades, animal models of PD have been proven to be valuable tools in elucidating the nature of the pathogenic processes involved in the disease, and in designing new pharmacological approaches. Here, we review the use of neurotoxin-induced and pesticide-induced animal models of PD, specifically those induced by rotenone, paraquat, maneb, MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) and 6-OHDA (6-hydroxydopamine), and their application in the development of new drug delivery systems for PD.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-30T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1