rss_2.0Pharmacy FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Pharmacy Feed of the Qualitative Composition and Quantitative Content of Parthenolide in the Feverfew (Tanacetum Parthenium) Herb Cultivated in Ukraine<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Feverfew is a well-known medicinal plant as a source of the sesquiterpene lactones, the main one is a parthenolide (about 85%). Owing to the parthenolide, feverfew herb has anti-inflammatory activity and it is widely used for prevention of migraine. The aim was to study the qualitative composition and quantitative content of the parthenolide in the samples of the feverfew herb cultivated in Ukraine and to study the influence of environmental factors on the accumulation of parthenolide.</p> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>The identification in the samples of the feverfew herb by the thin-layer chromatography method was carried out on silica gel 60 F254 plates, Merck. For the quantitative determination of the parthenolide, a high-performance liquid chromatography ProStar equipped with a diode-matrix detector, were used.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The chromatographic profile of the samples of the feverfew herb was studied using a TLC method. In the chromatograms of test solutions from all samples, the blue zones were detected at the level of parthenolide. The quantitative content of parthenolide ranged between 0.16% and 0.39%. The highest content was observed in the sample from the Central region of Ukraine. The data obtained indicate that the optimal conditions for parthenolide accumulation in feverfew herb are as follows: black soils, solar insolation not higher than 5.25 kWh/m<sup>2</sup>/day, average air temperature from +20°C to +25°C. All the calculated validation parameters of the parthenolide quantitative determination method meet the necessary acceptance criteria.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The study of the qualitative composition and quantitative content of parthenolide in the samples of feverfew herb cultivated in different regions of Ukraine has been conducted. According to the methodology of Eur.Ph. and SPhU, a parthenolide was identified in all the samples. HPLC method was used to determine the quantitative content of parthenolide in the samples studied. The optimal conditions for parthenolide accumulation in feverfew herb were established.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Synthesis, antimicrobial and antiradical activity of (3-alkoxymethyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propan-1-ones, intermediates of biologically active compounds and activity comparison with 3-(alkoxymethyl)-4-(alkylamino-2-hydroxypropoxyphenyl)alkanones type of beta blockers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A homologous series of (3-alkoxymethyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propan-1-ones was prepared by the reaction of (3-chloromethyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propan-1-ones with the corresponding alcohols (methanol – decan-1-ol, propan-2-ol, 2-methylpropan-1-ol, 3-methylbutan-1-ol, cyclopentanol, benzylalcohol) in the presence of sodium hydrogen carbonate. The composition of the synthesised compounds was elucidated by IR, UV and <sup>1</sup>H-NMR and <sup>13</sup>C-NMR spectra. Selected compounds were tested against human pathogens: gram-positive bacterium <italic>Staphylococcus aureus</italic> (CNCTC Mau 29/58), gram-negative bacterium <italic>Escherichia coli</italic> (CNCTC 377/79) and yeast <italic>Candida albicans</italic> (CCM 8186). Their antimicrobial activities were expressed as minimum inhibitory concentrations. Antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH and ABTS<sup>.+</sup> methods. It could be shown that both biological activities, antimicrobial and antioxidant, were lower in comparison with the (2<italic>RS</italic>)-bis [3-(4-acetyl-2-propoxymethyl)phenoxy-2-hydroxypropyl]isopropylammonium fumarate type of beta blockers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-11T00:00:00.000+00:00The Antioxidant Analysis of Selected Types of Climbing Plants with Therapeutic Effect<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Climbing plants with therapeutic effects are relatively little studied group of medicinal species. In the collection of climbing species planted in 2019 in the Botanical Garden of the Slovak University of Agriculture (SUA) in Nitra, we observed the growth and potential food, horticulture and healing use. For the antioxidant analysis, 7 species from 152 plants of 13 genera and 22 species were selected. The highest antiradical activity was recorded in the species <italic>Vigna sinensis</italic>, where reached average measured values achieved up to 73.79%. However, the related species <italic>Vigna unguiculata</italic> achieved only 26% of antioxidant activity. Of the fruits, the highest activity was <italic>Momordica charantia</italic> in immature state (73%). Other fruits showed very low antiradical activity</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Toxicity of primulic acid 1 against a daphnid species s.l.<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Primulic acid 1 is the main saponin present in <italic>Primula elatior</italic>. The present study describes the isolation of this amphiphilic compound from primula root. It was performed by ultrasonic maceration, reverse-phase column chromatography and crystallization. Investigations of its physicochemical property are represented by the determination of critical micelle concentration (cmc). The cmc value of the amphiphile was 9.4 × 10<sup>−5</sup> mol·dm<sup>−3</sup>. The evaluation of environmental toxicity was performed on a daphnid species <italic>Simpocephalus expinosus</italic> s.l., which was very sensitive to primulic acids 1. The results from acute immobilisation test show that the tested compound has half maximal effective concentration after 24 hours (EC<sub>50</sub>-24 h) equal to 6.9 mg·l<sup>−1</sup>. Saponin can be classified as a toxic compound for aquatic organisms.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Functionality evaluation of co-processed excipients as diluents in tablets manufactured by wet granulation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Diluents are essential components of a tablet formulation. The type of diluent used in a formulation influences the quality of tablets produced from that formulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tableting properties of co-processed excipients (C-PEs) incorporated as diluents in tablet formulation by wet granulation. Metronidazole tablets were prepared by wet granulation incorporating different diluents that were either single component excipients (SCEs) (lactose and microcrystalline cellulose) or C-PEs (Ludipress<sup>®</sup>, StarLac<sup>®</sup>, Prosolv<sup>®</sup> and AVICEL<sup>®</sup>HFE). The granules obtained for each formulation were evaluated for particle size analysis, flow properties and compression properties. Tablets weighing 500 mg were compressed from the metronidazole granules on a Single Station Tablet Press using a 12 mm punch and die tooling system. The tablets were kept for 24 h post-production, and the properties of weight uniformity, thickness, tensile strength, friability, disintegration time and dissolution profile evaluated subsequently. Results of granule properties showed that variations in parameters evaluated was as a result of differences in the type and composition of diluent used in formulation. Compactibility and tabletability profile of metronidazole granules revealed a better performance with granules processed with C-PE based diluents compared to SCE-based diluents. Tablets formulated with C-PEs as diluents were uniform in tablet weight, disintegrated faster and yielded a faster drug release compared to tablet formulations containing SCEs as diluent. This study reveals the performance advantage of C-PEs as diluents in tablets manufactured by wet granulation and highlights the importance of rational selection of excipients during tablet formulation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Preparation and evaluation of an oral mucoadhesive gel containing nystatin-loaded alginate microparticles<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Nystatin is an antifungal agent used for prophylaxis and treatment of candidiasis, especially oral mycosis. Efficacy of nystatin conventional dosage forms is limited by the short residence time and bitter taste of the drug. This research aims at designing an optimized formulation of oral mucoadhesive gel of nystatin-loaded alginate microparticles, which can be retained in the mouth. Sodium alginate solution containing nystatin was added to the solution of calcium chloride under stirring. Microparticles containing nystatin were incorporated into the Carbopol gel. Size, loading, and release profile and mucoadhesion were investigated. The most suitable microparticles with particle size of &lt; 250 μm were prepared with alginate concentration of 1%(w/v), calcium chloride of 1%(w/v), drug:polymer concentration 1%, and ratio of alginate solution:calcium chloride of 1:10. This formulation showed 49.1% drug loading and 98.2% encapsulation efficiency. Carbopol 934 gel provided optimal mucoadhesive properties. Release profile proved a burst release, which can be attributed to the surface associated drug, followed by a slower sustained release phase for all microparticles. The developed system with ability to adhere to the oral mucosa has great appeal for treatment of localized infections and can mask bitter taste of the drug and be retained in the mouth for long periods.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-11T00:00:00.000+00:00The potential impact of gene therapy on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) domains in haemophilia<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title><p>Haemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder characterised by spontaneous bleeding, often leading to impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Commonly used treatments include episodic and prophylactic treatment regimens. Gene therapies could soon become available, potentially creating a paradigm shift in patient management.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Aim</title><p>This paper proposes hypotheses about the potential impact of gene therapy on HRQoL domains in haemophilia, and how these impacts might differ compared with existing treatments.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title><p>An expert working group with 10 individuals experienced in haemophilia and HRQoL research was established to discuss potential impacts of gene therapy on HRQoL in general and for specific domains in haemophilia. As part of a one-day workshop, domains of three widely used patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments were explored: the Haemo-QoL-A, the Patient Reported Outcomes, Burden and Experiences (PROBE), and the Haemophilia Activities List (HAL).</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>The group expected a greater improvement in HRQoL from gene therapy compared with existing treatments for the following domains: physical/role functioning, worry, and consequences of bleeding (Haemo-QoL-A); haemophilia-related health and EQ-5D-5L (part of the PROBE); leg and arm function, and leisure activities (HAL). In contrast, the experts suggested that no change or potential deterioration might be observed for the emotional impact (HAL) and treatment concerns (Haemo-QoL-A) domains.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title><p>Current PRO instruments in haemophilia have limitations when applied in the context of gene therapy, and no single instrument fully captures the relevant HRQoL domains. However, the PROBE and Haemo-QoL-A were considered as the most suitable existing instruments. As haemophilia treatments evolve, further research should examine the potential effectiveness of existing PRO instruments as compared to the development of novel PRO measures.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Dental extraction in congenital factor Vll deficiency with inhibitor – a case report<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title><p>Hereditary factor VII (FVII) deficiency is a rare bleeding disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance, and FVII deficiency with an inhibitor is extremely rare. There is sparse information in the literature on the management of tooth extraction in patients with FVII deficiency and an inhibitor.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Case description</title><p>We report the case of a five-year-old child with FVII deficiency and an inhibitor who underwent dental extraction. The child had had multiple bleeding episodes including intracranial haemorrhage and had a history of severe allergic reaction to the infusion of recombinant FVII. The tooth was extracted using lignocaine gel and the antifibrinolytic agent oral tranexamic acid.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>The extraction of a deciduous tooth in a patient with FVII deficiency and an inhibitor was undertaken without bleeding complications. There are currently no guidelines regarding management of this type of case. Further studies and evidence are required so that management can be standardised.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The impact of heavy periods on women with a bleeding disorder<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title><p>Women with a bleeding disorder (WBD), including those diagnosed as a carrier, often have heavy periods associated with prolonged bleeding and pain. This survey sought to describe the impact of this substantial burden on daily living and the personal cost of managing heavy periods.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title><p>An online survey was promoted to women who identify as having a bleeding disorder via the social media of The Haemophilia Society in January and February 2020. The survey included 20 questions about personal data, symptoms and the practicalities of living with a bleeding disorder.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>A total of 181 responses were received, of which 151 were complete questionnaires. Of these, 58% of respondents were aged 18–45 and 136 identified as having a bleeding disorder, mostly haemophilia or von Willebrand disease. Thirteen (10%) had been diagnosed as a haemophilia carrier and a further four women were probable carriers. Prolonged or painful periods were reported by the majority of respondents; the median duration of bleeding was 7 days (range 2–42). Thirty-six per cent took time off work or study as a result and 42% reported a negative impact on social life. Eighteen women (13%) reported having to use a combination of sanitary protection products to manage their bleeding. Women diagnosed as a carrier reported morbidity comparable with that of women with a diagnosed bleeding disorder and reported greater use of combinations of sanitary protection.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>WBD experience a high prevalence of heavy bleeding and prolonged, painful periods despite using appropriate symptomatic treatment. The impact of heavy periods on women diagnosed as a being a carrier is comparable with that experienced by women with a diagnosed bleeding disorder, but as they are not always clinically recognised they may lack access to care and support.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Red Flag Study: An observational cross-sectional survey looking at bleeding in patients with a bleeding disorder who are lost to follow-up<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title><p>Regular follow-up visits and routine care is important for people with a mild bleeding disorder in terms of lowering their risk of complications from untreated bleeds and helping them maintain a healthy lifestyle. However, follow-up visits among this population can sometimes be missed for unclear reasons.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Aim</title><p>The present study aimed to question if lost-to-follow-up patients with a bleeding disorder experience unreported but important bleeding events that are not communicated to their haemophilia treatment centre (HTC) and if they could benefit from more frequent clinic visits.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title><p>A multicentre paper-based cross-sectional survey was sent to people diagnosed with an inherited blood disorder and lost to follow-up for two years or more. Those who met the eligibility criteria received the survey by mail and completed and returned it to their HTC between October 2015 and July 2016.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>Invitation packages were sent to 71 individuals; 14 questionnaires returned, with a survey response rate of 19.7%. Of the 14 returned surveys, only 11 participants were eligible who either responded completely or partially to the survey. Quality of life was reported as almost never or never a problem by all but one participant, who limited activities due to bleeding problems. Spontaneous nosebleeds were sometimes, often or always a problem for three participants; one female participant reported issues associated with heavy menstrual bleeding as often or almost always a problem.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>We concluded that although the mean annual bleeding self-reported events were relatively low, they cannot be underestimated when keeping in mind the limitations and challenges of accessing data among this population. Our study highlighted the importance of educating this group of patients on their bleeding disorder and engaging them in their own care and health status, which may result in improving their health-related quality of life and overall health outcomes.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The patient gene therapy journey: Findings from qualitative interviews with trial participants at one UK haemophilia centre<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title><p>Gene therapy for haemophilia is in late-stage clinical development and has the potential to become a therapeutic option in clinical practice.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Aims</title><p>To enhance the understanding of the perspectives of people with haemophilia around gene therapy, and to highlight their concerns about and motivations for having gene therapy.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Method</title><p>Structured, qualitative interviews were conducted and recorded with six people who had received an investigational gene therapy product. The recordings were transcribed and thematically analysed.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>Most of those interviewed were under the age of 40, and the mean time out from their gene therapy infusion was 10 months. Adverse events were the main concerns pre-infusion, and impact on quality of life was the main motivating factor for choosing to go ahead. Pre-infusion, the treating centre and the health care professionals working there were the main source of information regarding gene therapy; only two participants looked elsewhere for information to support their decision. None of the respondents expressed concerns about the infusion day itself, and all found the infusion to be simple or uneventful. Post-infusion, four found the frequency of follow-up appointments difficult, with time and travel the main issues.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>Although participants' perspectives on gene therapy were generally positive, there remains a need for education and support. Nurses will play an important role in the delivery of gene therapy for haemophilia, but all staff within the haemophilia treatment centre should be armed with the knowledge and confidence to answer questions about gene therapy.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-02T00:00:00.000+00:00A descriptive study of United States bleeding disorders camps<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title><p>Disease-specific camps present one means of helping children overcome the challenges associated with chronic conditions and improving clinical and psychosocial outcomes. For more than 50 years, bleeding disorders camps (BDCs) in the United States (US) have been promoting independence, self-care, and leadership skills in children with bleeding disorders, all while fostering camaraderie in a secure and safe environment. However, little is known about how BDCs are organised, administered, funded, staffed, or how staff are compensated.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Aim</title><p>This article aims to describe the attributes of BDCs that service the US bleeding disorders community, and to compare and contrast these attributes to identify gaps in the BDC system and areas for improvement.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title><p>The National Hemophilia Foundation (NHF), in collaboration with several members of its Nursing Working Group and Physical Therapy Working Group, developed a survey that was distributed to BDC administrators (CAs) and health care providers (HCPs).</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>A total of 101 HCPs and 20 CAs completed the survey. Findings indicated that BDCs are an informal extension of both the HTCs and NHF chapters, reaffirming that camps play a crucial role in the overall care of bleeding disorders. In general, diminishing financial resources threaten the existence of BDCs. Although there are BDC guidelines for formal staff training and specific interventions delivered to camp participants, adherence is variable. Other gaps included minimal self-infusion education follow-up with no documentation on effect or benefit of infusion education provided at camp.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>Addressing the gaps identified by this survey and documenting resultant data supporting the value of BDCs will facilitate their continued sustainability in light of increasingly limited funding.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Case report of nasal pseudotumor – a rare presentation in severe haemophilia A with high titre inhibitors<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Haemophilia patients with inhibitors suffer from increased morbidity and mortality due to the ineffectiveness of factor VIII replacement. Pseudotumors are rare but dangerous complications in these patients, and nasal pseudotumors are even rarer. Here, we present the case of a young child with severe haemophilia A with high titre inhibitors who developed a nasal pseudotumor. When immune tolerance therapy was not possible due to financial constraints, he was treated with FEIBA prophylaxis and rituximab. The pseudotumor was managed with surgical excision. We conclude that epistaxis in haemophiliacs can be due to an underlying nasal pseudotumor, and highlight the use of rituximab for the eradication of inhibitors.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-03T00:00:00.000+00:00 Pro-Glycative Effects of Resveratrol and Caffeic Acid<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Resveratrol and caffeic acid belong to plant polyphenols and are known for their antioxidant effects. The aim of our research was to study their impact on Maillard reaction. This one occurs when the reducing saccharides react with amino groups of biomolecules including proteins, alter their protein conformation and transform to the variety of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs exhibit browning and generate fluorescence. There exist expectations that this oxidative protein glycosylation could be prevented by antioxidants. In this study, we incubated bovine serum albumin (BSA) with glucose for 7 days at 37°C and measured characteristic fluorescence and UV absorbance of the formed AGEs. Surprisingly, resveratrol and caffeic acid enhanced transformation of BSA to glycation products, which was confirmed either when cupric Cu(II) or ferric Fe(III) ions in nanomolar concentration were added to the system as pro-oxidant agent.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-01-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Dual Loading Of Primaquine And Chloroquine Into Liposome<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Primaquine (PQ) has long been recognized as the only effective drug in the treatment of hepatic stage malaria. However, severe toxicity limits its therapeutical application. Combining PQ with chloroquine (CQ) has been reported as enhancing the former’s efficacy, while simultaneously reducing its toxicity. In this study, the optimal conditions for encapsulating PQ-CQ in liposome, including incubation time, temperature and drug to lipid ratio, were identified. Furthermore, the effect of the loading combination of these two drugs on liposomal characteristics and the drug released from liposome was evaluated. Liposome is composed of HSPC, cholesterol and DSPE-mPEG<sub>2000</sub> at a molar ratio of 55:40:5 and the drugs were loaded by means of the transmembrane pH gradient method. The particle size, ζ-potential and drug encapsulation efficiency were subsequently evaluated. The results showed that all liposome was produced with a similar particle size and ζ -potential. PQ and CQ could be optimally loaded into liposome by incubating the mixtures at 60°C for 20 minutes at a respective drug to lipid ratio of 1:3 for PQ and CQ. However, compared to single drug loading, dual-loading of PQ+CQ into liposome resulted in lower drug encapsulation and slower drug release. In conclusion, PQ and CQ can be jointly loaded into liposome with differing profiles of encapsulation and drug release.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-01-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Antidepressant effects of valproic acid in an animal model of depression<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Valproic acid, beside its anticonvulsant action, is widely used as a mood stabilizer in the therapy of bipolar disorder. The potential antidepressant action of valproic acid has not been sufficiently characterized so far. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antidepressant effect of valproic acid in an aldosterone model of depression. Subchronic treatment with valproic acid resulted in a reduction of the time spent in immobility in the forced swim test. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence on antidepressant effects of valproic acid using a classical behavioral approach for testing the efficacy of antidepressant drug in animal models.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-01-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Tannins, novel inhibitors of the volume regulation and the volume-sensitive anion channel<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying anion channel (VSOR) is a key component of volume regulation system critical for cell survival in non-isosmotic conditions. The aim of the present study was to test the effects of four tannin extracts with defined compositions on cell volume regulation and VSOR. Preparation I (98% of hydrolysable tannins isolated from leaves of sumac <italic>Rhus typhina L.</italic>) and Preparation II (100% of hydrolysable tannins isolated from leaves of broadleaf plantain <italic>Plantago major L</italic>) completely and irreversibly abolished swelling-activated VSOR currents in HCT116 cells. Both preparations profoundly suppressed the volume regulation in thymocytes with half-maximal effects of 40.9 μg/ml and 12.3 μg/ml, respectively. The inhibition was more efficient at lower concentrations but reverted at higher doses due to possible non-specific membrane-permeabilizing activity. Preparations III and IV (54,7% and 54.3% of hydrolysable tannins isolated, respectively, from roots and aboveground parts of Fergana spurge <italic>Euphorbia ferganensis B.Fedtch</italic>) inhibited VSOR activity in a partially reversible manner and suppressed the volume regulation with substantially higher half-maximal doses of 270 and 278 μg/ml, respectively, with no secondary reversion at higher doses. Hydrolysable tannins represent a novel class of VSOR channel inhibitors with the capacity to suppress the cell volume regulation machinery.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-01-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of L.<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Trees and shrubs of the genus <italic>Cordia</italic> are widely distributed in the warmer regions, including Indonesia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of the ethanolic extract of plant leaves in Wistar albino rats. The analgesic activity was evaluated using the hot plate method and acetic acid-induced writhing, and the anti-inflammatory activity was determined using carrageenan-induced paw oedema. The results showed that the <italic>Cordia sebestena</italic> ethanol extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) exhibited significant analgesic effects in a dose-dependent manner in the two pain models tested. The extract also exhibited significant anti-inflammatory effects in the carrageenan-induced inflammation test. The data obtained support the traditional folklore therapeutic claim about its analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Nonetheless, further scientific investigation is required to establish its analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties in other experimental models and clinical settings.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-01-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Chromatographic Profiles Analysis of Fruits of L. Genus by High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>It was known that hawthorn - <italic>Crataegus</italic> L. is a polymorphic genus. Two hawthorn species and their hybrids are included in the European Pharmacopoeia, twelve – in Ukrainian pharmacopoeia. Determination of chromatographic profiles of hawthorn fruits species native to Ukraine and other countries that are non-pharmacopoeial, but have sufficient plant raw material base, is essential for quality control of drugs.</p> <p><bold>Aim.</bold> To analyze and compare the chromatographic profiles of fruits of 23 <italic>Crataegus</italic> L. species on phenolic compounds, evaluated by means of high-performance thin-layer chromatography procedure (HPTLC), and determine the specific features of chromatographic fingerprints.</p> <p><bold>Materials and Methods.</bold> A total of 39 samples of fruits of 23 hawthorn species that are native to Europe, Asia and North America, such as <italic>Crataegus monogyna</italic>, <italic>C. laevigata/C. oxyacantha, C. leiomonogyna</italic>, <italic>C. curvisepala</italic>, <italic>C. pseudokyrtostyla</italic>, <italic>C. fallacina</italic>, <italic>C. subrotunda</italic>, <italic>C. ambigua</italic>, <italic>C. pentagyna</italic>, <italic>C. sanguinea</italic>, <italic>C. chlorosarca</italic>, <italic>C. almaatensis</italic>, <italic>C.pseudoheterophylla</italic> subsp. <italic>turkestanica</italic>, <italic>C. pinnatifida</italic>, <italic>C. pentagyna</italic> subsp. <italic>pseudomelanocarpa</italic>, <italic>C. punctata, C. pringlei, C. festiva</italic>, <italic>C. douglasii, C. holmesiana</italic>, <italic>C. submollis</italic>, <italic>C. flabellata</italic>, <italic>C. canadensis</italic> were investigated. The analysis has been done following the TLC method from European Pharmacopeia modified into HPTLC, using automated HPTLC herbal system (CAMAG, Switzerland).</p> <p><bold>The results</bold> have shown that chromatographic profiles of phenolic constituents of nine <italic>Crataegus</italic> L. species of Europe, both pharmacopoeial and non-pharmacopoeial, were quite similar, despite the significant morphological distinctions. The chromatographical profiles of three species of Asia were similar to the pharmacopoeial species; three other species looked different and had specific marker zones. In addition, eight <italic>Crataegus</italic> L. species of North America had specific markers helping for discriminative analysis from pharmacopoeial species.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion.</bold> The findings could help to identify the possible adulterations and prevent the falsification of finished products. The results will be taken into consideration during revision of the Ukrainian national pharmacopoeial monograph for hawthorn fruits.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-01-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Chronopharmacology of high blood pressure—a critical review of clinical evidence<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Physiological functions of cardiovascular system (CVS) are exhibiting circadian patterns regulated by complex system of endogenous factors. Preserving this rhythmicity is important for its normal function, whereas disturbing the synchronization with natural day–night cycle can increase the risk of cardiovascular damage. Cardiovascular pathophysiology also follows cyclic variation; time susceptibility and period with maximum risk associated with elevated blood pressure (BP) can be predicted. Given this rhythmic nature, significant changes in efficacy between morning and evening administration of the drug may occur; appropriate timing of pharmacological intervention in therapy of hypertension may affect the efficacy of the treatment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-01-28T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1