rss_2.0Social Sciences FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Social Sciences Sciences Feed Ecological Insight of the Rice Farming Tradition in Luwu Society, South Sulawesi, Indonesia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The ecological insights of local farming traditions have the potential to be adapted to modern agricultural practices. The article presents an exploration of the ecological insights of the <italic>bunga’ lalang</italic> rice farming tradition in the Luwu society, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Four rituals of the tradition were observed directly during their performance, followed by interviews with eleven figures including the ritual masters. Each ritual of the <italic>bunga’ lalang</italic> tradition was treated as a discourse and the meanings of the biological elements are extracted to generate ecological knowledge that is biologically logical and compatible with modern scientific knowledge in rice farming.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00The Sealed Grave and Burial Rituals in the Context of Revenants in Ukrainian Belief<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article* sets the goal of describing the Ukrainian ritual of the sealed grave and its relation to revenants, or the unquiet dead, based both on the author’s fieldwork and ethnographic collections of the turn of the 20th century. The meaning of the ritual and its variants are delineated through folk beliefs and institutionalised Orthodoxy and are defined as one of the main reasons for becoming revenants. Depending on a proper or failed funeral, the dead have different possibilities and time boundaries to visit the living. Together with biological reasons, the ritual of sealing a grave allows a seven-year period of return prior to the grave being finally sealed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Dajko, Nathalie and Shana Walton, eds. 2019. . Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi. Review. Till Death do us Part: American Ethnic Cemeteries as Borders Uncrossed by Poisoning: Cautionary Narratives and Inter-Ethnic Accusations in Contemporary Sikkim<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Sikkimese are a multi-ethnic community in a Himalayan sub-region in India. Even though the majority of the population is Hindu and Nepalese, the minority Buddhist and Bhutia/Lepcha communities are very strong. Death by poisoning is a common occurrence among the Sikkimese, and it is often ambiguous and subject to suspicion. Narrated initially as traditional cautionary tales, these belief narratives have been used against the multi-ethnic communities that reside in Sikkim, leading to real-world accusations. The article explores how belief in, and narratives related to, poison, poisoning, poison keepers and the poison deity are used to justify the demonisation and othering of a community.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00The Prince’s Wings: Possible Origin of the Tale Type and its Early Chinese Variants<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article* aims to clarify the relations between the early versions of tale type ATU 575. Examining the range of Chinese accounts concerning various wooden birds, the author concludes that two groups can be distinguished. The first consists of stories about flying wooden kite-like birds that are not used as vehicles, while in the second, we deal with wooden birds that can carry people. Records belonging to the second group and evidently having their origin in Indian and Central Asian folk tradition appear later in China. An attempt is made to restore possible outlines of the tale type’s ancestral stories. The article states that the tale of an enamoured weaver in the <italic>Panchatantra</italic> evolves from the structure of such an ancestral story.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00“ “: Ecopoetic Symbolisation in Pgaz K’nyau Oral Poetry<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article* presents the transcription, translation, and annotation of an original performance of <italic>hta</italic>, a traditional form of oral poetry in Sgaw, the language of the Pgaz K’Nyau (Karen) people of northern Thailand. This performance was recorded during ethnopoetic fieldwork carried out in two villages in the province of Chiang Rai.<sup>2</sup> The <italic>hta</italic> is then analysed to understand the operations of ecopoetic symbolisation that bring particular nonhumans into the domain of human language. This analysis reveals that a metaphorical mode of symbolisation is extensively used throughout the <italic>hta</italic> to overcome human/nonhuman allotopies by means of implicit or explicit semic transformations. This seems to indicate that a naturalistic mode of identification underlies the whole poem, a conclusion that calls into question the essentialising and mythifying portrayal of the Pgaz K’Nyau as pre-modern and animistic indigenous stewards.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Of Barrenness and Witchcraft: The Songs of the Legi Women’s Association<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Witchcraft and barrenness are two critical issues that African women have had to grapple with since precolonial times. Therefore, the focus of attention in this paper is the songs of the Legi voluntary association among the Ịjọ of Nigeria’s oil-rich Niger Delta region. The Legi women’s group is made up of adult women who are barren and/or have been tagged witches by their community. The women of the association compose songs about their experiences in society and sing them at burials. For the women of the Legi Association, art is a means of showing support for or solidarity with a member of the group whose father or mother has died. Moreover, the members of the association perform their songs at burials that are unconnected with them to celebrate with those who invite them.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00The Deaf Heritage Collective: Collaboration with Critical Intent<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper reflects upon the Deaf Heritage Collective, a collaborative project led by Edinburgh Napier University’s Design for Heritage team and Heriot Watt’s Centre for Translation And Interpreting Studies. The project aimed to advance discussion around the British Sign Language Act (Scottish Government 2015) and bring into being a network of Deaf communities and cultural heritage organisations committed to promoting BSL in public life. The aim of this paper is to contextualise the project and its creative approach within the distinctly Scottish context, and the ideals of critical heritage, critical design and the museum activist movement. This paper presents the context and creative processes by which we engaged participants in debate and the struggles we encountered. We describe these processes and the primacy of collaborative <italic>making</italic> as a mode of inquiry. We argue that by curating a workshop space where different types of knowledge were valorised and where participants were encouraged to “think with” materials (Rockwell and Mactavish 2004) we were able to challenge the balance of power between heritage professionals and members of the Deaf community. By harnessing the explanatory power of collaborative <italic>making</italic> we debated the assemblages of epistemic inequality, and the imagined futures of Deaf heritage in Scotland.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Editorial Impressions: Ethnography and Metaphors, Revolt and Adaptation: on Changing the Mayamara Tradition<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Assam is a land of complex history and folklore situated in North East India where religious beliefs, both institutional and vernacular, are part and parcel of lived folk cultures. Amid the domination and growth of Goddess worshiping cults (<italic>sakta</italic>) in Assam, the <italic>sattra</italic> unit of religious and socio-cultural institutions came into being as a result of the neo-Vaishnava movement led by Sankaradeva (1449–1568) and his chief disciple Madhavadeva (1489–1596). Kalasamhati is one among the four basic religious sects of the <italic>sattra</italic>s, spread mainly among the subdued communities in Assam. Mayamara could be considered a subsect under Kalasamhati. Aniruddhadeva (1553–1626) preached the Mayamara doctrine among his devotees on the north bank of the Brahmaputra river. Later his inclusive religious behaviour and magical skill influenced many locals to convert to the Mayamara faith. Ritualistic features are a very significant part of Mayamara devotee’s lives. Among the locals there are some narrative variations and disputes about stories and terminologies of the tradition. Adaptations of religious elements in their faith from Indigenous sources have led to the question of their recognition in the mainstream neo-Vaishnava order. In the context of Mayamara tradition, the connection between folklore and history is very much intertwined. Therefore, this paper focuses on marginalisation, revolt in the community and narrative interpretation on the basis of folkloristic and historical groundings. The discussion will reflect upon the beliefs, ritualistic aspects, and myths of the tradition. Fieldwork materials will be employed to discuss the tension between local practices and mainstream neo-Vaishnava influence.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Notes and Reviews: Disarmed by Drama Methodology systems for corpus linguists Claridge and Birte Bös (eds.). (Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 346). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Publishing Company, 2019. vi. 312 pp. ISBN: 9789027203236(HB). keywords in World Englishes: A GloWbE-based study Corpus-based classification and frequency distribution written Indian Englishes with the new (CORINNE)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article introduces the new <italic>Corpus of Regional Indian Newspaper Englishes</italic> (CORINNE). The current version of CORINNE contains news and other text types from regional Indian newspapers published between 2015 and 2020, covering 13 states and regions so far. The corpus complements previous corpora, such as the Indian component of the <italic>International Corpus of English</italic> (ICE) as well as the Indian section of the <italic>South Asian Varieties of English</italic> (SAVE) corpus, by giving researchers the opportunity to analyse and compare regional (written) Englishes in India.</p> <p>In the first sections of the paper we discuss the rationale for creating CORINNE as well as the development of the corpus. We stress the potential of CORINNE and go into detail about selection criteria for the inclusion of newspapers as well as corpus compilation and the current word count. In order to show the potential of the corpus, the paper presents a case study of ‘intrusive <italic>as’</italic>, a syntactic feature that has made its way into formal registers of Indian English. Based on two subcorpora covering newspapers from Tamil Nadu and Uttarakhand, we compare frequencies and usage patterns of <italic>call (as)</italic> and <italic>term (as)</italic>. The case study lends further weight to the hypothesis that the presence or absence of a quotative in the majority language spoken in an Indian state has an impact on the frequency of ‘intrusive <italic>as</italic>’. Finally, we foreshadow the next steps in the development of CORINNE as well as potential studies that can be carried out using the corpus.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Better data for more researchers – using the audio features of BNCweb<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In spite of the wide agreement among linguists as to the significance of spoken language data, actual speech data have not formed the basis of empirical work on English as much as one would think. The present paper is intended to contribute to changing this situation, on a theoretical and on a practical level. On a theoretical level, we discuss different research traditions within (English) linguistics. Whereas speech data have become increasingly important in various linguistic disciplines, major corpora of English developed within the corpus-linguistic community, carefully sampled to be representative of language usage, are usually restricted to orthographic transcriptions of spoken language. As a result, phonological phenomena have remained conspicuously understudied within traditional corpus linguistics. At the same time, work with current speech corpora often requires a considerable level of specialist knowledge and tailor-made solutions. On a practical level, we present a new feature of BNCweb (Hoffmann et al. 2008), a user-friendly interface to the British National Corpus, which gives users access to audio and phonemic transcriptions of more than five million words of spontaneous speech. With the help of a pilot study on the variability of intrusive r we illustrate the scope of the new possibilities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Sandra Götz and Joybrato Mukherjee (eds.). (Studies in Corpus Linguistics 92). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 2019. iv+267 pp. ISBN 978 90 272 0236 9. the corpus-based study of Shakespeare’s language: Enhancing a corpus of the First Folio<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article explores challenges in the corpus linguistic analysis of Shakespeare’s language, and Early Modern English more generally, with particular focus on elaborating possible solutions and the benefits they bring. An account of work that took place within the <italic>Encyclopedia of Shakespeare’s Language</italic> Project (2016–2019) is given, which discusses the development of the project’s data resources, specifically, the <italic>Enhanced Shakespearean Corpus.</italic> Topics covered include the composition of the corpus and its subcomponents; the structure of the XML markup; the design of the extensive character metadata; and the word-level corpus annotation, including spelling regularisation, part-of-speech tagging, lemmatisation and semantic tagging. The challenges that arise from each of these undertakings are not exclusive to a corpus-based treatment of Shakespeare’s plays but it is in the context of Shakespeare’s language that they are so severe as to seem almost insurmountable. The solutions developed for the <italic>Enhanced Shakespearean Corpus</italic> – often combining automated manipulation with manual interventions, and always principled – offer a way through.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1