rss_2.0Sports and Recreation FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Sports and Recreationhttps://www.sciendo.com/subject/SRhttps://www.sciendo.comSports and Recreation Feedhttps://www.sciendo.com/subjectImages/Sports_&_Recreation.jpg700700Perceptions of coaching success: an exploratory analysis of Czech coaches views on successhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2021-0014<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>A philosophical framework for success in coaching is established, upon which the results of 571 coaches’ views of success in coaching is consequently evaluated. The coaches are Czech nationals from seven sports, who coach all age groups from U8 to adult professional teams, with length of experience ranging from 1 to 26 years (mean 7.1). Success definitions were coded and categorized before being analyzed across sport, age group coached, experience and licensing level. Hal-lowell’s success cycle is used as a standard of evaluation. Results were also assessed in terms of modern coaching philosophies. Overall, it was shown that the most common definition of success by coaches fell into the Sport Growth domain (31.7%), by which they primarily meant Player Development (20.6% of these coaches). The second most common domain for defining success was Performance (28.2%), primarily defined in terms of Winning (15.5%). Emotional Growth (21.1%) and Personal Growth (7.6%), though emphasized in modern coaching philosophies, were largely undervalued by Czech coaches. Enjoyment, a key element of success from Aristotle to Seligman, and essential to Hallowell’s success cycle was evident in only a small number (5.6%) of the success definitions of coaches.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00A needs assessment study on refugees’ inclusion through physical education and sport. Are we ready for this challenge?https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2021-0016<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In recent years, European countries have become hosting destinations for thousands of people who have been forced to leave their home countries. Greece is one of the main European hosting countries of refugees, especially children. Thus, the pupil population is gradually changing and the need for intercultural education is increasing. Physical education (PE) and sports have been recorded as suitable contexts for this process. However, there are still many challenges present in these contexts. The following study attempts to present the perceptions of PE teachers, coaches, and academics on the inclusion of refugees in PE and sports. Fifteen PE teachers/coaches and academics involved in the field of intercultural education participated in the study. A phenomenological approach was followed through semi-structured interviews. The method of thematic analysis was chosen to analyze the data. While all the participants considered PE and sports to be the most suitable contexts for the inclusion of refugees, they emphasized certain barriers to be overcome: the lack of training for PE teachers and coaches, prejudices of the parents of both natives and refugees, and refugees’ socioeconomic status and gender issues. Participants also shared their ideas for an adequate training program to improve PE teachers’ and coaches’ attitudes and promote their knowledge and skills regarding the inclusion of refugees. The participants underlined the need for intercultural education and well-structured training programs to properly manage culturally diverse environments.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Learning to teach and play futsal using digital tablets: What knowledge do sports science students mobilize?https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2021-0017<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>There is little research on the knowledge mobilized by sports science students when they learn to play a sport by learning to teach it. This study focuses on the benefits of using digital tablets to foster this learning during a university teaching module in futsal with students in the second year of a sports science bachelor’s degree. We compare the knowledge mobilized by these students during self-confrontation interviews (based on video recordings of the sessions), game situations, reciprocal coaching and debates of ideas. We then identify the nature of this knowledge and the strategies for its mobilization in context using a framework mainly based on didactics in physical education (Amade-Escot, 2006; Armour, 2011) and on pedagogical content knowledge studies (Shulman, 1986). The students were divided into two experimental conditions following the same pedagogical curriculum. The students in condition 1 used digital tablets to film themselves, tag videos and discuss the recordings. The students in condition 2 did not use tablets. The interviews were conducted twice during the teaching module: first during period 1 (beginning of the module) and then during period 2 (end of the module). The results show that students in condition 1 were more likely to mobilize shared knowledge, make decisions through cooperation and even devolve the construction of tactical reasoning and knowledge by their peers following the didactic approach of the faculty teacher as early as period 1. This promoted access to the construction and meaning of teaching and learning content. These results are discussed in light of the current challenges within educational systems and of the joint development of interactional skills for learning to cooperate and even to teach.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00The effect of hopelessness on violence tendency: Turkish football fanshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2021-0015<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This study aimed to analyze the relationship between the hopelessness and violence tendency of football fans and to investigate the differences between these variables and various demographic variables. The research group was formed by 398 male volunteer football fans who watched the Elazigspor (Sports Toto 1<sup>st</sup> League) matches in the 2018-2019 season in Turkey. In addition to demographic variables in the study, the Violent Trend Scale and Beck Hopelessness Scale were used. The SPSS program was used to analyze the data. Independent sample t-test, one-way ANOVA, pearson correlation, and linear regression analysis were used in the analysis of the data. In the findings of the research, it was determined that there was a moderate positive relationship between the variable of hopelessness and the tendency toward violence. It was determined that there was a statistically significant difference in the tendency toward violence according to the variables of fans going to away games, the duration of watching matches at the stadium, and with whom fans watched the matches. As a result, as the level of fans’ hopelessness increased, it was observed that there was an increase in violent tendencies. In addition, those who went to watch away matches, those who watched matches at the stadium for a long period of time, and those who went to watch matches with friends were found to have high levels of violent tendencies.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Individual knowledge of, perceptions about, and barriers to physical literacy (PL) in Malaysiahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2021-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this study was to evaluate individuals’ knowledge of, perceptions about, and barriers to promoting physical literacy (PL) in Malaysia. Random samples of 360 participants of different genders, ages, races, and education levels (aged 15–60 years) residing in Malaysia participated in this study, which was conducted on online platforms between the months of February and May, 2019. The participants’ knowledge was assessed using a modified Physical Literacy Knowledge questionnaire (PLKQ). Open-ended questions were also conducted to assess perceived perceptions and barriers to improving participants’ PL, thus strengthening the validity and reliability of data collection. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (e.g., means, SD) and the Pearson correlation coefficient, while the analysis of qualitative data involved the usage of the Interpretive Phenomenological Approach (IPA). The participants showed greater efficacy about standards in physical education and believed that PL is developed throughout one’s lifetime, with (M = 3.2, SD = 1.02) and (M = 3.78, SD = 1.02), respectively. Additionally, most participants pointed to the necessity of having specific skills and experience to develop PL among young people as the main barrier to improving PL in Malaysia, with (M = 3.25, SD = 1.02). This initial study will provide better direction for future researchers and educators to plan an intervention to increase PL among Malaysians and advocate for physical activity in individuals’ daily lives. Additionally, this study will be useful to inform future educators’ teaching practices, particularly in Malaysian schools.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Sport as a tool for public diplomacy in Hungaryhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2021-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Sport is often utilized as a tool by governments and nation-states in building a favorable international image, seeking external political legitimacy, and strengthening nation-building endeavors across borders. Given its universal appeal, sport is often perceived as a valuable soft power asset for conveying positive messages to foreign publics. Against this backdrop, the present study aims to introduce the sports diplomacy approach of Hungary, specifically focusing on the state-led utilization of sport in public diplomacy under the recent government of Viktor Orbán (2010–2020). With the institutionalization of sport in public diplomacy, Hungary has become a pioneering country in Central and Eastern Europe that can provide an example for other nation-states in the region. The Hungarian government’s sports diplomacy ambitions have not been curbed by the COVID-19 pandemic, and the country continues to invest large amounts of public funding in attracting and organizing international sporting competitions. Hosting the Summer Olympic Games in Budapest remains the ultimate goal of the current government’s sports diplomacy strategy, which focuses on elite sport.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:00How football fans perceive sports heroes – The case of Israelhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2021-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Background: Hero-making and hero-worship are common in human society. Yet despite the universal appeal of heroes, the features attributed to these figures and the attitudes toward them change depending upon the circumstances. Heroes have been the topic of extensive discussion in the academic literature. Nevertheless, little research attention has been directed at sports heroes. Examining soccer heroes is of special importance, particularly in view of soccer’s popularity across the globe and the celebrity status of top soccer stars.</p> <p>Purpose: The objective of this paper is to examine and map the defining features of soccer heroes as subjectively perceived by their fans.</p> <p>Methods: We conducted a qualitative study that entailed semi-structured interviews with 18 young Israeli soccer fans as well as content analysis of fan chants.</p> <p>Results: The research findings indicate that fans attribute special importance to three main characteristics that are not perceived as dominant among heroes in other contexts: loyalty to team and family, modesty and morality, and the ability to influence their surroundings. Based on the findings, the paper discusses the unique nature of soccer heroes in contrast to other elite players and the role played by these heroes for their fans.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:00A case study: the AFL as a positive institutionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2021-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Australian Football League (AFL) is a leading professional sports organization within the multi-billion-dollar entertainment industry. This case study uses publicly available information to investigate the AFL in terms of its credentials as a positive institution using the good work model developed by Stansbury and Sonenshein (2012). The AFL has taken advantage of the economic rationalism and developed a corporate structure able to deliver a range of good work activities. For example, developmental programs that help players exceeding high community expectations. This study suggests that the good work model is beneficial for cognitive resources, normal functioning, regulatory focus, and impression formation. The AFL appears to answer Cameron et al. (2004) call to identify and enable flourishing and life-giving aspects of their organisation and, thus, represents a kind of positive institution. Finally, the study recognizes positive institutions as worthwhile but raises concerns about the uniqueness and lack of cultural research.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Multilateral teaching in physical education improves resilience and self-efficacy in adolescents and could help reduce bullying behaviorshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2021-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Youth with higher levels of resilience and self-efficacy are less likely to engage in aggressive behaviors or be victims of bullying. Previous anti-bullying approaches have often achieved no reduction in bullying behavior. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of 12 weeks of extracurricular multilateral teaching on the risk for students (aged 14–16 years) to be involved in bullying. Sixty male students were allocated to an experimental group (n = 30) that performed psychoeducational activities combined with physical exercise training and team games (90 min, 2d · week<sup>–1</sup>) or a control group (n = 30). Before and after the intervention, we used the Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM-28) to assess individual capacities and resources, relationship with primary caregiver, contextual factors, and total resilience; and the Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Children (SEQ-C) to measure academic, social, emotional, and total self-efficacy. Four participants from the experimental group withdrew. Significant improvements of crucial relevance were found for the resilience and self-efficacy scales (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) in the experimental group. We found that multilateral teaching may improve resilience and self-efficacy in adolescents and make them less likely to engage in aggressive behavior or be bullied. Multilateral teaching should be considered an effective alternative to the anti-bullying approach, highlighting the crucial role of physical education teachers in the promotion of proactive educational strategies to reduce bullying behaviors.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:00How sport and its values are perceived by adults in the USA and Ukraine: a cross-cultural comparisonhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2021-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>There are practically no cross-cultural studies in the field of physical education and sport with Ukrainian society as the object of research. However, there is a particular and obvious interest to research not only young people as a major strategic resource for any state, but also adults, including parents. The main purpose of the study is to identify common and different features of the attitude toward sport and its axiological component in the Ukrainian and American societies. A total of 500 adults aged 18-64 (196 men and 304 women) participated in the national survey, with the majority being Ukrainian school teachers. The results obtained from the study were compared with the results of a study conducted in the United States. It should be noted that in our study, we only selected questions from the American questionnaire that solely addressed adults’ perceptions of sport and its values. We did not choose other questions. Mathematical processing of the survey indicators was carried out using the computer program SPSS. The result of the research is a comparison of statements from adults of both countries regarding the actual and potential impact of social institutions on the youth; their statements about sport; values or principles that may or may not be important in sport; the extent of sport’s actual influence on the formation of values; the values adults hope their children will learn from participating in sport; and statements about the importance of values from adults who are actively involved in sport. The results of the cross-cultural study among adults in the USA and Ukraine indicate that there is both an identical idea of certain values in sport and a different vision due to, in our opinion, the divergence of cultural traditions and the status of sport in the countries.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:00How combined aerobic training and pomegranate juice intake affect lipid profile? A clinical trial in men with type 2 diabeteshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bhk-2021-0018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: This study aimed to investigate the effect of aerobic training (AT) and pomegranate juice intake (PJI) on the lipid profile in men with type 2 diabetes.</p> <p><italic>Materials and methods</italic>: This randomized clinical trial was performed in middle-aged men (40–50 years old) with type 2 diabetes. Participants were randomly assigned into four groups: AT + PJI (n = 9); AT (n = 10); PJI (n = 9), and control (C) (n = 10). The AT program consisted of 60-75% of HR<sub>Max</sub>, 40-60 min/day, three days/wk for eight weeks. Participants in the PJI group consumed 240 ml of pomegranate juice (sugar or additive-free) daily for eight weeks. Lipid profile was measured at the beginning and end of the study. The data were analyzed through paired t-test and one-way analysis of variance, as well as Tukey’s post hoc test at the signification level of P&lt;0.05.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: AT + PJI, PJI, and AT groups demonstrated significant improvements in lipid profile compared to the C group. The results show that the AT + PJI group had significantly lower TC and LDL (p = 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively), and significantly higher HDL (p = 0.023) compared with the PJI group. There was no significant difference between AT and PJI groups. Also, TG was significantly lower in AT+ PJI compare to the C group.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: AT + PJI is more effective than AT or PJI alone in the improvement of lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Craniocervical flexion performance in computer users: An observational studyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bhk-2021-0017<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: To compare the performance of deep cervical flexors (DCF) among computer users (CU) and non-users using the craniocervical flexion test (CCFT).</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: Eighty nine computer users and 100 non-users were recruited for evaluation of their craniocervical muscle performance. The activation score and performance index were assessed using the CCFT. Comparison of craniocervical flexor performance between the two groups was evaluated using the Mann Whitney test. A Chi-Square test was used to test the association between age, years of work and craniocervical flexion. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: The median activation score was lower among computer users (median pressure-24 mmHg as compared to non-users (median pressure-28 mmHg) (p &lt; 0.01). The performance index among computer users was lower when compared to non-users. Also, age (p &lt; 0.001) and the years of work experience (p = 0.006) were associated with the DCF performance.</p> <p><italic>Conclusion</italic>: CU have lower activation and endurance of the DCF compared to non-users. The endurance of the DCF was associated with the age and years of computer usage.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Effort distribution analysis for the 800 m race: IAAF World Athletics Championships, London 2017 and Birmingham 2018https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bhk-2021-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: To analyse the distribution of effort in the 800 m event at the IAAF World Athletics Championships in London 2017 (outdoor, 44 men, 45 women) and in Birmingham 2018 (indoor, 9 men, 14 women).</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: A total of 187 individual performances during heats, semi-finals, and finals were analysed. The official split times of each athlete every 100 m were taken as reference for the analysis of: times; percentages of times in regard to the final time; speed; changes in position during the races; percentage deviations in terms of the average time per race per section of 100, 200 and 400 m.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: There are different strategies used in the elite 800m race that are related to sex differences, the management of energy consumption and the differences and similarities between indoor and outdoor races.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: Although diverse pacing strategies exist, more balanced strategies, after a fast start, have better results.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Reliability of 3D measurement of pelvic and lower limb kinematics during two single leg landing taskshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bhk-2021-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: Three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis is one of the available methods used to evaluate body kinematics. The aim of this study was to assess the intrarater reliability of measurement of pelvic and lower limb kinematics during two single leg landing tasks using 3D motion analysis.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: 19 healthy volunteers (8 women, 11 men, age 23.1 ± 2.8 years, weight 70.7 ± 9.2 kg, height 174.8 ± 6.7 cm) performed five repeated single leg hurdle hops (SLHH) (30 cm height) and five single leg drop landings (SLDL) from a box (40 cm height) in one measurement session with a 15-minute break and after marker replacement with 3D assessment. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), and the smallest detectable differences (SDD) were used to examine the reliability of kinematic parameters during the landing phase.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: The average intrarater ICC for SLHH was 0.92 (SEM = 1.69°, SDD 4.68°) and for SLDL was 0.96 (SEM = 0.81°, SDD = 2.26°). After marker replacement ICC decreased to an average value of 0.81 (SEM = 2.05°, SDD 5.68°) for SLHH and 0.82 (SEM = 2.36°, SDD 6.53°) for SLDL.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: Using the 3D method to evaluate pelvis and lower limb kinematics during single leg landing in one measurement session is a high reliability method for most parameters. Marker replacement is one of the factors that reduce the reliability of measures. When applying the SEM and SDD values, which the present paper contains, it is worth mentioning that the obtained results are caused by measurement error or they are due to individual issues.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Aerobic capacity and respiratory patterns are better in recreational basketball-engaged university students than age-matched untrained maleshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bhk-2021-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: To asses and compare the aerobic capacity and respiratory parameters in recreational basketball-engaged university students with age-matched untrained young adults.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: A total of 30 subjects were selected to took part in the study based on recreational-basketball activity level and were assigned to a basketball (BG: n = 15, age 22.86 ± 1.35 yrs., body height 185.07 ± 5.95 cm, body weight 81.21 ± 6.15 kg) and untrained group (UG: n = 15, age 22.60 ± 1.50 yrs., body height 181.53 ± 6.11 cm, body weight 76.89 ± 7.30 kg). Inspiratory vital capacity (IVC), forced expiration volume (FEV1), FEV1/IVC ratio, maximal oxygen consumption (VO<sub>2max</sub>), ventilatory threshold (VO<sub>2</sub>VT<sub>)</sub> and time to exhaustion, were measured in all subjects. Student T-test for independent Sample and Cohen’s <italic>d</italic> as the measure of the effect size were calculated.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: Recreational basketball-engaged students (EG) reached significantly greater IVC (t = 7.240, p &lt; 0.001, d = 1.854), FEV1 (t = 10.852, p &lt; 0.001, d = 2.834), FEV1/IVC ratio (t = 6.370, p &lt; 0.001, d = 3.920), maximal oxygen consumption (t = 9.039, p &lt; 0.001, d = 3.310), ventilatory threshold (t = 9.859, p &lt; 0.001, d = 3.607) and time to exhaustion (t = 12.361, p &lt; 0.001, d = 4.515) compared to UG.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: Long-term exposure to recreational basketball leads to adaptive changes in aerobic and respiratory parameters in male university students.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-23T00:00:00.000+00:00The influence of lower limb plyometric and resistance training on the stiffness of Achilles and patellar tendons in recreational athleteshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bhk-2021-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: This study aimed to investigate the influence of combined plyometric and resistance training of lower limbs when administered for a shorter duration of six weeks on the stiffness of Achilles and patellar tendons as well as the jump height.</p> <p><italic>Materials and methods:</italic> Twenty recreational athletes were administered six weeks of a single session of lower limb resistance training and one session of plyometric training every week for a total duration of six weeks. Tendon stiffness was measured using MyotonPro, and vertical jump height was derived from the force plate at baseline and six weeks after the intervention.</p> <p><italic>Results:</italic> There was a statistically significant difference (p &lt; 0.01) between the baseline and post-training measures of patellar and Achilles tendons stiffness as well as the squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) height.</p> <p><italic>Conclusion</italic>: Both resistance and plyometric training may be incorporated into the training session as combined training showed significant improvements in jump height and tendon stiffness after six weeks of combined RT and PT.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Feature extraction and gait classification in hip replacement patients on the basis of kinematic waveform datahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bhk-2021-0022<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim:</italic> To find out, without relying on gait-specific assumptions or prior knowledge, which parameters are most important for the description of asymmetrical gait in patients after total hip arthroplasty (THA).</p> <p><italic>Material and methods:</italic> The gait of 22 patients after THA was recorded using an optical motion capture system. The waveform data of the marker positions, velocities, and accelerations, as well as joint and segment angles, were used as initial features. The random forest (RF) and minimum-redundancy maximum-relevance (mRMR) algorithms were chosen for feature selection. The results were compared with those obtained from the use of different dimensionality reduction methods.</p> <p><italic>Results:</italic> Hip movement in the sagittal plane, knee kinematics in the frontal and sagittal planes, marker position data of the anterior and posterior superior iliac spine, and acceleration data for markers placed at the proximal end of the fibula are highly important for classification (accuracy: 91.09%). With feature selection, better results were obtained compared to dimensionality reduction.</p> <p><italic>Conclusion:</italic> The proposed approaches can be used to identify and individually address abnormal gait patterns during the rehabilitation process via waveform data. The results indicate that position and acceleration data also provide significant information for this task.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Classic sports massage vs. Chinese self-massage. Which one is more effective in warm-up?https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bhk-2021-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: Warm-up is an indispensable element of sports training. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of warm-up exercises with Swedish, classic sports massage and Chinese self-massage on functional limitations of the locomotive system.</p> <p><italic>Materials and methods</italic>: The study included 42 women and 13 men aged 19 to 22. They all performed the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) test, without a warm-up, and then (after a week) performed it again after either a standard warm-up with sports massage (Group 1) or a warm-up with Chinese self-massage (Group 2).</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: Both groups obtained significantly higher results in the second measurement (FMS test), preceded by a standard warm-up with sports massage (Group 1, p = 0.003) and warm-up with Chinese self-massage (Group 2, p = 0.000). In Group 1, statistically significant differences were observed in the results of the exercises: hurdle step and push-ups. In Group 2, the difference was significant in the attempts to sit down deep, walk over the fence and pump.</p> <p><italic>Conclusion</italic>: There were no significant differences between the groups that used massage and self-massage. Both methods can improve movement functionality.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-15T00:00:00.000+00:00The effects of wearing high heeled shoes on the muscles and joints of lower limbhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bhk-2021-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: The aim of this study is to investigate whether the lower extremity muscles’ force/torque/strength and range of motion may be affected in females wearing high heeled shoes and not wearing high heeled shoes.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: The study was carried out with 136 females aged between 18 and 45 years. The first group consisted of 66 females wearing 5 cm or higher high heeled shoes. The second group consisted of 70 females wearing shoes having heel height less than 5 cm. The Nicholas Manual Muscle Tester was used to evaluate lower extremity muscle force/torque/strength, while range of motion was assessed with an electronic goniometer. The SPSS 21.0 program was used for statistical analysis.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: A significant difference was found in the lower extremity muscles’ force (except for hip adduction, dorsiflexion, metatarsophalangeal joint and interphalangeal joint extension), and muscles’ torque (except for hip adduction, dorsiflexion and left tibialis anterior muscle) and muscles’ strength values (except for hip adduction, dorsiflexion and tibialis anterior muscle). Also, as heel height increased, the range of motion of hip joint flexion, internal rotation and plantar flexion increased significantly.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: Excessive use of high heeled shoes can cause changes in muscle force/torque/strength and joint range of motion.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-15T00:00:00.000+00:00The impact of an 8-week Pilates-based physical training program on functional mobility: data from a septuagenarian grouphttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bhk-2021-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a Pilates-based training program on functional mobility and strength in community-dwelling adults over 70 years old.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: Twenty community-dwelling elderly subjects were recruited and randomly assigned to control (C = 10) or Pilates training (PT = 10) groups for 8 weeks (2 times/week). Anthropometric, strength, cardiorespiratory fitness, functional mobility, and static and dynamic balance parameters were assessed before and after the intervention.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: The PT group had higher values of lower limb strength (p = 0.013 <italic>d</italic> = 0.56) and 6-minute walking test distance (p = 0.04; <italic>d</italic> = 0.45) than the C group. The PT group also had differences in one leg stance duration and decrease in the Timed Up and Go test. We also observed a positive correlation between muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness (p &lt; 0.01, r = 0.62), cardiorespiratory fitness and one leg stance, eyes closed, right and left leg (p = 0.04, r = 0.45; p = 0.05, r = 0.45, respectively).</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: Eight weeks of Pilates-based physical training induced improvements in skeletal muscle strength and functional mobility of community-dwelling septuagenarians.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-27T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1