rss_2.0Sports and Recreation FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Sports and Recreationhttps://www.sciendo.com/subject/SRhttps://www.sciendo.comSports and Recreation Feedhttps://www.sciendo.com/subjectImages/Sports_&_Recreation.jpg700700Enhancing active living and physical exercise through environmentally friendly policies in urban areashttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2021-0018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Active living offers a substantial contribution to the mental and physical health of individuals, as well as to community wellbeing and social cohesion. Outdoor and green environments offer additional benefits and determine people’s involvement in physical exercise. Environmental policies put in place by local governments affect citizens’ adoption of active living and physical exercise. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between citizens’ levels of exercise participation in urban open spaces and the provision of exercise-friendly policies by the local authorities. Three hundred and seventy citizens participated in the present study who took part in walking, bicycling, or jogging/ running during their leisure time in urban open spaces and outdoors. Research participants completed the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ; Shephard, 1997) and Environmentally Friendly Exercise Policy Questionnaire (Kontogianni, 2015), which consisted of three scales: “policy to enhance exercise,” “environmentally friendly exercise facilities,” and “intention to change personal habits.” Participants were divided into three different subgroups according to their time exercise scores: high, middle, and low. The results showed the statistically significant differences between time exercise scores and environmentally friendly exercise policy scales. Citizens with higher exercise time participation expressed significantly higher levels on the environmentally friendly exercise policy scales. Citizens’ physical exercise time in urban open spaces and outdoors seemed to affect the creation of corresponding preferences, beliefs, and intentions towards environmentally friendly policies. City leaders, essential decision-makers, and stakeholders are expected to provide an enabling environment, legitimacy, and leadership that fosters the development and implementation of policies that support physical activity and green active living within urban spaces.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-13T00:00:00.000+00:00The UAE Tour, cycling stars, and Twitter: Tweeting as part of promoting the host countryhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2021-0019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Using the example of the 2019 inaugural UAE Tour, this study demonstrates how cycling stars indirectly promote countries hosting globally watched sporting events through their Twitter accounts. This study presents a qualitative and quantitative content analysis of the Twitter activity of selected cycling stars. However, this promotion is only a secondary result of their activity on social media; professional athletes use their Twitter accounts as a platform for self-presentation and to show their daily lives to fans. If the athletes are active on social media, it is almost impossible for them to avoid speaking about the host countries, indirectly evaluate them, and provide information about them to their followers. While sports celebrities’ social media profiles are a limited space for the promotion of host countries, they can also help improve the image of the countries and present them in a positive light. Of course, political leaders use countless public or sports diplomacy tools to promote their countries abroad, and online platforms are not necessarily a key element in the promotion of their international image.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Can Elite Australian Football Player’s Game Performance Be Predicted?https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ijcss-2021-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In elite Australian football (AF) many studies have investigated individual player performance using a variety of outcomes (e.g. team selection, game running, game rating etc.), however, none have attempted to predict a player’s performance using combinations of pre-game factors. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the ability of commonly reported individual player and team characteristics to predict individual Australian Football League (AFL) player performance, as measured through the official AFL player rating (AFLPR) (Champion Data). A total of 158 variables were derived for players (n = 64) from one AFL team using data collected during the 2014-2019 AFL seasons. Various machine learning models were trained (cross-validation) on the 2014-2018 seasons, with the 2019 season used as an independent test set. Model performance, assessed using root mean square error (RMSE), varied (4.69-5.03 test set RMSE) but was generally poor when compared to a singular variable prediction (AFLPR pre-game rating: 4.72 test set RMSE). Variation in model performance (range RMSE: 0.14 excusing worst model) was low, indicating different approaches produced similar results, however, glmnet models were marginally superior (4.69 RMSE test set). This research highlights the limited utility of currently collected pre-game variables to predict week-to-week game performance more accurately than simple singular variable baseline models.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparing bottom-up and top-down ratings for individual soccer playershttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ijcss-2021-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Correctly assessing the contributions of an individual player in a team sport is challenging. However, an ability to better evaluate each player can translate into improved team performance, through better recruitment or team selection decisions. Two main ideas have emerged for using data to evaluate players: Top-down ratings observe the performance of the team as a whole and then distribute credit for this performance onto the players involved. Bottom-up ratings assign a value to each action performed, and then evaluate a player based on the sum of values for actions performed by that player. This paper compares a variant of plus-minus ratings, which is a top-down rating, and a bottom-up rating based on valuing actions by estimating probabilities. The reliability of ratings is measured by whether similar ratings are produced when using different data sets, while the validity of ratings is evaluated through the quality of match outcome forecasts generated when the ratings are used as predictor variables. The results indicate that the plus-minus ratings perform better than the bottom-up ratings with respect to the reliability and validity measures chosen and that plus-minus ratings have certain advantages that may be difficult to replicate in bottom-up ratings.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Strictness vs. flexibility: Simulation-based recognition of strategies and its success in soccerhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ijcss-2021-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Introduction: Recognition and optimization of strategies in sport games is difficult in particular in case of team games, where a number of players are acting “independently” of each other. One way to improve the situation is to cluster the teams into a small number of tactical groups and to analyze the interaction of those groups. The aim of the study is the evaluation of the applicability of SOCCER© simulation in professional soccer by analyzing and simulation of the tactical group interaction.</p> <p>Methods: The players’ positions of tactical groups in soccer can be mapped to formation-patterns and then reflect strategic behaviour and interaction. Based on this information, Monte Carlo-Simulation allows for generating strategies, which – at least from the mathematical point of view – are optimal. In practice, behaviour can be orientated in those optimal strategies but normally is changing depending on the opponent team’s activities. Analyzing the game under the aspect of such simulated strategies revealed how strictly resp. flexible a team follows resp. varies strategic patterns.</p> <p>Approach: A Simulation- and Validation-Study on the basis of 40 position data sets of the 2014/15 German Bundesliga has been conducted to analyze and to optimize such strategic team behaviour in professional soccer.</p> <p>Results: The Validation-Study demonstrated the applicability of our tactical model. The results of the Simulation-Study revealed that offensive player groups need less tactical strictness in order to gain successful ball possession whereas defensive player groups need tactical strictness to do so.</p> <p>Conclusion: The strategic behaviour could be recognized and served as basis for optimization analysis: offensive players should play with a more flexible tactical orientation to stay in possession of the ball, whereas defensive players should play with a more planned orientation in order to be successful. The strategic behaviour of tactical groups can be recognized and optimized using Monte Carlo-based analysis, proposing a new and innovative approach to quantify tactical performance in soccer.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Sports Information Systems: A systematic reviewhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ijcss-2021-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Many professional sport organizations are currently in the process of finding or already using <italic>sports information systems (SIS)</italic> to integrate data from different information and measurement systems. The problem is that requirements are very heterogeneous. That is why no consistent definition of <italic>SIS</italic> and their categories exist, and it is often not clear which fields and functions <italic>SIS</italic> must cover. This work aims to provide a structured comparison of commercial <italic>SIS</italic> available on the market to provide an overview of the relevant features and characterize categories. Following PRISMA guidelines, a systematic search for relevant <italic>SIS</italic> providers was conducted. A catalog of 164 review items was created to define relevant features of <italic>SIS</italic> and to conduct semi-standardized interviews with product representatives. Overall 36 eligible <italic>SIS</italic> from 11 countries were identified and 21 of them were interviewed. The analysis of the interviews has shown that there are features that are present in all <italic>SIS</italic>, whereas others differ or are generally less represented. As a result, different <italic>SIS</italic> categories have been defined. The study suggests a more differentiated categorization of <italic>SIS</italic> is necessary and terms need to be defined more precisely. This review should be considered when companies designing <italic>SIS</italic> or sport organizations select <italic>SIS</italic>.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparison of the Evaluation of Performance Preconditions in Tennis with the Use of Equal and Expertly Judged Criteria Weightshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ijcss-2021-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Tennis performance is influenced by various factors, among which physical performance factors play an important role. The aim of the study was an analysis of possibilities of the use of Saaty’s method for assessing the level of performance prerequisites and comparing the results obtained using equal weights and various weights. The research on Czech female players (U12; n = 211) was based on the results of the TENDIAG1 test battery (9 items) and the results were processed by FuzzME software and relevant statistical methods (correlation coefficient r, Student´s t-test, effect size index d). The results of Saaty’s method show that the most important athletic performance criteria for tennis coaches are the leg reaction time and the running speed, while the least important are endurance and strength. The evaluation using various criteria weights offers a finer scale for assessing athletes’ performance prerequisites despite the proven high degree of association between the results obtained with equal and various weights and the insignificant difference of mean values. The results have shown possibilities for the use of a fuzzy approach in sports practice and motivate further research towards broadening the structure or the number of evaluation criteria.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Physical fitness changes among amateur soccer players: effects of the pre-season periodhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bhk-2021-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: To assess changes in physical fitness of amateur soccer players after a pre-season training period and baseline fitness dependencies.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: Twenty-one amateur soccer players were assessed during the pre-season. The following physical variables were assessed before and after a two-month pre-season training period: (i) cardiorespiratory fitness, (ii) strength and power, and (iii) change of direction (COD).</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: Significant decreases were found for countermovement jump (CMJ) (p &lt; 0.001; d = 1.161), drop jump (DJ) (p = 0.014; d = 0.958), and horizontal jump (HJ) (p = 0.042; d = 0.640), while no significant changes were found for the overall variables from the beginning to the end of pre-season. Fit players revealed significant decreases for CMJ (p = 0.002; d = –2.495), DJ (p = 0.004; d = –1.760), HJ (p = 0.028; d = –1.005), COD deficit (p = 0.034; d = 1.013), and maximal aerobic speed (MAS) (p = 0.026; d = –4.053). No significant changes were found for unfit players.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: Amateur soccer coaches should consider assessing physical qualities at the beginning of pre-season and use the free-of-charge monitoring tools such as session-rate of perceived exertion (s-RPE) during the training process.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00The effect of diurnal rhythms on static and dynamic balance performancehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bhk-2021-0025<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of different times of day on static and dynamic balance performance.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: Thirty male individuals (age 22 ± 1.2 years, BMI 23.4 ± 1.3 kg/m<sup>2</sup>, height 178.5 ± 6.52 cm) volunteered for the study. The participants performed static and dynamic balance tests at 10:00, 15:00, and 20:00. Static and dynamic balance were measured using Y Balance Test (YBT) and the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). One-factor repeated measures ANOVA with the LSD post-hoc procedure was performed to examine balance changes in the morning, afternoon, and evening.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: Results indicated a significant difference in static balance scores at different times of day (p &lt; 0.05). Post-hoc analysis indicates that mean of errors in afternoon exhibits significantly smaller than those of morning (p = 0.024), and evening (p = 0.029). Other results showed significant differences in dynamic balance at different times of day (p &lt; 0.05). Post-hoc analysis indicates that means of reaching distance in afternoon exhibits significantly larger than those of morning (p = 0.032), and evening (p = 0.026).</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: The results provide strong evidence about the effect of different times of day on performance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Classic sports massage vs. Chinese self-massage. Which one is more effective in warm-up?https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bhk-2021-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: Warm-up is an indispensable element of sports training. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of warm-up exercises with Swedish, classic sports massage and Chinese self-massage on functional limitations of the locomotive system.</p> <p><italic>Materials and methods</italic>: The study included 42 women and 13 men aged 19 to 22. They all performed the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) test, without a warm-up, and then (after a week) performed it again after either a standard warm-up with sports massage (Group 1) or a warm-up with Chinese self-massage (Group 2).</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: Both groups obtained significantly higher results in the second measurement (FMS test), preceded by a standard warm-up with sports massage (Group 1, p = 0.003) and warm-up with Chinese self-massage (Group 2, p = 0.000). In Group 1, statistically significant differences were observed in the results of the exercises: hurdle step and push-ups. In Group 2, the difference was significant in the attempts to sit down deep, walk over the fence and pump.</p> <p><italic>Conclusion</italic>: There were no significant differences between the groups that used massage and self-massage. Both methods can improve movement functionality.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of additional load on angular parameters during gait and balance in children with hemiparesis – Cross sectional studyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bhk-2021-0016<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: To study the effect of additional load over ankle and knee joints on angular parameters during gait and balance in children with hemiparesis.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: 10 children with hemiparesis were recruited and stratified into 2 chronological age groups: group A (4–8 years) and group B (9–12 years). Additional loads of 0.7 kg and 1.1 kg were placed on the affected and non-affected lower limb at the ankle and knee joint for group A and group B respectively. Angular parameters during gait were assessed using Kinovea software (version 0.8.15) and balance using the Pediatric Balance Scale.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: Application of additional load of 0.7 kg over the non-affected leg knee joint is able to produce significant changes in ankle joint angles (p &lt; 0.05) at initial contact and knee joint angles at heel-off (p &lt; 0.05), toe-off (p &lt; 0.001), acceleration (p &lt; 0.05) and deceleration (p &lt; 0.05) phases of gait and balance in group A, whereas on application of additional load of 1.1 kg over the affected leg at the ankle joint significant improvement in knee joint angles at initial contact (p &lt; 0.001) and the deceleration (p &lt; 0.05) phase of gait in group B was observed. There was significant improvement in the Pediatric Balance Scale score in both groups (p &lt; 0.05).</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: Additional load over knee and ankle joints of the affected and non-affected leg showed more improvement in angular parameters during gait and balance in younger children with hemiparesis than older children, as they present an immature form of gait that can be modified, corrected and brought back to a normal angle.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Correlation between clinical tests for gait and stability using biomechanical variables in the gait of institutionalized elderly subjectshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bhk-2021-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: This study aims to identify biomechanical gait variables explaining clinical test results in institutionalized elderly people.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: Twenty-nine elderly (82.0 ± 6.3 years) residents in a nursing home were assessed. They were able to walk 10 meters without walking aids. First, the spontaneous gait was assessed using inertial measurement units in a 10-meter long corridor. Fifteen biomechanical gait variables were analyzed. Then, three clinical tests usually used in elderly subjects were applied: the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, the Tinetti Scale and the Sit to Stand (STS) test. A correlation matrix using Pearson’s correlation coefficient between clinical and biomechanical variables was performed, obtaining a total of 45 potential correlations. A stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was then performed to determine the influence of each variable.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: TUG, Tinetti and STS were significantly correlated with similar biomechanical variables, including temporal, temporo-spatial and kinematic variables. Adults over 80 years old and women showed stronger correlations. Single support and ankle angle at takeoff were the two most important variables in stepwise regression analysis.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: In institutionalized elderly subjects, clinical variables for gait and postural stability are correlated with the biomechanical gait variables, especially in women and adults aged over 80 years.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Feature extraction and gait classification in hip replacement patients on the basis of kinematic waveform datahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bhk-2021-0022<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim:</italic> To find out, without relying on gait-specific assumptions or prior knowledge, which parameters are most important for the description of asymmetrical gait in patients after total hip arthroplasty (THA).</p> <p><italic>Material and methods:</italic> The gait of 22 patients after THA was recorded using an optical motion capture system. The waveform data of the marker positions, velocities, and accelerations, as well as joint and segment angles, were used as initial features. The random forest (RF) and minimum-redundancy maximum-relevance (mRMR) algorithms were chosen for feature selection. The results were compared with those obtained from the use of different dimensionality reduction methods.</p> <p><italic>Results:</italic> Hip movement in the sagittal plane, knee kinematics in the frontal and sagittal planes, marker position data of the anterior and posterior superior iliac spine, and acceleration data for markers placed at the proximal end of the fibula are highly important for classification (accuracy: 91.09%). With feature selection, better results were obtained compared to dimensionality reduction.</p> <p><italic>Conclusion:</italic> The proposed approaches can be used to identify and individually address abnormal gait patterns during the rehabilitation process via waveform data. The results indicate that position and acceleration data also provide significant information for this task.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-04T00:00:00.000+00:00The effects of wearing high heeled shoes on the muscles and joints of lower limbhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bhk-2021-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: The aim of this study is to investigate whether the lower extremity muscles’ force/torque/strength and range of motion may be affected in females wearing high heeled shoes and not wearing high heeled shoes.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: The study was carried out with 136 females aged between 18 and 45 years. The first group consisted of 66 females wearing 5 cm or higher high heeled shoes. The second group consisted of 70 females wearing shoes having heel height less than 5 cm. The Nicholas Manual Muscle Tester was used to evaluate lower extremity muscle force/torque/strength, while range of motion was assessed with an electronic goniometer. The SPSS 21.0 program was used for statistical analysis.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: A significant difference was found in the lower extremity muscles’ force (except for hip adduction, dorsiflexion, metatarsophalangeal joint and interphalangeal joint extension), and muscles’ torque (except for hip adduction, dorsiflexion and left tibialis anterior muscle) and muscles’ strength values (except for hip adduction, dorsiflexion and tibialis anterior muscle). Also, as heel height increased, the range of motion of hip joint flexion, internal rotation and plantar flexion increased significantly.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: Excessive use of high heeled shoes can cause changes in muscle force/torque/strength and joint range of motion.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-15T00:00:00.000+00:00The effects of single-sex versus coeducational physical education on american junior high PE students’ physical activity levels and self-competencehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bhk-2021-0021<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: To examine single-sex classes versus coeducational classes in 7<sup>th</sup> grade PE and the effect the setting had on physical activity (PA) levels and self-competence.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: A total of 85 students aged 12–13 years old, enrolled in the 7<sup>th</sup> grade from one junior high in the Midwestern part of the U.S.A. participated. Classes were randomly assigned as coed or single-sex. The study took place during eight lessons of a basketball unit. Four of the lessons focused on skill and four focused on game play. Average heart rate (HR) levels were recorded through HR monitors. A modified version of the Confidence in Learning Mathematics scale was administered to the students.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: A 2 × 2 Factorial ANOVA was completed to examine the effect of setting and gender on average HR during gameplay lessons, average HR during skill-based lessons, confidence, usefulness, and appropriateness. Results revealed on average, girls had fewer bpm compared to boys during gameplay. Also, girls in the single-sex setting had, on average, higher HR during gameplay compared to girls in coeducational.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: Similarly, to other research, males had higher bpm during game play than females and higher HR’s in the single-sex setting than the coed setting. This suggests that during basketball it might be more ideal for females to participate in a single-sex setting to elicit more activity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Aerobic capacity and respiratory patterns are better in recreational basketball-engaged university students than age-matched untrained maleshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bhk-2021-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: To asses and compare the aerobic capacity and respiratory parameters in recreational basketball-engaged university students with age-matched untrained young adults.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: A total of 30 subjects were selected to took part in the study based on recreational-basketball activity level and were assigned to a basketball (BG: n = 15, age 22.86 ± 1.35 yrs., body height 185.07 ± 5.95 cm, body weight 81.21 ± 6.15 kg) and untrained group (UG: n = 15, age 22.60 ± 1.50 yrs., body height 181.53 ± 6.11 cm, body weight 76.89 ± 7.30 kg). Inspiratory vital capacity (IVC), forced expiration volume (FEV1), FEV1/IVC ratio, maximal oxygen consumption (VO<sub>2max</sub>), ventilatory threshold (VO<sub>2</sub>VT<sub>)</sub> and time to exhaustion, were measured in all subjects. Student T-test for independent Sample and Cohen’s <italic>d</italic> as the measure of the effect size were calculated.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: Recreational basketball-engaged students (EG) reached significantly greater IVC (t = 7.240, p &lt; 0.001, d = 1.854), FEV1 (t = 10.852, p &lt; 0.001, d = 2.834), FEV1/IVC ratio (t = 6.370, p &lt; 0.001, d = 3.920), maximal oxygen consumption (t = 9.039, p &lt; 0.001, d = 3.310), ventilatory threshold (t = 9.859, p &lt; 0.001, d = 3.607) and time to exhaustion (t = 12.361, p &lt; 0.001, d = 4.515) compared to UG.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: Long-term exposure to recreational basketball leads to adaptive changes in aerobic and respiratory parameters in male university students.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-23T00:00:00.000+00:00How combined aerobic training and pomegranate juice intake affect lipid profile? A clinical trial in men with type 2 diabeteshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bhk-2021-0018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: This study aimed to investigate the effect of aerobic training (AT) and pomegranate juice intake (PJI) on the lipid profile in men with type 2 diabetes.</p> <p><italic>Materials and methods</italic>: This randomized clinical trial was performed in middle-aged men (40–50 years old) with type 2 diabetes. Participants were randomly assigned into four groups: AT + PJI (n = 9); AT (n = 10); PJI (n = 9), and control (C) (n = 10). The AT program consisted of 60-75% of HR<sub>Max</sub>, 40-60 min/day, three days/wk for eight weeks. Participants in the PJI group consumed 240 ml of pomegranate juice (sugar or additive-free) daily for eight weeks. Lipid profile was measured at the beginning and end of the study. The data were analyzed through paired t-test and one-way analysis of variance, as well as Tukey’s post hoc test at the signification level of P&lt;0.05.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: AT + PJI, PJI, and AT groups demonstrated significant improvements in lipid profile compared to the C group. The results show that the AT + PJI group had significantly lower TC and LDL (p = 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively), and significantly higher HDL (p = 0.023) compared with the PJI group. There was no significant difference between AT and PJI groups. Also, TG was significantly lower in AT+ PJI compare to the C group.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: AT + PJI is more effective than AT or PJI alone in the improvement of lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-08T00:00:00.000+00:00The influence of lower limb plyometric and resistance training on the stiffness of Achilles and patellar tendons in recreational athleteshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bhk-2021-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: This study aimed to investigate the influence of combined plyometric and resistance training of lower limbs when administered for a shorter duration of six weeks on the stiffness of Achilles and patellar tendons as well as the jump height.</p> <p><italic>Materials and methods:</italic> Twenty recreational athletes were administered six weeks of a single session of lower limb resistance training and one session of plyometric training every week for a total duration of six weeks. Tendon stiffness was measured using MyotonPro, and vertical jump height was derived from the force plate at baseline and six weeks after the intervention.</p> <p><italic>Results:</italic> There was a statistically significant difference (p &lt; 0.01) between the baseline and post-training measures of patellar and Achilles tendons stiffness as well as the squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) height.</p> <p><italic>Conclusion</italic>: Both resistance and plyometric training may be incorporated into the training session as combined training showed significant improvements in jump height and tendon stiffness after six weeks of combined RT and PT.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Pressure distribution in tilting and reclining wheelchairs with an air cushion: A pilot studyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bhk-2021-0015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: The aim of this study was to determine the optimal angle for maximizing pressure distribution in two types of wheelchairs (tilting and reclining) while using a ROHO cushion, which offers relatively effective pressure distribution.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: This study enrolled 28 male and female college students who understood the purpose of the study and agreed to participate. This study aimed to determine the optimal angle for tilting and reclining wheelchairs when using a ROHO cushion at angles of 10°, 20°, and 30° with tilted wheelchairs and 90°, 110°, and 130° with reclining wheelchairs.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: The analysis showed that an improved pressure distribution when a tilting wheelchair was used versus a reclining one. A reclining position of ≥110° and a tilt angle of ≥20° led to significant pressure-reducing effects.</p> <p><italic>Conclusion</italic>: The results of this study will help wheelchair users or their guardians to select the optimal wheelchair angle when changing their posture to prevent bedsores. Although no slippage was observed in our study, it is important to remember the proper back position to prevent unnecessary slippage.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The impact of an 8-week Pilates-based physical training program on functional mobility: data from a septuagenarian grouphttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bhk-2021-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a Pilates-based training program on functional mobility and strength in community-dwelling adults over 70 years old.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: Twenty community-dwelling elderly subjects were recruited and randomly assigned to control (C = 10) or Pilates training (PT = 10) groups for 8 weeks (2 times/week). Anthropometric, strength, cardiorespiratory fitness, functional mobility, and static and dynamic balance parameters were assessed before and after the intervention.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: The PT group had higher values of lower limb strength (p = 0.013 <italic>d</italic> = 0.56) and 6-minute walking test distance (p = 0.04; <italic>d</italic> = 0.45) than the C group. The PT group also had differences in one leg stance duration and decrease in the Timed Up and Go test. We also observed a positive correlation between muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness (p &lt; 0.01, r = 0.62), cardiorespiratory fitness and one leg stance, eyes closed, right and left leg (p = 0.04, r = 0.45; p = 0.05, r = 0.45, respectively).</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: Eight weeks of Pilates-based physical training induced improvements in skeletal muscle strength and functional mobility of community-dwelling septuagenarians.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-27T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1