1. bookVolumen 2022 (2022): Edición 1 (January 2022)
Detalles de la revista
Primera edición
16 Apr 2015
Calendario de la edición
4 veces al año
access type Acceso abierto

Personal information inference from voice recordings: User awareness and privacy concerns

Publicado en línea: 20 Nov 2021
Volumen & Edición: Volumen 2022 (2022) - Edición 1 (January 2022)
Páginas: 6 - 27
Recibido: 31 May 2021
Aceptado: 16 Sep 2021
Detalles de la revista
Primera edición
16 Apr 2015
Calendario de la edición
4 veces al año

Through voice characteristics and manner of expression, even seemingly benign voice recordings can reveal sensitive attributes about a recorded speaker (e. g., geographical origin, health status, personality). We conducted a nationally representative survey in the UK (n = 683, 18–69 years) to investigate people’s awareness about the inferential power of voice and speech analysis. Our results show that – while awareness levels vary between different categories of inferred information – there is generally low awareness across all participant demographics, even among participants with professional experience in computer science, data mining, and IT security. For instance, only 18.7% of participants are at least somewhat aware that physical and mental health information can be inferred from voice recordings. Many participants have rarely (28.4%) or never (42.5%) even thought about the possibility of personal information being inferred from speech data. After a short educational video on the topic, participants express only moderate privacy concern. However, based on an analysis of open text responses, unconcerned reactions seem to be largely explained by knowledge gaps about possible data misuses. Watching the educational video lowered participants’ intention to use voice-enabled devices. In discussing the regulatory implications of our findings, we challenge the notion of “informed consent” to data processing. We also argue that inferences about individuals need to be legally recognized as personal data and protected accordingly.


[1] Shimaa Ahmed, Amrita Roy Chowdhury, Kassem Fawaz, and Parmesh Ramanathan. 2020. Preech: A system for privacy-preserving speech transcription. In 29th USENIX Security Symposium. 2703–2720. Search in Google Scholar

[2] Ranya Aloufi, Hamed Haddadi, and David Boyle. 2019. Emotionless: privacy-preserving speech analysis for voice assistants. preprint arXiv:1908.03632 (2019). Search in Google Scholar

[3] Ranya Aloufi, Hamed Haddadi, and David Boyle. 2020. Privacy-preserving Voice Analysis via Disentangled Representations. In ACM SIGSAC Conference on Cloud Computing Security Workshop. 1–14.10.1145/3411495.3421355 Search in Google Scholar

[4] Gillinder Bedi et al. 2015. Automated analysis of free speech predicts psychosis onset in high-risk youths. npj Schizophrenia 1 (2015), 15030. Search in Google Scholar

[5] Hamid Behravan, Ville Hautamäki, Sabato Marco Siniscalchi, Tomi Kinnunen, and Chin-Hui Lee. 2015. I-Vector modeling of speech attributes for automatic foreign accent recognition. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing 24, 1 (2015), 29–41. Search in Google Scholar

[6] Pascal Belin, Shirley Fecteau, and Catherine Bedard. 2004. Thinking the voice: neural correlates of voice perception. Trends in cognitive sciences 8, 3 (2004), 129–135. Search in Google Scholar

[7] Gergely Biczók and Pern Hui Chia. 2013. Interdependent privacy: Let me share your data. In Int. Conf. on Financial Cryptography and Data Security. Springer, 338–353. Search in Google Scholar

[8] Jordan M Blanke. 2020. Protection for ‘Inferences Drawn’: A Comparison Between the General Data Protection Regulation and the California Consumer Privacy Act. Global Privacy Law Review 1, 2 (2020).10.2139/ssrn.3518164 Search in Google Scholar

[9] Daniel Bone, Ming Li, Matthew P Black, and Shrikanth S Narayanan. 2014. Intoxicated speech detection: A fusion framework with speaker-normalized hierarchical functionals and GMM supervectors. Computer Speech & Language 28, 2 (2014), 375–391. Search in Google Scholar

[10] Virginia Braun and Victoria Clarke. 2012. Thematic Analysis. In APA Handbook of Research Methods in Psychology. American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.10.1037/13620-004 Search in Google Scholar

[11] Jesse Chandler, Cheskie Rosenzweig, Aaron J Moss, Jonathan Robinson, and Leib Litman. 2019. Online panels in social science research: Expanding sampling methods beyond Mechanical Turk. Behavior research methods 51, 5 (2019), 2022–2038. Search in Google Scholar

[12] Varun Chandrasekaran, Kassem Fawaz, Bilge Mutlu, and Suman Banerjee. 2018. Characterizing Privacy Perceptions of Voice Assistants: A Technology Probe Study. arXiv:1812.00263 [cs] (2018). Search in Google Scholar

[13] Chola Chhetri and Vivian Genaro Motti. 2019. Eliciting Privacy Concerns for Smart Home Devices from a User Centered Perspective. In Information in Contemporary Society, Natalie Greene Taylor et al. (Eds.). Springer, Cham, 91–101. Search in Google Scholar

[14] Eun Kyoung Choe, Sunny Consolvo, Jaeyeon Jung, Beverly Harrison, Shwetak N. Patel, and Julie A. Kientz. 2012. Investigating Receptiveness to Sensing and Inference in the Home Using Sensor Proxies. In UbiComp. ACM, 61–70. Search in Google Scholar

[15] Wolfie Christl. 2017. How Companies Use Data Against People. Cracked Labs, Vienna. Search in Google Scholar

[16] Kirsten Crager, Anindya Maiti, Murtuza Jadliwala, and Jibo He. 2017. Information Leakage through Mobile Motion Sensors: User Awareness and Concerns. In EuroUSEC. Internet Society, Paris, France.10.14722/eurousec.2017.23013 Search in Google Scholar

[17] Nicholas Cummins, Alice Baird, and Bjoern W Schuller. 2018. Speech analysis for health: Current state-of-the-art and the increasing impact of deep learning. Methods 151 (2018), 41–54. Search in Google Scholar

[18] Nicholas Cummins, Maximilian Schmitt, Shahin Amiriparian, Jarek Krajewski, and Björn Schuller. 2017. “You sound ill, take the day off”: Automatic recognition of speech affected by upper respiratory tract infection. In Proceedings of the IEEE EMBC Conference. 3806–3809. Search in Google Scholar

[19] Christine P Dancey and John Reidy. 2007. Statistics without Maths for Psychology. Pearson Education. Search in Google Scholar

[20] Evan DeFilippis, Stephen Michael Impink, Madison Singell, Jeffrey T Polzer, and Raffaella Sadun. 2020. Collaborating during Coronavirus: The impact of COVID-19 on the nature of work. National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA.10.3386/w27612 Search in Google Scholar

[21] Serge Egelman, Raghudeep Kannavara, and Richard Chow. 2015. Is This Thing On? Crowdsourcing Privacy Indicators for Ubiquitous Sensing Platforms. In Proceedings of the CHI Conference. ACM, New York, 1669–1678. Search in Google Scholar

[22] Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2020. 2019 Internet Crime Report. https://pdf.ic3.gov/2019_IC3Report.pdf Search in Google Scholar

[23] Andy Field, Jeremy Miles, and Zoë Field. 2012. Discovering statistics using R. Sage Publishing, Newbury Park, CA. Search in Google Scholar

[24] Office for National Statistics. 2013. The National Archives. https://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20160110194058/http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/publications/re-reference-tables.html?edition=tcm%3A77-294277 (last accessed on 12 September 2021). Search in Google Scholar

[25] Office for National Statistics. 2019. Population estimates for the UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland: mid-2019. https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/populationandmigration/populationestimates/bulletins/annualmidyearpopulationestimates/mid2019estimates Search in Google Scholar

[26] International Organization for Standardization. 2019. ISO 20252:2019. https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:20252:ed-3:v1:en (last accessed on 12 September 2021). Search in Google Scholar

[27] D George and P Mallery. 2003. Reliability analysis. SPSS for Windows, step by step: a simple guide and reference. Allyn & Bacon, Boston, MA. Search in Google Scholar

[28] Stacey Gray. 2016. Always On: Privacy Implications of Microphone-Enabled Devices. https://www.ftc.gov/system/files/documents/public_comments/2016/08/00003-128652.pdf Search in Google Scholar

[29] Sangyeal Han and Heetae Yang. 2018. Understanding adoption of intelligent personal assistants. Industrial Management & Data Systems 118, 3 (2018), 618–636. Search in Google Scholar

[30] David Harborth, Maren Braun, Akos Grosz, Sebastian Pape, and Kai Rannenberg. 2018. Anreize und Hemmnisse für die Implementierung von Privacy-Enhancing Technologies im Unternehmenskontext. In Sicherheit 2018. 29–41. Search in Google Scholar

[31] David Harborth, Xinyuan Cai, and Sebastian Pape. 2019. Why Do People Pay for Privacy?. In ICT Systems Security and Privacy Protection – 34th IFIP TC 11 International Conference. 253–267.10.1007/978-3-030-22312-0_18 Search in Google Scholar

[32] Abhinav Jain, Minali Upreti, and Preethi Jyothi. 2018. Improved Accented Speech Recognition Using Accent Embeddings and Multi-task Learning. In Proc. Interspeech. 2454–2458.10.21437/Interspeech.2018-1864 Search in Google Scholar

[33] Huafeng Jin and Shuo Wang. 2018. Voice-based determination of physical and emotional characteristics of users. https://patents.google.com/patent/US10096319B1/en US Patent 10,096,319. Search in Google Scholar

[34] Selen Hande Kabil, Hannah Muckenhirn, et al. 2018. On Learning to Identify Genders from Raw Speech Signal Using CNNs. In Proc. Interspeech. 287–291. Search in Google Scholar

[35] Predrag Klasnja, Sunny Consolvo, Tanzeem Choudhury, Richard Beckwith, and Jeffrey Hightower. 2009. Exploring Privacy Concerns about Personal Sensing. In International Conference on Pervasive Computing. Springer, 176–183. Search in Google Scholar

[36] Shashidhar G Koolagudi, Sudhamay Maity, Vuppala Anil Kumar, Saswat Chakrabarti, and K Sreenivasa Rao. 2009. IITKGP-SESC: speech database for emotion analysis. In International Conference on Contemporary Computing. Springer, 485–492. Search in Google Scholar

[37] Jacob Kröger. 2019. Unexpected Inferences from Sensor Data: A Hidden Privacy Threat in the Internet of Things. In Internet of Things. Information Processing in an Increasingly Connected World, Leon Strous and Vinton G. Cerf (Eds.). Springer, Cham, 147–159. Search in Google Scholar

[38] Jacob Leon Kröger, Leon Gellrich, Sebastian Pape, Saba Rebecca Brause, and Stefan Ullrich. 2021. Response data - Survey on privacy impacts of voice & speech analysis. http://dx.doi.org/10.14279/depositonce-12309.2 Search in Google Scholar

[39] Jacob Leon Kröger, Jens Lindemann, and Dominik Herrmann. 2020. How do app vendors respond to subject access requests? A longitudinal privacy study on iOS and Android Apps. In International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security. 1–10. Search in Google Scholar

[40] Jacob Leon Kröger, Otto Hans-Martin Lutz, and Florian Müller. 2020. What Does Your Gaze Reveal About You? On the Privacy Implications of Eye Tracking. In Privacy and Identity Management. Data for Better Living: AI and Privacy, Samuel Fricker, Michael Friedewald, Stephan Krenn, Eva Lievens, and Melek Önen (Eds.). Springer, Cham, 226–241. Search in Google Scholar

[41] Jacob Leon Kröger, Otto Hans-Martin Lutz, and Philip Raschke. 2020. Privacy Implications of Voice and Speech Analysis – Information Disclosure by Inference. In Privacy and Identity Management. Data for Better Living: AI and Privacy, Samuel Fricker et al. (Eds.). Springer, Cham, 242–258. Search in Google Scholar

[42] Jacob Leon Kröger, Otto Hans-Martin Lutz, and Stefan Ullrich. 2021. The myth of individual control: Mapping the limitations of privacy self-management. https://ssrn.com/abstract=3881776.SSRN (2021).10.2139/ssrn.3881776 Search in Google Scholar

[43] Jacob Leon Kröger and Philip Raschke. 2019. Is my phone listening in? On the feasibility and detectability of mobile eavesdropping. In IFIP Annual Conference on Data and Applications Security and Privacy. Springer, 102–120. Search in Google Scholar

[44] Jacob Leon Kröger, Philip Raschke, and Towhidur Rahman Bhuiyan. 2019. Privacy Implications of Accelerometer Data: A Review of Possible Inferences. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Cryptography, Security and Privacy (ICCSP). ACM, New York, NY, 81–87. Search in Google Scholar

[45] Jacob Leon Kröger, Philip Raschke, Jessica Percy Campbell, and Stefan Ullrich. 2021. Surveilling the Gamers: Privacy Impacts of the Video Game Industry. https://ssrn.com/abstract=3881279. SSRN (2021).10.2139/ssrn.3881279 Search in Google Scholar

[46] Justin Kruger and David Dunning. 1999. Unskilled and unaware of it: How difficulties in recognizing one’s own incompetence lead to inflated self-assessments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 77, 6 (1999), 1121. Search in Google Scholar

[47] John Krumm. 2007. Inference Attacks on Location Tracks. In Pervasive Computing, Anthony LaMarca et al. (Eds.). Springer, Cham, 127–143. Search in Google Scholar

[48] Norman J Lass, Karen R Hughes, Melanie D Bowyer, Lucille T Waters, and Victoria T Bourne. 1976. Speaker sex identification from voiced, whispered, and filtered isolated vowels. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 59, 3 (1976), 675–678.10.1121/1.3809171254794 Search in Google Scholar

[49] Marianne Latinus and Pascal Belin. 2011. Human voice perception. Current Biology 21, 4 (2011), R143–R145. Search in Google Scholar

[50] Josephine Lau, Benjamin Zimmerman, and Florian Schaub. 2018. Alexa, Are You Listening?: Privacy Perceptions, Concerns and Privacy-Seeking Behaviors with Smart Speakers. Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction 2 (2018), 1–31.10.1145/3274371 Search in Google Scholar

[51] Josephine Lau, Benjamin Zimmerman, and Florian Schaub. 2018. “Alexa, Stop Recording”: Mismatches between Smart Speaker Privacy Controls and User Needs. In Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security. Search in Google Scholar

[52] Yuting Liao, Jessica Vitak, Priya Kumar, Michael Zimmer, and Katherine Kritikos. 2019. Understanding the Role of Privacy and Trust in Intelligent Personal Assistant Adoption. In Information in Contemporary Society, Natalie Greene Taylor, Caitlin Christian-Lamb, Michelle H. Martin, and Bonnie Nardi (Eds.). Springer, Cham, 102–113. Search in Google Scholar

[53] Daniel J. Liebling and Sören Preibusch. 2014. Privacy Considerations for a Pervasive Eye Tracking World. In Proceedings of the 2014 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing. 1169–1177.10.1145/2638728.2641688 Search in Google Scholar

[54] Natasha Lomas. 2019. Microsoft Tweaks Privacy Policy to Admit Humans Can Listen to Skype Translator and Cortana Audio. https://social.techcrunch.com/2019/08/15/microsoft-tweaks-privacy-policy-to-admit-humans-can-listen-to-skype-translator-and-cortana-audio/ (last accessed on 12 September 2021). Search in Google Scholar

[55] Lydia Manikonda, Aditya Deotale, and Subbarao Kambhampati. 2018. What’s up with Privacy?: User Preferences and Privacy Concerns in Intelligent Personal Assistants. In AAAI/ACM Conference on AI, Ethics, and Society. 229–235. Search in Google Scholar

[56] Alessandro Mantelero. 2018. AI and Big Data: A blueprint for a human rights, social and ethical impact assessment. Computer Law & Security Review 34, 4 (2018), 754–772. Search in Google Scholar

[57] Rob Matheson. 2016. Watch your tone. https://news.mit.edu/2016/startup-cogito-voice-analytics-call-centers-ptsd-0120. (last accessed on 12 September 2021). Search in Google Scholar

[58] Morgan N McCredie and Leslie C Morey. 2019. Who are the Turkers? A characterization of MTurk workers using the personality assessment inventory. Assessment 26, 5 (2019), 759–766. Search in Google Scholar

[59] Mary L McHugh. 2012. Interrater Reliability: The Kappa Statistic. Biochemia Medica 22, 3 (2012), 276–282. Search in Google Scholar

[60] Emily McReynolds, Sarah Hubbard, Timothy Lau, Aditya Saraf, Maya Cakmak, and Franziska Roesner. 2017. Toys That Listen: A Study of Parents, Children, and Internet-Connected Toys. In Proceedings of the CHI Conference. 5197–5207. Search in Google Scholar

[61] Maryam Mehrnezhad, Ehsan Toreini, Siamak F. Shahandashti, and Feng Hao. 2018. Stealing PINs via Mobile Sensors: Actual Risk versus User Perception. International Journal of Information Security 17, 3 (2018), 291–313. Search in Google Scholar

[62] Cristina Mihale-Wilson, Jan Zibuschka, and Oliver Hinz. 2017. About User Preferences and Willingness to Pay for a Secure and Privacy Protective Ubiquitous Personal Assistant. In Proceedings of the 25th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS). Search in Google Scholar

[63] George R Milne, George Pettinico, Fatima M Hajjat, and Ereni Markos. 2017. Information sensitivity typology: Mapping the degree and type of risk consumers perceive in personal data sharing. Journal of Consumer Affairs 51, 1 (2017), 133–161. Search in Google Scholar

[64] Aarthi Easwara Moorthy and Kim-Phuong L. Vu. 2015. Privacy Concerns for Use of Voice Activated Personal Assistant in the Public Space. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction 31, 4 (2015), 307–335. Search in Google Scholar

[65] Evelyne Moyse. 2014. Age estimation from faces and voices: a review. Psychologica Belgica 54, 3 (2014), 255–265. http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/pb.aq10.5334/pb.aq Search in Google Scholar

[66] Dibya Mukhopadhyay, Maliheh Shirvanian, and Nitesh Saxena. 2015. All your voices are belong to us: Stealing voices to fool humans and machines. In European Symposium on Research in Computer Security. Springer, 599–621. Search in Google Scholar

[67] Andreas Nautsch et al. 2019. Preserving privacy in speaker and speech characterisation. Computer Speech & Language 58 (2019), 441–480. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csl.2019.06.00110.1016/j.csl.2019.06.001 Search in Google Scholar

[68] Andreas Nautsch, Catherine Jasserand, Els Kindt, Massimiliano Todisco, Isabel Trancoso, and Nicholas Evans. 2019. The GDPR & Speech Data: Reflections of Legal and Technology Communities, First Steps Towards a Common Understanding. Proc. Interspeech (2019), 3695–3699. Search in Google Scholar

[69] Andreas Nautsch, Jose Patino, Natalia Tomashenko, Junichi Yamagishi, Paul-Gauthier Noe, Jean-Francois Bonastre, Massimiliano Todisco, and Nicholas Evans. 2020. The Privacy ZEBRA: Zero Evidence Biometric Recognition Assessment. In Proc. Interspeech.10.21437/Interspeech.2020-1815 Search in Google Scholar

[70] Evan Niu. 2020. Smart-Speaker Volumes Expected to Jump Next Year. https://www.nasdaq.com/articles/smart-speaker-volumes-expected-to-jump-next-year-2020-10-23 (last accessed on 12 September 2021). Search in Google Scholar

[71] Data Ethics Commission of the Federal Government. 2019. Opinion of the Data Ethics Commission. German Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection, Berlin. Search in Google Scholar

[72] Tobias Olsson, Ulli Samuelsson, and Dino Viscovi. 2019. At risk of exclusion? Degrees of ICT access and literacy among senior citizens. Information, Communication & Society 22, 1 (2019), 55–72.10.1080/1369118X.2017.1355007 Search in Google Scholar

[73] Kuan Ee Brian Ooi, Margaret Lech, and Nicholas B Allen. 2012. Multichannel weighted speech classification system for prediction of major depression in adolescents. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 60, 2 (2012), 497–506. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TBME.2012.222864610.1109/TBME.2012.222864623192475 Search in Google Scholar

[74] Yaakov Ophir, Itay Sisso, Christa SC Asterhan, Refael Tikochinski, and Roi Reichart. 2020. The Turker Blues: Hidden Factors Behind Increased Depression Rates Among Amazon’s Mechanical Turkers. Clinical Psychological Science 8, 1 (2020), 65–83. Search in Google Scholar

[75] Elleen Pan, Jingjing Ren, Martina Lindorfer, Christo Wilson, and David Chones. 2018. Panoptispy: Characterizing Audio and Video Exfiltration from Android Applications. In Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies. 33–50.10.1515/popets-2018-0030 Search in Google Scholar

[76] A Parasuraman and Charles L Colby. 2015. An Updated and Streamlined Technology Readiness Index: TRI 2.0. Journal of Service Research 18, 1 (2015), 59–74. Search in Google Scholar

[77] Sarah Perez. 2019. Report: Voice assistants in use to triple to 8 billion by 2023. https://techcrunch.com/2019/02/12/report-voice-assistants-in-use-to-triple-to-8-billion-by-2023 (last accessed on 12 September 2021). Search in Google Scholar

[78] Tim Polzehl. 2016. Personality in Speech: Assessment and Automatic Classification. Springer, Cham.10.1007/978-3-319-09516-5 Search in Google Scholar

[79] Lesandro Ponciano, Pedro Barbosa, Francisco Brasileiro, Andrey Brito, and Nazareno Andrade. 2017. Designing for Pragmatists and Fundamentalists: Privacy Concerns and Attitudes on the Internet of Things. In Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems.10.1145/3160504.3160545 Search in Google Scholar

[80] Andrew Raij, Animikh Ghosh, Santosh Kumar, and Mani Srivastava. 2011. Privacy Risks Emerging from the Adoption of Innocuous Wearable Sensors in the Mobile Environment. In Proceedings of the CHI Conference. ACM.10.1145/1978942.1978945 Search in Google Scholar

[81] Kari Rea. 2013. Glenn Greenwald: Low-Level NSA Analysts Have ’Powerful and Invasive’ Search Tool. http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/politics/2013/07/glenn-greenwald-low-level-nsa-analysts-have-powerful-andinvasive-search-tool Search in Google Scholar

[82] Elissa M Redmiles, Sean Kross, and Michelle L Mazurek. 2019. How well do my results generalize? Comparing security and privacy survey results from MTurk, web, and telephone samples. In 2019 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy. 1326–1343.10.1109/SP.2019.00014 Search in Google Scholar

[83] Seyed Omid Sadjadi, Sriram Ganapathy, and Jason W Pelecanos. 2016. Speaker age estimation on conversational telephone speech using senone posterior based i-vectors. In 2016 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP). 5040–5044. Search in Google Scholar

[84] Florian Schiel. 2011. Perception of alcoholic intoxication in speech. In Proc. Interspeech. 3281–3284.10.21437/Interspeech.2011-808 Search in Google Scholar

[85] Björn Schuller, Stefan Steidl, Anton Batliner, Elmar Nöth, Alessandro Vinciarelli, Felix Burkhardt, Rob van Son, Felix Weninger, Florian Eyben, Tobias Bocklet, Gelareh Mohammadi, and Benjamin Weiss. 2015. A Survey on Perceived Speaker Traits: Personality, Likability, Pathology, and the First Challenge. Computer Speech & Language 29, 1 (2015), 100–131.10.1016/j.csl.2014.08.003 Search in Google Scholar

[86] Björn Schuller, Stefan Steidl, Anton Batliner, Florian Schiel, Jarek Krajewski, Felix Weninger, and Florian Eyben. 2014. Medium-term speaker states — A review on intoxication, sleepiness and the first challenge. Computer Speech & Language 28, 2 (2014), 346–374.10.1016/j.csl.2012.12.002 Search in Google Scholar

[87] Amit Kumar Sikder, Giuseppe Petracca, Hidayet Aksu, Trent Jaeger, and A. Selcuk Uluagac. 2018. A Survey on Sensor-Based Threats to Internet-of-Things (IoT) Devices and Applications. arXiv:1802.02041 [cs] (2018). Search in Google Scholar

[88] Dave Smith. 2019. MicrophoneGate: The World’s Biggest Tech Companies Were Caught Sending Sensitive Audio from Customers to Human Contractors. Here’s Where They Stand Now. https://www.businessinsider.com/amazon-apple-google-microsoft-assistants-sent-audio-contractors-2019-8 Search in Google Scholar

[89] Daniel J Solove. 2013. Privacy self-management and the consent dilemma. Harvard Law Review 126 (2013), 1880. Search in Google Scholar

[90] Raphael Spreitzer, Veelasha Moonsamy, Thomas Korak, and Stefan Mangard. 2018. Systematic Classification of Side-Channel Attacks: A Case Study for Mobile Devices. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials 20, 1 (2018), 465–488. Search in Google Scholar

[91] Anna Ståhlbröst, Annika Sällström, and Danilo Hollosi. 2014. Audio Monitoring in Smart Cities – an Information Privacy Perspective. In 12th International Conference e-Society. 35–44. Search in Google Scholar

[92] Dan Stowell, Dimitrios Giannoulis, Emmanouil Benetos, Mathieu Lagrange, and Mark D Plumbley. 2015. Detection and classification of acoustic scenes and events. IEEE Transactions on Multimedia 17, 10 (2015), 1733–1746. Search in Google Scholar

[93] SoSci Survey. 2020. The Solution for Professional Online Questionnaires. https://www.soscisurvey.de/en/index Search in Google Scholar

[94] Dan Svantesson and Roger Clarke. 2010. Privacy and consumer risks in cloud computing. Computer Law & Security Review 26, 4 (2010), 391–397. Search in Google Scholar

[95] Monorama Swain, Aurobinda Routray, and P. Kabisatpathy. 2018. Databases, Features and Classifiers for Speech Emotion Recognition: A Review. International Journal of Speech Technology 21, 1 (2018), 93–120. Search in Google Scholar

[96] VoiceSense. 2020. Speech Analysis as a Talent Recruiting and Retention Tool. https://www.voicesense.com/solutions/talent-recruiting-and-retention. Search in Google Scholar

[97] Sandra Wachter and Brent Mittelstadt. 2019. A right to reasonable inferences: Re-thinking data protection law in the age of big data and AI. Colum. Bus. L. Rev. (2019), 494–620. Search in Google Scholar

[98] Kelly Walters, Dimitri A Christakis, and Davene R Wright. 2018. Are Mechanical Turk worker samples representative of health status and health behaviors in the US? PlOS One 13, 6 (2018), e0198835. Search in Google Scholar

[99] Wikipedia. [n.d.]. Nothing to hide argument. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nothing_to_hide_argument (last accessed on 12 September 2021). Search in Google Scholar

[100] Wikipedia. [n.d.]. Telephone tapping. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telephone_tapping (last accessed on 12 September 2021). Search in Google Scholar

[101] Heng Xu, Tamara Dinev, Jeff Smith, and Paul Hart. 2011. Information privacy concerns: Linking individual perceptions with institutional privacy assurances. Journal of the Association of Information Systems 12, 12 (2011), 798–824. Search in Google Scholar

[102] Eric Zeng, Shrirang Mare, and Franziska Roesner. 2017. End user security and privacy concerns with smart homes. In Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security (Santa Clara, CA, USA). 65–80. Search in Google Scholar

[103] Serena Zheng, Noah Apthorpe, Marshini Chetty, and Nick Feamster. 2018. User Perceptions of Smart Home IoT Privacy. Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction 2 (2018), 1–20. Search in Google Scholar

Artículos recomendados de Trend MD

Planifique su conferencia remota con Sciendo