To better understand the factors controlling the quartz luminescence sensitivity in loess deposits, samples from two loess sections in southern Tajikistan are investigated. Both pattern and amplitude in the variations of quartz luminescence sensitivity of these two sections are similar, showing higher values in pedocomplex units and lower values in the loess units. Similar trends of variation are found between the quartz luminescence sensitivity and climate proxies, including frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility, median grain size and IRSL/[post-IR] OSL ratio. Laboratory experiments involving thermal activation and repeated bleaching/irradiation cycles reveal much larger sensitivity enhancement for samples with initial lower sensitivity from loess units than those from pedocomplex units with higher sensitivity. The observed systematic contrast in quartz luminescence sensitivity between the loess and pedocomplex units are interpreted as resulting from the differentiation of the weathering products from the source area and subsequent sensitization during the sedimentary transfer prior to deposition.
Quartz luminescence sensitivity represents the efficiency with which the mineral stores the energy received from the radiation and subsequently, upon stimulation, converts the stored energy into luminescence. It can be quantified by the light intensity generated by unit dose of laboratory irradiation and unit mass. Luminescence sensitivity of quartz in sediments is mainly controlled by two factors. First, it is intrinsic to the property of the parent rocks (Preusser et al., 2009; Wintle and Adamiec, 2017). The crystallization processes, thermal and radiation history of the host rocks determine the crystal structure of minerals, as well as the concentration and types of intrinsic defects in quartz crystal, hence influencing the quartz luminescence sensitivity (Preusser et al., 2009; Sawakuchi et al., 2011; Jeong and Choi, 2012; Sanderson and Kinnaird, 2019). The second factor is the sediment transport history. Experiments in the laboratory show that irradiation, heating and bleaching processes can lead to changes in luminescence sensitivity (e.g. Zimmerman, 1971; Zhou and Wintle, 1994; Vartanian et al., 2000; Zheng et al., 2009; Nian et al., 2019). Under natural conditions, similar processes which occur during the sediment transportation can influence the quartz luminescence sensitivity as well. The longer distance the quartz grains are transported, the more cycles the quartz grains experience and the higher luminescence sensitivity becomes during the source-to-sink routing processes (e.g. Preusser et al., 2006; Pietsch et al., 2008; Fitzsimmons, 2011).
Central Asia is one of the largest loess deposition areas in the world (Dodonov, 1991; Dodonov and Zhou, 2008). Here, silty materials are transported by the westerly wind (Dodonov, 1991; Smalley et al., 2006). Previous luminescence studies in this area have focused on the dating of the loess-pedocomplex sequences and properties of luminescence signals from the loess samples (Frechen and Dodonov, 1998; Zhou et al., 2010). To further test the applicability of the luminescence sensitivity as a tool for provenance study, this study sets out to investigate the characteristics and temporal variation of the luminescence sensitivity for the quartz grains from two loess sections in southern Tajikistan, Central Asia. Laboratory experiments are designed to simulate various sedimentary processes and to better understand their effects as controlling factors for the luminescence sensitivity. Based on the results obtained, mechanisms that consider the influence of both the rock property and subsequent sedimentary changes on the quartz luminescence sensitivity are discussed.
The Alay mountain range extends from Tien Shan westwards in a belt over 1000 km and divides the lower area of Tajikistan into northern and southern regions. The other principal mountain in Tajikistan is the Pamir Plateau, which dominates the eastern half of the country with an average elevation higher than 4000 m.
The climate in the region is continental, and the mid-latitude westerlies are a vital driving force in transporting moisture to Central Asia (Vandenberghe et al., 2006; Caves et al., 2015). The precipitation is high in spring and winter, and low in summer and autumn.
Khonako and Darai Kalon loess sections which are located in piedmont of western Pamir Plateau with an approximate altitude of 2000 m represent two of the most typical and complete loess-paleosol profiles in this area (Fig. 1b). The thickness of both sections are over 100 m and nine paedocomplexes separated by loess units are formed in the Brunhes epoch (Dodonov and Baiguzina, 1995; Dodonov et al., 1999). These two loess sections are located in the intermontane basin belonged to the Karakum block, which borders the southern Tien Shan orogenic belt to the north and Pamir terranes to the southeast (Li, 2010).
The strata of the Pamir terranes are mainly composed of the Precambrian metamorphic basement, Palaeozoic (mainly Neopaleozoic) to Mesozoic sedimentary rocks and Palaeozoic to Cenozoic igneous rocks (Chapman et al., 2018). The lithology of the metamorphic basement includes gneiss, schist, amphibolite, marble and quartzite. The main types of igneous rocks are granite and granodiorite. Besides, the Pamir gneiss domes with a large area containing amphibolite-facies sedimentary and igneous rocks buried, metamorphosed and exhumed in the Cenozoic are distributed in the Pamir terranes (Robinson et al., 2004, 2007; Rutte et al., 2017). The Precambrian metamorphic basement rocks are also exposed in the South Tien Shan orogenic belt, which are overlain by the strata of the Paleozoic sedimentary rocks. The intrusive rocks are mainly from Late Carboniferous to Early Permian, the main type of the intrusive rocks is granite (Ren et al., 2013). The diversity of source rocks in the study area provides a large amount of weathering products of complex compositions for loess deposition.
MATERIALS AND METHOD
In this study, 37 samples and 30 samples were collected from the Khonako section and the Darai Kalon section respectively, all from the loess unit L1 to pedocomplex PC2.
Samples were treated under subdued red light in the laboratory using the procedure of Qin and Zhou (2009). 30% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and 10% hydrochloric acid (HCl) were used to remove the organic matter and carbonate. Polymineral fine-grained fraction (4–11 μm) was separated according to Strokes’ Law. The >45μm fraction was obtained by wet sieving and 11–45μm fraction was also collected. Polymineral in these three different grain-size fractions were treated with 10% silica-saturated hydrofluosilicic acid (H2SiF6) to dissolve the feldspar and then subsequently washed by hot 10% HCl and deionized water to extract the quartz. The purity of the quartz was verified by the low ratio (< 3%) of initial IRSL to blue OSL signals.
All the measurements were performed using a Risø TL/OSL-DA-15 reader. The luminescence sensitivity of quartz was measured following the procedures of Zheng et al. (2009). Ten aliquots per samples were given a dose of ∼14.5 Gy after bleaching at room temperature using blue LED for 100 s, then the aliquots were heated to 220°C to measure the TL signal of the irradiation dose, the signal from 60°C to 120°C were integrated to provide the 110°C TL sensitivity. The OSL signal was then subsequently stimulated by blue light (470 ± 30 nm) LED (90% of 50 mW/cm2) at 125°C for 40 s. The heating rate in all thermal treatments is 5°C/s. The initial 0.64 s of the signal was integrated for sensitivity determination after subtraction of the signal of the last 3.2 s as the background. All the quartz grains on aliquots were weighted with a Sartorius BS300S analytic balance with a precision of 0.1 mg. The sample weight on each aliquot is about 1.5 mg.
The post-IR OSL procedures have also been performed on the polymineral grains; the natural signal was bleached with blue light at room temperature for 100 s. Then a laboratory irradiation dose of ∼63.4 Gy was given. After preheating at 240°C for 10 s, the IRSL and OSL signal were subsequently measured at 50°C and at 125°C for 100 s, respectively. The signal of initial 3.2 s were integrated after subtraction of the signal of the last 20 s as the background. The ratio of IR intensity to OSL intensity was then calculated. This ratio is considered to reflect the relative content of feldspar and quartz, which is interpreted as indicating the degree of chemical weathering (Wang and Miao, 2006; Sawakuchi et al., 2018).
The frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility was measured using the Bartington MS2 Susceptibility Meter (e.g. Zhou et al., 1990). The median grain size of the studied samples was obtained with the measurements using a Malvern Mastersizer 2000 laser particle size analyzer.
The thermal activation experiments were carried out to investigate the quartz luminescence characteristics (Aitken, 1985). Following the procedures of Zheng et al. (2009), the aliquots were bleached with blue light for 100 s, then each aliquot was progressively heated to a higher temperature from 200°C to 500°C with an increment of 20°C. The luminescence sensitivity was measured between each heat treatment after receiving the irradiation dose. At least four aliquots were measured for each sample.
The irradiation-bleaching cycles experiments were designed to investigate the effect of repeated irradiation-bleaching on the luminescence sensitivity. The aliquots were divided into six groups. All the aliquots were first bleached at room temperature with blue light for 100 s to eliminate the natural signals. Then the aliquots received repeated dosing/bleaching treatments. The irradiation/bleaching cycles were repeated for 5, 10, 15, 20, 50 and 100 times, respectively for different groups, followed by the measurements of the luminescence sensitivity.
Quartz luminescence sensitivity
The down-profile variations in luminescence sensitivity of OSL signals (0–0.64 s) and 110°C TL signals for quartz grains of 4–11 μm are shown in Fig. 2. Luminescence sensitivity for most samples from pedocomplex units is higher than those from the loess units. The fluctuation of both the TL and OSL sensitivity is similar. Both the trend and amplitude of the variations are consistent between these two sections. The variations in the quartz luminescence sensitivity also parallel three climate proxies plotted in Fig. 2, the IR/[post-IR] OSL ratio, median grain size and frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility (χfd), which clearly differentiate the pedocomplex and loess units. The variations of quartz OSL and 110°C TL luminescence sensitivity of different grain size fractions are generally consistent with each other (Figs. 3a and 3b). A plot of >45 μm and 11–45 μm quartz OSL sensitivity versus 4–11 μm quartz OSL sensitivity is shown in Fig. 3c. The blue and red lines with the slope of 0.46 and 0.89 respectively represent the linear fitting of the two data sets.
Thermal activation curves (TAC)
The thermal activation experiments have been performed on three samples taken from different depths and with different luminescence sensitivities. Sample L3114 from the top of loess unit L1 which corresponds to the last glacial maximum displays the lowest luminescence sensitivity (1.60 ± 0.08 103 (counts/mg)/Gy for 4–11 μm grains and 0.48 ± 0.06 103 (counts/mg)/Gy for >45 μm grains) among these three samples, while sample L3131 from the pedocomplex PC1 displays the highest value (37.2 ± 3.2 (103 (cts/mg)/Gy for 4–11 μm grains and 6.70 ± 0.70 (103 (cts/mg)/Gy for >45 μm grains). The OSL sensitivities for the quartz grains of 4–11 μm and >45 μm after progressive thermal activation are shown in Figs. 4a and 4c and the results after normalization to the initial sensitivity are shown in the Figs. 4b and 4d. The OSL sensitivity increases with the annealing temperature dramatically, especially when the annealing temperature is above 350°C. The OSL sensitivity of these three samples exhibits significantly different features in the thermal activation experiments. The amplitude of the enhancement in the OSL sensitivity displays an opposite trend to the initial OSL sensitivity. The sensitivity of the sample L3114 is increased 44.8 ± 4.1 times and 102.0 ± 9.4 times after thermal activation to 500°C for 4–11 μm and >45 μm grains respectively, much larger than the other two samples. For the sample L3131, which displays the highest luminescence sensitivity, the enhancement is 9.8 ± 0.6 times for the 4–11 μm grains and 5.2 ± 0.7 times for the >45 μm grains.
Effects of the repeated irradiation-bleaching treatment on the luminescence sensitivity
The quartz OSL sensitivities for these three samples after different cycles of irradiation-bleaching treatments are shown in Figs. 5a and 5b. Figs. 5c and 5d display the results after normalization to the initial sensitivity. There is a general increasing trend in the OSL sensitivity with the cycle times for all the three samples (Figs. 5a and 5b). The difference is clearly seen after the normalization (Figs. 5c and 5d). For sample L3114, whose OSL sensitivity is the lowest among the three samples, the OSL sensitivity of 4–11 μm and >45 μm quartz grains increases by 3.6 ± 0.1 and 2.6 ± 0.1 times respectively after 100 cycles of irradiation/bleaching treatment, which are much significant than observed in the other two samples.
The parallelism in the variations between the quartz luminescence sensitivity and climate proxies (Fig. 2) suggests a potential linkage between the quartz luminescence property and climate change. Similar parallelism was observed in Chinese loess deposits and a climate control on the source-to-sink distance and associated sedimentary cycling was proposed to explain the quartz luminescence sensitivity variations (Lü et al., 2014). However, unlike loess field in China, the source materials for loess in Central Asia are mainly from Tien Shan Mountain and Pamir Plateau and the dominant dust transporting wind in the source-transfer-accumulation system of loess deposition in southern Tajikistan is the westerlies (Dodonov, 1991; Smalley et al., 2006; Youn et al., 2014). Therefore, a mechanism responsible for the luminescence sensitivity difference documented here for the Tajik loess sequences must be sought.
Frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility reflects the content of ultrafine-grained ferromagnetic minerals formed secondarily in the pedogenic process, which is most influenced by the temperature and humidity conditions at the deposition site (Zhou et al., 1990; Heller et al., 1991). The grain size of the loess reflects the wind strength and the relative source-to-sink distance (Pye, 1989; Machalett et al., 2008). The IRSL/[post-IR] OSL ratios is used to estimate the relative content of feldspar and quartz as result of chemical weathering (Wang and Miao, 2006; Sawakuchi et al., 2018), which may take place before or after deposition. All of the three climate proxies display clear discrepancy between the loess and pedocomplex units, which reflect climate change between glacial and interglacial periods. How could glacial-interglacial climate changes affect quartz luminescence sensitivity? The pedogenic processes, though involve energy transformation and element migration, are too weak to alter quartz intrinsic property that determines the luminescence sensitivity. By the same token, there is no obvious mechanism that allows the chemical weathering at the source or after deposition to alter the luminescence sensitivity. Constrained by the specific loess depositional system (Dodonov, 1991) and the relatively short distance between source and accumulation site as revealed by the analysis of the chemical compositions of the Tajik loess (Li et al., 2016), the changes in wind strength is also unlikely to cause significant difference in the source-to-sink distance between glacial and interglacial periods, thus unable to create contrast in quartz luminescence sensitivity. Apart from the direct effects discussed above, can the climate change play an indirect role in modulating quartz luminescence sensitivity during the production, storage, transfer, deposition and alteration stages throughout the loess and paleosol formation (Pécsi, 1990)?
As thermal activation curves reflect the activation energies distribution of the luminescence and non-luminescence centers (Aitken, 1985), which is determined by quartz types and is insensitive to the sedimentary history, they can be used to reflect the origins of quartz (Zheng et al., 2009, Zheng and Zhou, 2012; Nian et al., 2019, Chang and Zhou, 2019). The thermal activation experiment results presented in Fig. 4 clearly point to the fundamental difference in quartz genesis and source rock compositions for the samples representative of the two lithologies. As mentioned early, the study area is composed of strata with different ages and lithologies, which experienced complicated geological, thermal and radiation histories. The minerals including quartz must have experienced multiple diagenetic phase transformation, thermal and radiation exposure, erosion-sedimentation cycles during the long-term geological periods, which determine the lattice defect configuration associated with the state of electron and hole population (Sanderson and Kinnaird, 2019). Thus, the genesis of the quartz grains in the source rocks are complicated in Central Asia, so would be their luminescence characteristics. How could such complex source rocks systematically create differentiated materials between glacial and interglacial periods?
Source rocks must be weathered to produce materials for loess deposition. Weathering products in mountain areas of Central Asia are mainly produced by the mechanical processes in glacial environments and chemical processes are considered to be less significant (von Eynatten et al., 2012). During the glacial periods, physical weathering intensity would increase with the glacial advance (e.g. Hallet et al., 1996; Koppes and Montgomery, 2009; Herman et al., 2013). During the interglacial periods, the glacier would retreat. The increase in the temperature and rainfall can lead to the enhancement in the chemical weathering intensity (Lupker et al., 2013; Clift et al., 2014). The weathering intensity and patterns would then alternate between the glacial and interglacial periods. As such, the source available for aeolian deposition would undergo a systematic change between glacial and interglacial periods.
In addition, there is a much overlooked but important aspect of weathering, i.e. the difference in the resistance to weathering for different source rocks. The rate of weathering depends on the composition of the constituent minerals, as well as the rock structures (e.g. Pye, 1986; Labus, 2008; Israeli and Emmanuel, 2018). As the weathering rate is a function of climate and properties of the source rocks (e.g. Egli et al., 2003; Soreghan et al., 2015), the responses of both physical and chemical weathering rate to the climate changes for the rocks with different resistance are highly divergent (e.g. Römer, 2007; Eppes and Keanini, 2017), which could result in the changes in the composition of weathering products including the quartz genesis (Vogt et al., 2010; Lupker et al., 2013; Clift et al., 2014; Liu et al., 2013). These changes in the composition of the quartz grains weathered from different types of rocks within the same source area can lead to variations in the luminescence characteristic of quartz grains in the weathering products, and finally in the loess materials. Indeed, previous studies have found discrepancies in the quartz luminescence sensitivity between different rocks (e.g. Sawakuchi et al., 2011; Guralnik et al., 2015). Therefore the differentiation of the quartz genesis in the weathering products is considered as a primary mechanism to cause the contrast in the luminescence characteristics of loess and pedocomplex in the southern Tajikistan.
There is another sedimentary process that can specifically affect the quartz luminescence sensitivity, i.e. the repeated irradiation-burial-exposure during the storage and transfer stages of loess formation. In the laboratory irradiation-bleaching experiments shown in Figs. 5a and 5b, stronger sensitization in the luminescence sensitivity is observed for the sample with relatively low sensitivity. For the quartz grains with relatively high sensitivity, which probably have been sensitized in the field, the sensitization is limited (Fig. 5). During the glacial period, the physical weathering would enhance due to the intensive freeze-thaw weathering and glacial activity (Herman et al., 2013; Koppes and Montgomery, 2009), the amount of the fresh materials weathered from the bedrock would increase. This is likely accompanied by reduced cycles of the irradiation and bleaching and shorter storage time during the transfer stage. Loess deposited during the glacial periods will contain more freshly weathered materials and less sensitized quartz grains with lower luminescence sensitivity (e.g. Rhodes and Bailey, 1997; Richards, 2000; Thrasher et al., 2009). By contrast, during the interglacial periods, the physical weathering is weakened, and the amount of the newly weathered materials decreases, the proportion of the materials which have been transported for a long distance and received more irradiation and bleaching cycles will increase. So does the proportion of sensitized quartz grains. In this way, the shifts between the glacial and interglacial climate exert significant effects on the variations in the quartz luminescence sensitivity, as observed in the loess and pedocomplex units.
With the mechanisms described above to account for the variations in quartz luminescence sensitivity between the loess and pedocomplex units, one would also expect differences in the extent of sensitization for different grain sizes. Indeed, a comparison of the OSL luminescence sensitivity between the three size fractions reveals a decreasing trend with increased grain size (Fig. 3c). Additionally, the enhancement of luminescence sensitivity as a result of irradiation-bleaching cycles is lower in the coarser fraction than in the fine fraction (Figs. 5c and 5d). This could be due to the less irradiation-bleaching cycles experienced by the coarser quartz grains which are likely originated from a more proximal site. However, caution must be made in interpreting the difference in luminescence sensitivity observed in Fig. 3c as there is a lack of knowledge about the effect of the surface to volume ratios of these grain sizes on the luminescence. Furthermore, the effect of the difference in the type and history of irradiation experienced by grains of different sizes must also be considered. Therefore the comparison data for varying grain size fractions presented in this paper should be viewed as an appeal for a deeper understanding of the luminescence sensitivity of detrital quartz.
Recently, Sharma et al. (2017) examined quartz samples from various sedimentary environments using a range of spectroscopic devices in addition to the TL and OSL measurements. They found that the OSL sensitivity and water content in quartz are negatively correlated. Our current data do not allow us to link the low quartz OSL sensitivity in loess and high OSL sensitivity in pedocomplex units with their respective water content in the crystal structure. Nevertheless, the observed consistent contrast between loess and paleosol provides an ideal pair of samples for advancing our understanding of the variations in luminescence sensitivity of sedimentary quartz using the approach employed by Sharma et al. (2017).
Luminescence sensitivity of sedimentary quartz to radiation has been measured for the Khonako and Darai Kalon loess sections in southern Tajikistan, Central Asia. Both sections display variations with higher values in the pedocomplex units and lower values in the loess units. Similar trends are found between the luminescence sensitivity and proxies that display glacial-interglacial climate changes. Thermal activation experiments show that quartz in loess and pedocomplex samples have different characteristics, which is most likely related to the source changes. Repeated bleaching/irradiation cycles in the laboratory cause stronger sensitization in loess than in pedocomplex samples. The primary cause for the observed systematic difference in quartz luminescence properties is the climate-controlled changes in the composition of the weathering products from different source rocks. This mechanism emphasizes a process taking place in the same source area where the rate of weathering varies under glacial and interglacial climates and with different rocks. During the subsequent storage and transfer stages prior to deposition, the variations in irradiation-burial-exposure cycles which can cause sensitization of quartz luminescence sensitivity are also affected by local climate changes. Although this study sets out to understand the mechanisms underlying the linkage between the observed quartz luminescence characteristics in Tajik loess and climate changes, it highlights the complexity in the production and propagation of signals in source areas through a sedimentary system and calls for more investigations on the modification of provenance signals and environmental signals in the seemingly simple loess deposition system.
Aitken MJ, 1985. Thermoluminescence dating. Academic Press, London.AitkenMJ1985Academic PressLondonSearch in Google Scholar
Aitken MJ, 1998. An introduction to luminescence dating. Oxford University Press.AitkenMJ1998Oxford University Press10.1007/978-1-4757-9694-0_7Search in Google Scholar
Caves JK, Winnick MJ, Graham SA, Sjostrom DJ, Mulch A and Chamberlain CP, 2015. Role of the westerlies in Central Asia climate over the Cenozoic. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 428: 33–43, DOI 10.1016/j.epsl.2015.07.023.CavesJKWinnickMJGrahamSASjostromDJMulchAChamberlainCP2015Role of the westerlies in Central Asia climate over the Cenozoic428334310.1016/j.epsl.2015.07.023Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Chang ZH and Zhou LP, 2019. Evidence for provenance change in deep sea sediments of the Bengal Fan: A 7 Ma record from IODP U1444A. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 186: 104008, DOI 10.1016/j.jseaes.2019.104008.ChangZHZhouLP2019Evidence for provenance change in deep sea sediments of the Bengal Fan: A 7 Ma record from IODP U1444A186104008,10.1016/j.jseaes.2019.104008Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Chapman JB, Scoggin SH, Kapp P, Carrapa B, Ducea MN, Worthington J, Oimahmadov I and Gadoev M, 2018. Mesozoic to Cenozoic magmatic history of the Pamir. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 482: 181–192, DOI 10.1016/j.epsl.2017.10.041.ChapmanJBScogginSHKappPCarrapaBDuceaMNWorthingtonJOimahmadovIGadoevM2018Mesozoic to Cenozoic magmatic history of the Pamir48218119210.1016/j.epsl.2017.10.041Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Clift P, Wan S and Blusztajn J, 2014. Reconstructing chemical weathering, physical erosion and monsoon intensity since 25 ma in the northern south china sea: A review of competing proxies. Earth-Science Reviews 130: 86–102, DOI 10.1016/j.earscirev.2014.01.002.CliftPWanSBlusztajnJ2014Reconstructing chemical weathering, physical erosion and monsoon intensity since 25 ma in the northern south china sea: A review of competing proxies1308610210.1016/j.earscirev.2014.01.002Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Ding ZL, Ranov V, Yang SL, Finaev A, Han JM and Wang GA, 2002. The loess record in southern Tajikistan and correlation with Chinese loess. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 200(3–4): 387–400, DOI 10.1016/S0012-821X(02)00637-4.DingZLRanovVYangSLFinaevAHanJMWangGA2002The loess record in southern Tajikistan and correlation with Chinese loess2003–438740010.1016/S0012-821X(02)00637-4Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Dodonov AE, 1991. Loess of Central Asia. GeoJournal 24(2): 185–194, DOI 10.1007/BF00186015.DodonovAE1991Loess of Central Asia24218519410.1007/BF00186015Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Dodonov AE and Baiguzina LL, 1995. Loess stratigraphy of Central Asia: Palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental aspects. Quaternary Science Reviews 14(7): 707–720, DOI 10.1016/0277-3791(95)00054-2.DodonovAEBaiguzinaLL1995Loess stratigraphy of Central Asia: Palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental aspects14770772010.1016/0277-3791(95)00054-2Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Dodonov AE, Shackleton N, Zhou LP, Lomov SP and Finaev AF, 1999. Quaternary loess-paleosol stratigraphy of Central Asia: Geochronology, correlation, and evolution of paleoenvironments. Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation 7(6): 581–593.DodonovAEShackletonNZhouLPLomovSPFinaevAF1999Quaternary loess-paleosol stratigraphy of Central Asia: Geochronology, correlation, and evolution of paleoenvironments76581593Search in Google Scholar
Dodonov AE and Zhou LP, 2008. Loess deposition in Asia: its initiation and development before and during the Quaternary. Episodes 31(2): 222–225, DOI 10.18814/epiiugs/2008/v31i2/006.DodonovAEZhouLP2008Loess deposition in Asia: its initiation and development before and during the Quaternary31222222510.18814/epiiugs/2008/v31i2/006Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Egli M, Mirabella A, Sartori G and Fitze P, 2003. Weathering rates as a function of climate: Results from a climosequence of the val genova (trentino, italian alps). Geoderma 111(1): 99–121, DOI 10.1016/S0016-7061(02)00256-2.EgliMMirabellaASartoriGFitzeP2003Weathering rates as a function of climate: Results from a climosequence of the val genova (trentino, italian alps)11119912110.1016/S0016-7061(02)00256-2Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Eppes M and Keanini R, 2017. Mechanical weathering and rock erosion by climate - dependent subcritical cracking. Reviews of Geophysics 55(2): 470–508, DOI 10.1002/2017RG000557.EppesMKeaniniR2017Mechanical weathering and rock erosion by climate - dependent subcritical cracking55247050810.1002/2017RG000557Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Fitzsimmons KE, 2011. An assessment of the luminescence sensitivity of Australian quartz with respect to sediment history. Geochronometria 38(3): 199–208, DOI 10.2478/s13386-011-0030-9.FitzsimmonsKE2011An assessment of the luminescence sensitivity of Australian quartz with respect to sediment history38319920810.2478/s13386-011-0030-9Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Frechen M and Dodonov AE, 1998. Loess chronology of the middle and upper Pleistocene in Tadjikistan. Geologische Rundschau 87(1): 2–20, DOI 10.1007/s005310050185.FrechenMDodonovAE1998Loess chronology of the middle and upper Pleistocene in Tadjikistan87122010.1007/s005310050185Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Guralnik B, Ankjærgaard C, Jain M, Murray AS, Müller A, Lowick SE, Preusser F, Rhodes EJ, Wu T, Mathew G and Herman F, 2015. OSL-thermochronometry using bedrock quartz: A note of caution. Quaternary Geochronology 25: 37–48, DOI 10.1016/j.quageo.2014.09.001.GuralnikBAnkjærgaardCJainMMurrayASMüllerALowickSEPreusserFRhodesEJWuTMathewGHermanF2015OSL-thermochronometry using bedrock quartz: A note of caution25374810.1016/j.quageo.2014.09.001Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Hallet B, Hunter L and Bogen J, 1996. Rates of erosion and sediment evacuation by glaciers: A review of field data and their implications. Global and Planetary Change 12(1): 213–235, DOI 10.1016/0921-8181(95)00021-6.HalletBHunterLBogenJ1996Rates of erosion and sediment evacuation by glaciers: A review of field data and their implications12121323510.1016/0921-8181(95)00021-6Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Heller F, Liu X, Liu T and Xu T, 1991. Magnetic susceptibility of loess in China. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 103(1–4): 301–310, DOI 10.1016/0012-821X(91)90168-H.HellerFLiuXLiuTXuT1991Magnetic susceptibility of loess in China1031–430131010.1016/0012-821X(91)90168-HApri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Herman F, Seward D, Valla PG, Carter A, Kohn B, Willett SD and Ehlers TA, 2013. Worldwide acceleration of mountain erosion under a cooling climate. Nature 504(7480): 423–426, DOI 10.1038/nature12877.HermanFSewardDVallaPGCarterAKohnBWillettSDEhlersTA2013Worldwide acceleration of mountain erosion under a cooling climate504748042342610.1038/nature1287724352288Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Israeli Y and Emmanuel S, 2018. Impact of grain size and rock composition on simulated rock weathering. Earth Surface Dynamics 6(2): 319–327, DOI 10.5194/esurf-6-319-2018.IsraeliYEmmanuelS2018Impact of grain size and rock composition on simulated rock weathering6231932710.5194/esurf-6-319-2018Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Jeong GY and Choi JH, 2012. Variations in quartz OSL components with lithology, weathering and transportation. Quaternary Geochronology 10: 320–326, DOI 10.1016/j.quageo.2012.02.023.JeongGYChoiJH2012Variations in quartz OSL components with lithology, weathering and transportation1032032610.1016/j.quageo.2012.02.023Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Koppes MN and Montgomery DR, 2009. The relative efficacy of fluvial and glacial erosion over modern to orogenic timescales. Nature Geoscience 2(9): 644–647, DOI 10.1038/ngeo616.KoppesMNMontgomeryDR2009The relative efficacy of fluvial and glacial erosion over modern to orogenic timescales2964464710.1038/ngeo616Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Labus M, 2008. Evaluation of weathering-resistance classes in clastic rocks on the example of polish sandstones. Environmental Geology 54(2): 283–289, DOI 10.1007/s00254-007-0816-5.LabusM2008Evaluation of weathering-resistance classes in clastic rocks on the example of polish sandstones54228328910.1007/s00254-007-0816-5Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Li B, Li SH, Chen YY, Sun JM and Yang LR, 2007. OSL dating of sediments from deserts in northern China. Quaternary Geochronology 2(1): 23–28, DOI 10.1016/j.quageo.2006.05.034.LiBLiSHChenYYSunJMYangLR2007OSL dating of sediments from deserts in northern China21232810.1016/j.quageo.2006.05.034Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Li HH, 2010. Guides on the exploration and exploitation of mineral resources for five countries in Central Asia. China University of Geosciences press, Wuhan (in Chinese).LiHH2010China University of Geosciences pressWuhan(in Chinese)Search in Google Scholar
Li Y, Song YG, Chen XL, Li JC, Mamadjanov Y and Aminov J, 2016. Geochemical composition of Tajikistan loess and its provenance implications. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 446(15): 186–194, DOI 10.1016/j.palaeo.2016.01.025.LiYSongYGChenXLLiJCMamadjanovYAminovJ2016Geochemical composition of Tajikistan loess and its provenance implications4461518619410.1016/j.palaeo.2016.01.025Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Liu XM, Rudnick RL, McDonough WF and Cummings ML, 2013. Influence of chemical weathering on the composition of the continental crust: Insights from li and nd isotopes in bauxite profiles developed on columbia river basalts. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta 115: 73–91, DOI 10.1016/j.gca.2013.03.043.LiuXMRudnickRLMcDonoughWFCummingsML2013Influence of chemical weathering on the composition of the continental crust: Insights from li and nd isotopes in bauxite profiles developed on columbia river basalts115739110.1016/j.gca.2013.03.043Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Lupker M, France-Lanord C, Galy V, Lavé J and Kudrass H, 2013. Increasing chemical weathering in the Himalayan system since the Last Glacial Maximum. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 365: 243–252, DOI 10.1016/j.epsl.2013.01.038.LupkerMFrance-LanordCGalyVLavéJKudrassH2013Increasing chemical weathering in the Himalayan system since the Last Glacial Maximum36524325210.1016/j.epsl.2013.01.038Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Lü TY and Sun JM, 2011. Luminescence sensitivities of quartz grains from eolian deposits in northern China and their implications for provenance. Quaternary Research 76: 181–189, DOI 10.1016/j.yqres.2011.06.015.LüTYSunJM2011Luminescence sensitivities of quartz grains from eolian deposits in northern China and their implications for provenance7618118910.1016/j.yqres.2011.06.015Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Lü TY, Sun JM, Li SH, Gong ZJ and Xue L, 2014. Vertical variations of luminescence sensitivity of quartz grains from loess/paleosol of Luochuan section in the central Chinese Loess Plateau since the last interglacial. Quaternary Geochronology 22: 107–115, DOI 10.1016/j.quageo.2014.04.004.LüTYSunJMLiSHGongZJXueL2014Vertical variations of luminescence sensitivity of quartz grains from loess/paleosol of Luochuan section in the central Chinese Loess Plateau since the last interglacial2210711510.1016/j.quageo.2014.04.004Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Machalett B, Frechen M, Hambach U, Oches EA, Zöller L and Marković SB, 2006. The loess sequence from Remisowka (northern boundary of the Tien Shan Mountains, Kazakhstan)—Part I: Luminescence dating. Quaternary International 152–153: 192–201, DOI 10.1016/j.quaint.2005.12.014.MachalettBFrechenMHambachUOchesEAZöllerLMarkovićSB2006The loess sequence from Remisowka (northern boundary of the Tien Shan Mountains, Kazakhstan)—Part I: Luminescence dating152–15319220110.1016/j.quaint.2005.12.014Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Machalett B, Oches EA, Frechen M, Zöller L, Hambach U, Mavlyanova NG, Marković SB and Endlicher W, 2008. Aeolian dust dynamics in central Asia during the Pleistocene: Driven by the long-term migration, seasonality, and permanency of the Asiatic polar front. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 9(8): Q08–Q09, DOI 10.1029/2007GC001938.MachalettBOchesEAFrechenMZöllerLHambachUMavlyanovaNGMarkovićSBEndlicherW2008Aeolian dust dynamics in central Asia during the Pleistocene: Driven by the long-term migration, seasonality, and permanency of the Asiatic polar front98Q08Q0910.1029/2007GC001938Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Nascimento Jr DR, Sawakuchi AO, Guedes, CCF, Giannini PCF, Grohmann CH and Ferreira MP, 2015. Provenance of sands from the confluence of the Amazon and Madeira rivers based on detrital heavy minerals and luminescence of quartz and feldspar. Sedimentary Geology 316: 1–12, DOI 10.1016/j.sedgeo.2014.11.002.NascimentoDRJrSawakuchiAOGuedesCCFGianniniPCFGrohmannCHFerreiraMP2015Provenance of sands from the confluence of the Amazon and Madeira rivers based on detrital heavy minerals and luminescence of quartz and feldspar31611210.1016/j.sedgeo.2014.11.002Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Nian XM, Zhang WG, Qiu FY, Qin JT, Wang ZH, Sun QL, Chen J, Chen ZY and Liu NK, 2019. Luminescence characteristics of quartz from Holocene delta deposits of the Yangtze River and their provenance implications. Quaternary Geochronology 49: 131–137, 10.1016/j.quageo.2018.04.010.NianXMZhangWGQiuFYQinJTWangZHSunQLChenJChenZYLiuNK2019Luminescence characteristics of quartz from Holocene delta deposits of the Yangtze River and their provenance implications4913113710.1016/j.quageo.2018.04.010Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Pécsi M, 1990. Loess is not just the accumulation of dust. Quaternary International 7–8(C): 1–21, DOI 10.1016/1040-6182(90)90034-2.PécsiM1990Loess is not just the accumulation of dust7–8C12110.1016/1040-6182(90)90034-2Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Pietsch TJ, Olley JM and Nanson GC, 2008. Fluvial transport as a natural luminescence sensitiser of quartz. Quaternary Geochronology 3(4): 365–376, DOI 10.1016/j.quageo.2007.12.005.PietschTJOlleyJMNansonGC2008Fluvial transport as a natural luminescence sensitiser of quartz3436537610.1016/j.quageo.2007.12.005Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Preusser F, Ramseyer K and Schlüchter C, 2006. Characterisation of low OSL intensity quartz from the New Zealand Alps. Radiation Measurements 41(7–8): 871–877, DOI 10.1016/j.radmeas.2006.04.019.PreusserFRamseyerKSchlüchterC2006Characterisation of low OSL intensity quartz from the New Zealand Alps417–887187710.1016/j.radmeas.2006.04.019Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Preusser F, Chithambo ML, Götte T, Martini M, Ramseyer K, Sendezera EJ, Susino GJ and Wintle AG, 2009. Quartz as a natural luminescence dosimeter. Earth Science Reviews 97(1–4): 184–214, DOI 10.1016/j.earscirev.2009.09.006.PreusserFChithamboMLGötteTMartiniMRamseyerKSendezeraEJSusinoGJWintleAG2009Quartz as a natural luminescence dosimeter971–418421410.1016/j.earscirev.2009.09.006Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Pye K, 1986. Mineralogical and textural controls on the weathering of granitoid rocks. Catena 13(1–2): 47–57, DOI 10.1016/S0341-8162(86)80004-2.PyeK1986Mineralogical and textural controls on the weathering of granitoid rocks131–2475710.1016/S0341-8162(86)80004-2Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Pye K, 1989. Processes of Fine Particle Formation, Dust Source Regions, and Climatic Changes. In: Leinen M., Sarnthein M, eds., Paleoclimatology and Paleometeorology: Modern and Past Patterns of Global Atmospheric Transport. NATO ASI Series (Series C: Mathematical and Physical Sciences). Springer, Dordrecht, 282: 3–30, DOI 10.1007/978-94-009-0995-3_1.PyeK1989Processes of Fine Particle Formation, Dust Source Regions, and Climatic ChangesIn:LeinenM.SarntheinMeds.,(Series C: Mathematical and Physical Sciences).SpringerDordrecht28233010.1007/978-94-009-0995-3_1Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Qin JT and Zhou LP, 2009. Stepped-irradiation SAR: A viable approach to circumvent OSL equivalent dose underestimation in last glacial loess of northwestern China. Radiation Measurements 44(5–6): 417–422, DOI 10.1016/j.radmeas.2009.06.008.QinJTZhouLP2009Stepped-irradiation SAR: A viable approach to circumvent OSL equivalent dose underestimation in last glacial loess of northwestern China445–641742210.1016/j.radmeas.2009.06.008Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Qiu FY and Zhou LP, 2015. A new luminescence chronology for the Mangshan loess-palaeosol sequence on the southern bank of the Yellow River in Henan, central China. Quaternary Geochronology 30: 24–33, DOI 10.1016/j.quageo.2015.06.014.QiuFYZhouLP2015A new luminescence chronology for the Mangshan loess-palaeosol sequence on the southern bank of the Yellow River in Henan, central China30243310.1016/j.quageo.2015.06.014Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Ren JS, Niu BG, Wang J, He ZJ, Jin XC, Xie LZ, Zhao L, Liu RY, Jiang XJ, Li S and Yang FL, 2013. 1:5 million international geological map of Asia. Acta Geoscientica Sinica 34(1): 24–30, DOI 10.3975/cagsb.2013.01.03.RenJSNiuBGWangJHeZJJinXCXieLZZhaoLLiuRYJiangXJLiSYangFL20131:5 million international geological map of Asia341243010.3975/cagsb.2013.01.03Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Rhodes EJ and Bailey RM, 1997. The effect of thermal transfer on the zeroing of the luminescence of quartz from recent glaciofluvial sediments. Quaternary Science Reviews 16(3): 291–298, DOI 10.1016/S0277-3791(96)00100-X.RhodesEJBaileyRM1997The effect of thermal transfer on the zeroing of the luminescence of quartz from recent glaciofluvial sediments16329129810.1016/S0277-3791(96)00100-XApri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Richards B, 2000. Luminescence dating of Quaternary sediments in the Himalaya and high Asia: A practical guide to its use and limitations for constraining the timing of glaciation. Quaternary International 65–6: 49–61, 10.1016/S1040-6182(99)00036-1.RichardsB2000Luminescence dating of Quaternary sediments in the Himalaya and high Asia: A practical guide to its use and limitations for constraining the timing of glaciation65–6496110.1016/S1040-6182(99)00036-1Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Rittenour T, 2018. Dates and rates of earth-surface processes revealed using luminescence dating. Elements 14(1): 21–26, DOI 10.2138/gselements.14.1.21.RittenourT2018Dates and rates of earth-surface processes revealed using luminescence dating141212610.2138/gselements.14.1.21Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Robinson AC, Yin A, Manning CE, Mark HT, Zhang S and Wang X, 2004. Tectonic evolution of the northeastern Pamir: Constraints from the northern portion of the Cenozoic Kongur Shan extensional system, western China. Geological Society of America Bulletin 116(7–8): 953–973, DOI 10.1130/B25375.1.RobinsonACYinAManningCEMarkHTZhangSWangX2004Tectonic evolution of the northeastern Pamir: Constraints from the northern portion of the Cenozoic Kongur Shan extensional system, western China1167–895397310.1130/B25375.1Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Robinson AC, Yin A, Manning CE, Harrison TM, Zhang S and Wang X, 2007. Cenozoic evolution of the eastern Pamir: Implications for strain-accommodation mechanisms at the western end of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen. Geological Society of America Bulletin 119(7–8): 882–896, DOI 10.1130/B25981.1.RobinsonACYinAManningCEHarrisonTMZhangSWangX2007Cenozoic evolution of the eastern Pamir: Implications for strain-accommodation mechanisms at the western end of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen1197–888289610.1130/B25981.1Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Römer W, 2007. Differential weathering and erosion in an inselberg landscape in southern zimbabwe: A morphometric study and some notes on factors influencing the long-term development of inselbergs. Geomorphology 86(3): 349–368, DOI 10.1016/j.geomorph.2006.09.008.RömerW2007Differential weathering and erosion in an inselberg landscape in southern zimbabwe: A morphometric study and some notes on factors influencing the long-term development of inselbergs86334936810.1016/j.geomorph.2006.09.008Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Rutte D, Ratschbacher L, Schneider S, Stübner K, Stearns MA, Gulzar MA and Hacker BR, 2017. Building the Pamir-Tibetan Plateau—Crustal stacking, extensional collapse, and lateral extrusion in the Central Pamir: 1. Geometry and kinematics. Tectonics 36: 342–384, DOI 10.1002/2016TC004293.RutteDRatschbacherLSchneiderSStübnerKStearnsMAGulzarMAHackerBR2017Building the Pamir-Tibetan Plateau—Crustal stacking, extensional collapse, and lateral extrusion in the Central Pamir: 1. Geometry and kinematics3634238410.1002/2016TC004293Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Sanderson DCW and Kinnaird TC, 2019. Optically Stimulated Luminescence Dating as a Geochronological Tool for Late Quaternary Sediments in the Red Sea Region. In: Rasul N., Stewart I, eds., Geological Setting, Palaeoenvironment and Archaeology of the Red Sea. Springer, Cham: 685–707, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-99408-6_31.SandersonDCWKinnairdTC2019Optically Stimulated Luminescence Dating as a Geochronological Tool for Late Quaternary Sediments in the Red Sea RegionIn:RasulN.StewartIeds.,SpringerCham68570710.1007/978-3-319-99408-6_31Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Sawakuchi AO, Blair MW, Dewitt R, Faleiros FM, Hyppolito T and Guedes CCF, 2011. Thermal history versus sedimentary history: OSL sensitivity of quartz grains extracted from rocks and sediments. Quaternary Geochronology 6(2): 261–272, DOI 10.1016/j.quageo.2010.11.002.SawakuchiAOBlairMWDewittRFaleirosFMHyppolitoTGuedesCCF2011Thermal history versus sedimentary history: OSL sensitivity of quartz grains extracted from rocks and sediments6226127210.1016/j.quageo.2010.11.002Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Sawakuchi AO, Guedes CCF, DeWitt R, Giannini PCF, Blair MW, Nascimento DR and Faleiros FM, 2012. Quartz OSL sensitivity as a proxy for storm activity on the southern Brazilian coast during the Late Holocene. Quaternary Geochronology 13: 92–102, DOI 10.1016/j.quageo.2012.07.002.SawakuchiAOGuedesCCFDeWittRGianniniPCFBlairMWNascimentoDRFaleirosFM2012Quartz OSL sensitivity as a proxy for storm activity on the southern Brazilian coast during the Late Holocene139210210.1016/j.quageo.2012.07.002Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Sawakuchi AO, Jain M, Mineli TD, Nogueira L, Bertassoli Jr DJ, Häggi C, Sawakuchi HO, Pupim FN, Grohmann CH, Chiessi CM, Zabel M, Mulitza S, Mazoca CEM and Cunha DF, 2018. Luminescence of quartz and feldspar fingerprints provenance and correlates with the source area denudation in the Amazon River basin. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 492: 152–162, DOI 10.1016/j.epsl.2018.04.006.SawakuchiAOJainMMineliTDNogueiraLBertassoliDJJrHäggiCSawakuchiHOPupimFNGrohmannCHChiessiCMZabelMMulitzaSMazocaCEMCunhaDF2018Luminescence of quartz and feldspar fingerprints provenance and correlates with the source area denudation in the Amazon River basin49215216210.1016/j.epsl.2018.04.006Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Smalley IJ, 1966. The Properties of Glacial Loess and the Formation of Loess Deposits. SEPM Journal of Sedimentary Research 36(3): 669–676, DOI 10.1306/74D7153C-2B21-11D7-8648000102C1865D.SmalleyIJ1966The Properties of Glacial Loess and the Formation of Loess Deposits36366967610.1306/74D7153C-2B21-11D7-8648000102C1865DApri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Smalley IJ, Mavlyanova NG, Rakhmatullaev KL, Shermatov MS, Machalett, B, O’Hara Dhand K and Jefferson IF, 2006. The formation of loess deposits in the tashkent region and parts of central asia; and problems with irrigation, hydrocollapse and soil erosion. Quaternary International 152: 59–69, DOI 10.1016/j.quaint.2005.12.002.SmalleyIJMavlyanovaNGRakhmatullaevKLShermatovMSMachalettBO’Hara DhandKJeffersonIF2006The formation of loess deposits in the tashkent region and parts of central asia; and problems with irrigation, hydrocollapse and soil erosion152596910.1016/j.quaint.2005.12.002Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Shackleton NJ, An Z, Dodonov AE, Gavin J, Kukla GJ, Ronov VA and Zhou LP, 1995. Accumulation rate of loess in Tadjikistan and China: Relationship with global ice volume cycles. Quaternary Proceedings 4: 1–6.ShackletonNJAnZDodonovAEGavinJKuklaGJRonovVAZhouLP1995Accumulation rate of loess in Tadjikistan and China: Relationship with global ice volume cycles416Search in Google Scholar
Sharma SK, Chawla S, Sastry MD, Gaonkar M, Mane S, Balaram V and Sighvi AK, 2017. Understanding the reasons for variations in luminescence sensitivity of natural Quartz using spectroscopic and chemical studies. Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy 83: 645–653, DOI 10.16943/ptinsa/2017/49024.SharmaSKChawlaSSastryMDGaonkarMManeSBalaramVSighviAK2017Understanding the reasons for variations in luminescence sensitivity of natural Quartz using spectroscopic and chemical studies8364565310.16943/ptinsa/2017/49024Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Soreghan GS, Joo YJ, Elwood Madden ME, Van Deventer SC, 2016. Silt production as a function of climate and lithology under simulated comminution. Quaternary International 399: 218–227, DOI 10.1016/j.quaint.2015.05.010.SoreghanGSJooYJElwood MaddenMEVan DeventerSC2016Silt production as a function of climate and lithology under simulated comminution39921822710.1016/j.quaint.2015.05.010Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Thrasher IM, Mauz B, Chiverrell RC and Lang A, 2009. Luminescence dating of glaciofluvial deposits: A review. Earth Science Reviews 97(1): 133–146, DOI 10.1016/j.earscirev.2009.09.001.ThrasherIMMauzBChiverrellRCLangA2009Luminescence dating of glaciofluvial deposits: A review97113314610.1016/j.earscirev.2009.09.001Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Tsukamoto S, Nagashima K, Murray AS and Tada R, 2011. Variations in OSL components from quartz from Japan sea sediments and the possibility of reconstructing provenance. Quaternary International 234(1–2): 182–189, DOI 10.1016/j.quaint.2010.09.003.TsukamotoSNagashimaKMurrayASTadaR2011Variations in OSL components from quartz from Japan sea sediments and the possibility of reconstructing provenance2341–218218910.1016/j.quaint.2010.09.003Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Vandenberghe J, Renssen H, Huissteden KV, Nuqteren G, Konert M, Lu H, Dodonov A and Buylaert JP, 2006. Penetration of Atlantic westerly winds into Central and East Asia. Quaternary Science Reviews 25(17–18): 2380–2389, DOI 10.1016/j.quascirev.2006.02.017.VandenbergheJRenssenHHuisstedenKVNuqterenGKonertMLuHDodonovABuylaertJP2006Penetration of Atlantic westerly winds into Central and East Asia2517–182380238910.1016/j.quascirev.2006.02.017Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Vartanian E, Guibert P, Roque C, Bechtel F and Schvoerer M, 2000. Changes in OSL properties of quartz by preheating: An interpretation. Radiation Measurements 32(5–6): 647–652, DOI 10.1016/S1350-4487(00)00109-8.VartanianEGuibertPRoqueCBechtelFSchvoererM2000Changes in OSL properties of quartz by preheating: An interpretation325–664765210.1016/S1350-4487(00)00109-8Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Vogt T, Clauer N and Larqué P, 2010. Impact of climate and related weathering processes on the authigenesis of clay minerals: Examples from circum-baikal region, siberia. Catena 80(1): 53–64, DOI 10.1016/j.catena.2009.08.008.VogtTClauerNLarquéP2010Impact of climate and related weathering processes on the authigenesis of clay minerals: Examples from circum-baikal region, siberia801536410.1016/j.catena.2009.08.008Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
von Eynatten H, Tolosana-Delgado R and Karius V, 2012. Sediment generation in modern glacial settings: Grain-size and source-rock control on sediment composition. Sedimentary Geology 280: 80–92, DOI 10.1016/j.sedgeo.2012.03.008.von EynattenHTolosana-DelgadoRKariusV2012Sediment generation in modern glacial settings: Grain-size and source-rock control on sediment composition280809210.1016/j.sedgeo.2012.03.008Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Wang XL and Miao XD, 2006. Weathering history indicated by the luminescence emissions in Chinese loess and paleosol. Quaternary Science Reviews 25(13): 1719–1726, DOI 10.1016/j.quascirev.2005.11.009.WangXLMiaoXD2006Weathering history indicated by the luminescence emissions in Chinese loess and paleosol25131719172610.1016/j.quascirev.2005.11.009Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Wintle AG and Adamiec G, 2017. Optically stimulated luminescence signals from quartz: A review. Radiation Measurements 98: 10–33, DOI 10.1016/j.radmeas.2017.02.003.WintleAGAdamiecG2017Optically stimulated luminescence signals from quartz: A review98103310.1016/j.radmeas.2017.02.003Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Youn JH, Seong YB, Choi JH, Abdrakhmatov K and Ormukov C, 2014. Loess deposits in the northern Kyrgyz Tien Shan: Implications for the paleoclimate reconstruction during the Late Quaternary. Catena 117: 81–93, DOI 10.1016/j.catena.2013.09.007.YounJHSeongYBChoiJHAbdrakhmatovKOrmukovC2014Loess deposits in the northern Kyrgyz Tien Shan: Implications for the paleoclimate reconstruction during the Late Quaternary117819310.1016/j.catena.2013.09.007Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Yukihara EG and McKeever SWS, 2008. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimetry in medicine. Physics in Medicine and Biology 53(20): R351–379, DOI 10.1088/0031-9155/53/20/R01.YukiharaEGMcKeeverSWS2008Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimetry in medicine5320R35137910.1088/0031-9155/53/20/R01Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Zheng CX, Zhou LP and Qin JT, 2009. Difference in luminescence sensitivity of coarse-grained quartz from deserts of northern China. Radiation Measurements 44(5): 534–537, DOI 10.1016/j.radmeas.2009.02.013.ZhengCXZhouLPQinJT2009Difference in luminescence sensitivity of coarse-grained quartz from deserts of northern China44553453710.1016/j.radmeas.2009.02.013Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Zheng CX and Zhou LP, 2012. Further investigations of quartz luminescence signals as a tool for dust source tracing. Quaternary Sciences 32(5): 1036–1045 (in Chinese with English abstract).ZhengCXZhouLP2012Further investigations of quartz luminescence signals as a tool for dust source tracing32510361045(in Chinese with English abstract)Search in Google Scholar
Zhou LP, Oldfield F, Wintle AG, Robinson SG and Wang JT, 1990. Partly pedogenic origin of magnetic variations in Chinese loess. Nature 346(6286): 737–739, DOI 10.1038/346737a0.ZhouLPOldfieldFWintleAGRobinsonSGWangJT1990Partly pedogenic origin of magnetic variations in Chinese loess346628673773910.1038/346737a0Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Zhou LP and Wintle AG, 1994. Sensitivity change of thermoluminescence signals after laboratory optical bleaching: experiments with loess fine grains. Quaternary Science Reviews 13(5–7): 457–463, DOI 10.1016/0277-3791(94)90058-2.ZhouLPWintleAG1994Sensitivity change of thermoluminescence signals after laboratory optical bleaching: experiments with loess fine grains135–745746310.1016/0277-3791(94)90058-2Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Zhou LP, Fu DP and Zhang JF, 2010. An analysis of the components of the luminescence signals of selected polymineral and quartz samples from loess in western china and southern Tajikistan, and their suitability for optical dating. Quaternary Geochronology 5(2): 149–153, DOI 10.1016/j.quageo.2009.05.008.ZhouLPFuDPZhangJF2010An analysis of the components of the luminescence signals of selected polymineral and quartz samples from loess in western china and southern Tajikistan, and their suitability for optical dating5214915310.1016/j.quageo.2009.05.008Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Zimmerman J, 1971. The radiation-induced increase of the 100°C thermoluminescence sensitivity of fired quartz. Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics 4(18): 3265–3275, DOI 10.1088/0022-3719/4/18/032.ZimmermanJ1971The radiation-induced increase of the 100°C thermoluminescence sensitivity of fired quartz4183265327510.1088/0022-3719/4/18/032Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar
Zular A, Sawakuchi AO, Guedes CCF and Giannini PCF, 2015. Attaining provenance proxies from OSL and TL sensitivities: Coupling with grain size and heavy minerals data from southern Brazilian coastal sediments. Radiation Measurements 81: 39–45, DOI 10.1016/j.radmeas.2015.04.010.ZularASawakuchiAOGuedesCCFGianniniPCF2015Attaining provenance proxies from OSL and TL sensitivities: Coupling with grain size and heavy minerals data from southern Brazilian coastal sediments81394510.1016/j.radmeas.2015.04.010Apri DOISearch in Google Scholar