1. bookVolume 22 (2022): Edizione 3 (July 2022)
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The importance of nutrition in alleviating high stocking density stress in poultry - A Review

Pubblicato online: 19 Jul 2022
Volume & Edizione: Volume 22 (2022) - Edizione 3 (July 2022)
Pagine: 855 - 863
Ricevuto: 25 Aug 2021
Accettato: 11 Oct 2021
Dettagli della rivista
License
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2300-8733
Prima pubblicazione
25 Nov 2011
Frequenza di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese
Abstract

In recent decades, the number of birds reared per unit area has dramatically spiked to increase profitability in egg and meat production. However, nowadays, the increase in sensitivity to animal welfare and consumer demands brings along with it a raised interest in stocking density. Stocking density is defined either as the number of animals or body weight per unit area or as the area per animal. High stocking density, which is a stress factor, can be defined as an increase in the number of animals per unit area or a decrease in the area per animal. Stress caused by high stocking density negatively affects the bird’s physiology and performance as well as the quality of the product obtained. The ideal stocking density should be 9 laying hens, 35 kilograms for broilers, and 45 quails per square metre. Otherwise, one will observe stress indicators in birds reared in more than the recommended stocking density per unit area and, consequently, a decrease in bird growth, egg production, feed efficiency, and egg or meat quality. Apart from increasing the concentrations of amino acids such as lysine, methionine, tryptophan and arginine, minerals such as selenium and chromium, and vitamins such as C and E in the diet, the addition of additives such as probiotics, humates, phytophenol compounds, and propolis is also effective in reducing or eliminating these negative effects caused by high stocking density. As a result, regulations in the nutrition of animals are effective in reducing/preventing such negative effects, thus improving animal welfare and ensuring the maintenance of optimum yield.

Keywords

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