1. bookTom 22 (2022): Zeszyt 2 (April 2022)
Informacje o czasopiśmie
Pierwsze wydanie
25 Nov 2011
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
access type Otwarty dostęp

Effect of encapsulated Cosmos caudatus leaf extract on the physiological conditions, immune competency, and antioxidative status of broilers at high stocking density

Data publikacji: 12 May 2022
Tom & Zeszyt: Tom 22 (2022) - Zeszyt 2 (April 2022)
Zakres stron: 653 - 662
Otrzymano: 26 Feb 2021
Przyjęty: 28 May 2021
Informacje o czasopiśmie
Pierwsze wydanie
25 Nov 2011
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of encapsulated Cosmos caudatus leaf extract on the physiological conditions, immune competency, and antioxidative status of broiler chickens raised at a high stocking density. After 15 days of rearing, 370 Lohmann broiler chicks were assigned to five treatment groups, including T0 (chicks were raised at a density of 10 birds/m2 and received no additive), T1 (chicks were raised at a density of 16 birds/m2 and received no additive), T2 (chicks were raised at a density of 16 birds/m2 and received 0.5 g/kg encapsulated C. caudatus leaf extract), T3 (chicks were raised at a density of 16 birds/m2 and received 1.0 g/kg additive), and T4 (chicks were raised at a density of 16 birds/m2 and received 1.5 g/kg additive). On days 28 and 42, blood samples from two chicks per pen were collected. On day 42, the chicks that had been blood-sampled were sacrificed, and blood samples and lymphoid organs (i.e., bursa of Fabricius, spleen, and thymus) were collected. The daily weight gain and feed efficiency of broilers (P<0.01) in groups T2 and T3 were higher than those of broilers in groups T0, T1, and T4. Daily feed intake was greater (P<0.01) in groups T0 and T1 than in groups T2 and T3. The erythrocyte content and hematocrit value of groups T1, T2, T3, and T4 were greater (P<0.05) than those of group T0. The mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in group T4 was lower (P<0.05) than that in groups T0, T1, and T2. Leukocyte and lymphocyte levels were higher in group T1 (P<0.05) than in other groups. Serum albumin was higher in chicks reared at a high density (P<0.05) than in chicks reared at a normal density. Lesion scores were higher in group T1 (P<0.05) than in other groups. Chicks in groups T1 and T2 showed more severe pathological changes in their bursa of Fabricius compared with those in groups T0, T3, and T4. Serum superoxide dismutase was higher in groups T2, T3, and T4 (P<0.05) than in groups T0 and T1. Chicks in group T4 had higher (P<0.05) malondialdehyde levels than chicks in other groups. In conclusion, a high stocking density influences the metabolic rate and physiological conditions of broiler chicks, as reflected by alterations in the blood profiles of the animals. Stress due to a high stocking density could damage the bursa of Fabricius, but feeding with encapsulated C. caudatus leaf extract, especially at a rate of 1.5 g/kg, could alleviate the cortical and lymphocyte cell depletion of broilers. Regardless of the stocking density effect, dietary supplementation with encapsulated C. caudatus leaf extract at doses of 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg could improve the daily weight gain of broilers.


Abdullah A., Dhaliwal K.K., Roslan N.F.F., Lee C.H., Kalaiselvam M., Radman H.M., Saad Q.H.M., Yusof K., Jaarin K. (2015). The effect of Cosmos caudatus (Ulam Raja) on detoxifying enzymes in extrahepatic organs in mice. J. App. Pharm. Sci., 5: 82–88.Search in Google Scholar

Abo-Alqassem Z.M., Ahmed S.A., Ahmed E.A., El-Iraqi K.G. (2018). Effect of different stocking densities as an environmental stressing factor on broiler behaviour and performance. Benha Vet. Med. J., 34: 51–65.Search in Google Scholar

Abudabos A.M., Samara E.M., Hussein E.O., Al-Ghadi A.Q.M. Al-Atiyat R.M. (2013). Impacts of stocking density on the performance and welfare of broiler chickens. Ital. J. Anim. Sci., 12: 66–71.Search in Google Scholar

Ahmed O.B., Mahmoud M., Mahmoud U., El-Bab M.F. (2016). Histomorphological changes associated with different doses of Chinese propolis in the bursa Fabricius of chickens. J. Adv. Vet. Res., 6: 1–6.Search in Google Scholar

Akbarian A., Michiels J., Degroote J., Majdeddin M., Golian A., De Smet S. (2016). Association between heat stress and oxidative stress in poultry; mitochondrial dysfunction and dietary interventions with phytochemicals. J. Anim. Sci. Biotechnol., 7: 37.Search in Google Scholar

Astaneh I.Y., Chamani M., Mousavi S.N., Sadeghi A.A., Afshar M.A. (2018). Effect of stocking density on performance and immunity in Ross 308 broiler chickens. Kafkas Univ. Vet. Fak. Derg., 24: 483–489.Search in Google Scholar

Cheng S.H., Barakatun-Nisak M.Y., Anthony J. (2015). Potential medicinal benefits of Cosmos caudatus (Ulam Raja): A scoping review. J. Res. Med. Sci., 20: 1000–1006.Search in Google Scholar

Gholami M., Chamani M., Seidavi A., Sadeghi A.A., Aminafschar M. (2020). Effect of stocking density and climate region on performance, immunity, carcass characteristics, blood constitutes, and economical parameters of broiler chickens. Braz. J. Anim. Sci., 49: 1–16.Search in Google Scholar

Hosseini-Vashan S.J., Golian A., Yaghobfar A. (2015). Growth, immune, antioxidant, and bone responses of heat stress-exposed broilers fed diets supplemented with tomato pomace. Int. J. Biometeorol., 60: 1183–1192.Search in Google Scholar

Houshmand M., Azhar K., Zulkifli I., Bejo M.H., Kamyab A. (2012). Effect of prebiotic, protein level and stocking density on performance, immunity, and stress indicators of broiler. Poultry Sci., 91: 393–401.Search in Google Scholar

Iskender H., Yenice G., Dokumacioglu E., Kaynar O., Hayirli A., Kaya A. (2016). The effects of dietary flavonoid supplementation on the antioxidant status of laying hens. Rev. Bras. Cienc Avic, 18: 663–668.Search in Google Scholar

Isroli I., Yudiarti T., Widiastuti E., Sugiharto S. (2017). Probiotic Bacillus plus vitamins and minerals enhanced haemoglobin values and relative weight of ileum and improved feed conversion ratio of broilers during brooding period. Livest. Res. Rural Dev., 29: 11.Search in Google Scholar

Jeong S.B., Kim Y.B., Lee J.W., Kim D.H., Moon B.H., Chang H.H., Choi Y.H., Lee K.W. (2020). Role of dietary gamma-aminobutyric acid in broiler chickens raised under high stocking density. Anim. Nutr., 6: 293–304.Search in Google Scholar

Jeyakumari A. (2016). Microencapsulation of bioactive food ingredients and controlled release – a review. MOJ Food Process. Tech., 2: 1–9.Search in Google Scholar

Karimy M.F., Julendra H., Sofyan Damayanti P. (2013). Efektifitas ekstrak daun kenikir (Cosmos caudatus), daun mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia), dan tepung cacing tanah (Lumbricus rubellus) dalam sediaan granul larut air sebagai koksidiostat alami terhadap infeksi Eimeria tenella pada ayam broiler (in Indonesian). JITV, 18: 88–98.Search in Google Scholar

Kiernan J.A. (2015). Histological and histochemical methods. Butterworth/Heinemann, Oxford, 5th. ed.Search in Google Scholar

Kim D.W., Hong E.C., Kim J.H., Bang H.T., Choi J.Y., Ji S.Y., Lee W.S., Kim S.H. (2015). Effect of dietary quercetin on growth performance, blood chemical parameter, immunoglobulin and blood antioxidant activity in broiler chicks (in Korean). Korean J. Poult. Sci., 42: 33–40.Search in Google Scholar

Kristeen-Teo Y.W., Yeap S.K., Tan S.W., Omar A.R., Ideris A., Tan S.G., Alitheen N.B. (2017). The effects of different velogenic NDV infections on the chicken bursa of Fabricius. BMC Vet. Res., 13: 151.Search in Google Scholar

Li W., Wei F., Xu B., Sun Q., Deng W., Ma H., Bai J., Li S. (2019). Effect of stocking density and alpha-lipoic acid on the growth performance, physiological and oxidative stress and immune response of broilers. Asian-Australas. J. Anim. Sci., 32: 1914–1922.Search in Google Scholar

Liliswarianis N., Musa N.L.W., Zain M.Z.M.W., Kasim J., Karim S.A. (2011). Preliminary studies on phytochemical screening of ulam and fruit from Malaysia. E-J. Chem., 8: 285–288.Search in Google Scholar

Mayo M.A. (2002). Virus taxonomy-Houston. Arch Virol., 147: 1071–1076.Search in Google Scholar

Mishra M. (2016). Materials of natural origin for encapsulation, In: Handbook of encapsulation and controlled release, Mishra M. (Ed.). USA, CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group, pp 493.Search in Google Scholar

Mosleh N., Shomali T., Nematollahi F., Ghahramani Z., Khafi M.S.A., Namazi F. (2018). Effect of different periods of chronic heat stress with or without vitamin C supplementation on bone and selected serum parameters of broiler chickens. Avian Pathol., 47: 197–205.Search in Google Scholar

Nwaigwe C.U., Ihedioha J.I., Shoyinka S.V., Nwaigwe C.O. (2020). Evaluation of the hematological and clinical biochemical markers of stress in broiler chickens. Vet. World, 13: 2–8.Search in Google Scholar

Oke O.E., Oso A., Iyasere O.S., Odebowale T., Akanji T., Odusami O., Udehi S., Daramola J.O. (2020). Growth performance and physiological responses of helmeted guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) to different stocking densities in humid tropical environment. Agri. Trop. Subtrop., 53: 5–12.Search in Google Scholar

Palizdar M.H., Pourelmi M.R., Tabrizi H.R., Seperh Z. (2016). The impact of acidifier in the diet of broiler chickens grown in high stocking densities on growth performance, immune system, and blood metabolites. J. Anim. Prod., 18: 95–106.Search in Google Scholar

Palizdar M.H., Daylami M.K., Poulermi M.R. (2017). Effects of high stocking density on growth performance, blood metabolites and immune response of broilers (ROSS 308). Livest. Sci., 8: 196–200.Search in Google Scholar

Pang S.F., Yusoff M.M., Gimbun J. (2014). Extraction and microencapsulation of polyphenol from Orthosiphon stamineus leaves. J. Mech. Eng. Sci., 7: 1033–1041.Search in Google Scholar

Park B.S., Um K.H., Park S.O., Zammit V.A. (2018). Growth performance physiological responses of helmeted guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) to different stocking densities in humid tropical environment. Arch. Anim. Breed, 61: 425–432.Search in Google Scholar

Qaid M., Albatshan H., Shafey H., Abudabos A.M. (2016). Effect of stocking density on the performance and immunity of 1–14 d old broiler chicks. Braz. J. Poult. Sci., 18: 1–10.Search in Google Scholar

Reddy D.M., Reddy G.V., Mandal P.K. (2018). Application of natural antioxidants in meat and meat products – a review. Food Nutr. J., 3: 173.Search in Google Scholar

Reihani S.F.S., Azhar M.E. (2012). Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in aqueous extracts of selected traditional Malay salads (ulam). Int. J. Food. Res., 19: 1439–1444.Search in Google Scholar

Salami S.A., Majoka M.A., Saha S., Garber A., Gabarrou J.F. (2015). Efficacy of dietary antioxidants on broiler oxidative stress, performance and meat quality: science and market. Avian Biol. Res., 8: 65–78.Search in Google Scholar

Saleh I., Trisnaningsih U., Dwirayani D., Syahadat R.M., Atmaja I.S.W. (2020). Analisis preferensi konsumen terhadap dua spesies kenikir; Cosmos caudatus dan Cosmos sulphureus (in Indonesian). Mahatani, 3: 196–204.Search in Google Scholar

Selvam R., Sarananakumar M., Suresh S., Sureshbabu G., Sasikumar M., Prashanth D. (2017). Effect of vitamin E supplementation and high stocking density on the performance and stress parameters of broilers. Rev. Bras. Cienc Avic., 19: 587–594.Search in Google Scholar

Simitzis P.E., Kalogeraki E., Goliomytis M., Charismiadou M.A., Trianaphyllopoulus K., Ayoutanti A. (2012). Impact of stocking density on broiler growth performance, meat characteristics, behavioural components and indicators of physiological and oxidative stress. Br. Poult. Sci., 53: 1–5.Search in Google Scholar

Sugiharto S., Turini Y., Isroli I., Widiastuti E., Wahyuni H.I., Sartono T.A. (2019). Fermented feed as a potential source of natural antioxidants for broiler chickens – a mini review. Agric. Conspec. Sci., 84: 313–318.Search in Google Scholar

Taghvaei M., Jafari S.M. (2015). Application and stability of natural antioxidants in edible oils in order to substitute synthetic additives. J. Food Sci. Technol., 52: 1272–1282.Search in Google Scholar

Tóthová C., Sesztakova E., Bielik B., Nagy O. (2019). Changes of total protein and protein fractions in broiler chickens during the fattening period. Vet. World, 12: 598–604.Search in Google Scholar

Trucillo P., Campardelli R., Aliakbarian B., Perego P., Reverchon E. (2018). Supercritical assisted process for the encapsulation of olive pomace extract into liposomes. J. Supercrit. Fluids, 135: 152–159.Search in Google Scholar

USDA [United States Department of Agriculture] (2020). Livestock and poultry: World markets and trade. Global Market Analysis, Foreign Agricultural Service.Search in Google Scholar

Vongsak B., Sithisarn P., Gritsanapan W. (2012). HPLC quantitative analysis of three major antioxidant components of Moringa oleifera leaf extracts. Planta Med., 78: 1252.Search in Google Scholar

Wang M., Yu B., He J., Yu J., Luo Y.-H., Luo J.-Q., Mao X.-B., Chen D.-W. (2020). The toxicological effect of dietary excess of saccharicterpenin, the extract of camellia seed meal, in piglets. J. Integr. Agr., 10: 211–224.Search in Google Scholar

Yanai T., Abo-Samaha M.I., El-Kazaz S.E., Tohamy H.G. (2018). Effect of stocking density on productive performance, behaviour, and histopathology of the lymphoid organs in broiler chickens. Europ. Poult. Sci., 82: 1–15.Search in Google Scholar

Zhou Y., Mao S., Zhou M. (2019). Effect of the flavonoid baicalein as a feed additive on the growth performance, immunity, and antioxidant capacity of broiler chickens. Poultry Sci., 98: 2790–2799.Search in Google Scholar

Polecane artykuły z Trend MD

Zaplanuj zdalną konferencję ze Sciendo