1. bookTom 54 (2021): Zeszyt 4 (December 2021)
Informacje o czasopiśmie
Pierwsze wydanie
17 Oct 2008
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
access type Otwarty dostęp

Content Analysis of Gossip at Different Levels of a Hospital

Data publikacji: 07 Dec 2021
Tom & Zeszyt: Tom 54 (2021) - Zeszyt 4 (December 2021)
Zakres stron: 306 - 318
Otrzymano: 02 Feb 2021
Przyjęty: 06 Oct 2021
Informacje o czasopiśmie
Pierwsze wydanie
17 Oct 2008
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku

Background: Most societies have a negative attitude toward gossip and managers are concerned about the impact of gossips on the communication in an organizational environment. Our study examined the perception of gossip, and the context of gossip at different levels of a hospital, a case of organization with high communicational relation among staff. Also, the differences between the gossip context within the organizational context and within the social environment have been considered.

Methodology: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 informants, 9 in each of three groups: nurses, supervisors and managers of the Hospital. Recorded interviews were analyzed using content analysis, and results for each group of respondents were compared. Finally, the main gossiping issues for each group were categorized.

Results: The study revealed that the topics of gossip in a hospital can be divided into eight main categories, and 34 sub-categories all identifiable by special topics. These main topics included confidentiality issues, merits, financial status/standing, personal characteristics, position, communications, biography, and job conditions. In terms of organizational gossip, a person’s merit in the workplace and financial standing were of particular interest to the participants of this study. Also, the gossip topics at different levels among nurses, administrators, and managers had significant differences.

Conclusion: Managers should acknowledge different gossip contents among people at different organizational levels, and that employees do not have the same motives for communication at different organizational levels. Additionally, the distances between contents in the Tendency to Gossip Questionnaire and categories in the organizational environment need more studies, to explore precedents and outputs. Managers may use these findings to facilitate organizational change and communication.


Aambø, A. (2017). Gossip and rumors-undervalued sources of suffering and disease. European Journal of Public Health, 27(suppl_3). https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckx189.06310.1093/eurpub/ckx189.063 Search in Google Scholar

Abdi, M., Chaib, R., & Verzea, I. (2020). Contribution to the Assessment of the Quality of Life at Work: a Case Study. Behavior Studies in Organizations, 4, 27-37. https://doi.org/10.32038/JBSO.2020.04.0310.32038/JBSO.2020.04.03 Search in Google Scholar

Ardabili, F. S. (2020). Moderating-mediating Effects of Leader Member Exchange, Self-efficacy and Psychological Empowerment on Work Outcomes among Nurses. Organizacija, 53(3), 246-258. https://doi.org/10.2478/orga-2020-001610.2478/orga-2020-0016 Search in Google Scholar

Arfara, C., Tsivos, G., Samanta, I., & Kyriazopoulos, P. (2017). The Integration of Information Technology to Facilitate HRM Functions: The Case of the Health Care Sector (Biomedicine Group). Management and Business Research Quarterly, 3, 27-38. https://doi.org/10.32038/mbrq.2017.03.0310.32038/mbrq.2017.03.03 Search in Google Scholar

Babaei Aghbolagh, M., & Ardabili, F. S. (2016). An overview of the social functions of gossip in the hospitals. Management Issues in Healthcare System, 2(1), 27-33. https://doi.org/10.33844/mihs.2016.6019410.33844/mihs.2016.60194 Search in Google Scholar

Bechtoldt, M. N., Beersma, B., & Dijkstra, M. T. M. (2020). Editorial: Why People Gossip and What It Brings About: Motives for, and Consequences of Informal Evaluative Information Exchange. Frontiers in Psychology, 11(24). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.0002410.3389/fpsyg.2020.00024 Search in Google Scholar

Beersma, B., & Van Kleef, G. A. (2011). How the grapevine keeps you in line: Gossip increases contributions to the group. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 2(6), 642-649. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550611405073.10.1177/1948550611405073 Search in Google Scholar

Beersma, B., & Van Kleef, G. A. (2012). Why people gossip: An empirical analysis of social motives, antecedents, and consequences. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 42(11), 2640-2670. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2012.00956.x10.1111/j.1559-1816.2012.00956.x Search in Google Scholar

Bulduk, S., Özel, İ., & Dinçer, Y. (2016). Informal communication in healthcare (gossip and rumour): nurses’ attitudes. Athens Journal of Health, 3(4), 23-29. https://doi.org/10.30958/ajh.3-4-310.30958/ajh.3-4-3 Search in Google Scholar

Ceylan, S. S., & Çetinkaya, B. (2020). Attitudes towards gossip and patient privacy among paediatric nurses. Nursing Ethics, 27(1), 289-300. https://doi.org/10.1177/0969733019845124.10.1177/0969733019845124 Search in Google Scholar

Chang, K., & Kuo, C.-C. (2020). Can subordinates benefit from Manager’s gossip? European Management Journal. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2020.09.00910.1016/j.emj.2020.09.009 Search in Google Scholar

Clegg, S. R., & van Iterson, A. (2009). Dishing the dirt: gossiping in organizations. Culture and Organization, 15(3-4), 275-289. https://doi.org/10.1080/1475955090311929310.1080/14759550903119293 Search in Google Scholar

Corbin, J. M., & Strauss, A. (1990). Grounded theory research: Procedures, canons, and evaluative criteria. Qualitative Sociology, 13(1), 3-21. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF0098859310.1007/BF00988593 Search in Google Scholar

Dapkus, M. A. (1985). A thematic analysis of the experience of time. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49(2), 408. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.49.2.40810.1037/0022-3514.49.2.408 Search in Google Scholar

Dores Cruz, T. D., Beersma, B., Dijkstra, M. T. M., & Bechtoldt, M. N. (2019). The Bright and Dark Side of Gossip for Cooperation in Groups. Frontiers in Psychology, 10(1374). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.0137410.3389/fpsyg.2019.01374 Search in Google Scholar

Dores Cruz, T. D., Nieper, A. S., Testori, M., Martinescu, E., & Beersma, B. (2021). An Integrative Definition and Framework to Study Gossip. Group & Organization Management, 46(2), 252-285. https://doi,org/10.1177/105960112199288710.1177/1059601121992887 Search in Google Scholar

Durmuş, A., Kirilmaz, H., & Şahin, Ö. (2020). Is Gossip Associated with Nurses’ Job Performance Perceptions? Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Dergisi, 15(1), 17-30. https://doi.org/10.17153/oguiibf.520390.10.17153/oguiibf.520390 Search in Google Scholar

Eckhaus, E., & Ben-Hador, B. (2020). Gossip and Pro Social Behavior, Cham.10.5465/AMBPP.2020.13358symposium Search in Google Scholar

Ellwardt, L., Labianca, G., & Wittek, R. (2012). Who are the objects of positive and negative gossip at work?: A social network perspective on workplace gossip. Social Networks, 34(2), 193-205. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socnet.2011.11.00310.1016/j.socnet.2011.11.003 Search in Google Scholar

Fan, Z., & Dawson, P. (2021). Gossip as evaluative sensemaking and the concealment of confidential gossip in the everyday life of organizations. Management Learning, 0(0), 1350507620979366. https://doi.org/10.1177/135050762097936610.1177/1350507620979366 Search in Google Scholar

Foster, E. K. (2004). Research on gossip: Taxonomy, methods, and future directions. Review of General Psychology, 8(2), 78. https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.8.2.7810.1037/1089-2680.8.2.78 Search in Google Scholar

Georganta, K., Panagopoulou, E., & Montgomery, A. (2014). Talking behind their backs: Negative gossip and burnout in Hospitals. Burnout Research, 1(2), 76-81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.burn.2014.07.00310.1016/j.burn.2014.07.003 Search in Google Scholar

Gholipour, A., Fakheri Kozekanan, S., & Zehtabi, M. (2011). Utilizing gossip as a strategy to construct organizational reality. Business Strategy Series, 12(2), 56-62. https://doi.org/10.1108/1751563111111485910.1108/17515631111114859 Search in Google Scholar

Grosser, T. J., Kidwell, V. L., & Labianca, G. J. (2012). Hearing it through the grapevine: Positive and negative workplace gossip. Organizational Dynamics, 41, 52-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orgdyn.2011.12.00710.1016/j.orgdyn.2011.12.007 Search in Google Scholar

Grosser, T. J., Lopez-Kidwell, V., & Labianca, G. (2010). A social network analysis of positive and negative gossip in organizational life. Group & Organization Management, 35(2), 177-212. https://doi.org/10.1177/105960110936039110.1177/1059601109360391 Search in Google Scholar

Hallett, T., Harger, B., & Eder, D. (2009). Gossip at work: Unsanctioned evaluative talk in formal school meetings. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 38(5), 584-618. https://doi.org/10.1177/089124160934211710.1177/0891241609342117 Search in Google Scholar

Kim, A., Moon, J., & Shin, J. (2019). Justice perceptions, perceived insider status, and gossip at work: A social exchange perspective. Journal of Business Research, 97, 30-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2018.12.03810.1016/j.jbusres.2018.12.038 Search in Google Scholar

Kniffin, K. M., & Wilson, D. S. (2005). Utilities of gossip across organizational levels. Human Nature, 16(3), 278-292. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12110-005-1011-610.1007/s12110-005-1011-6 Search in Google Scholar

Kniffin, K. M., & Wilson, D. S. (2010). Evolutionary perspectives on workplace gossip: Why and how gossip can serve groups. Group & Organization Management. 35(2), 150-176. https://doi.org/10.1177/105960110936039010.1177/1059601109360390 Search in Google Scholar

Kurasaki, K. S. (2000). Intercoder reliability for validating conclusions drawn from open-ended interview data. Field Methods, 12(3), 179-194. https://doi.org/10.1177/1525822X000120030110.1177/1525822X0001200301 Search in Google Scholar

Lee, S.-H., & Workman, J. E. (2013). Gossip, self-monitoring, and fashion consumer groups. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 31(2), 67-80. https://doi.org/10.1177/0887302X1348126210.1177/0887302X13481262 Search in Google Scholar

Liff, R., & Wikström, E. (2021). Rumours and gossip demand continuous action by managers in daily working life. Culture and Organization, 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1080/14759551.2021.188468110.1080/14759551.2021.1884681 Search in Google Scholar

Liu, T., Wu, L., Yang, Y., & Jia, Y. (2020). Work-to-Family Spillover Effects of Workplace Negative Gossip: A Mediated Moderation Model. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1612. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.0161210.3389/fpsyg.2020.01612 Search in Google Scholar

Locke, K. (2001). Grounded Theory in Management Research: Sage. Search in Google Scholar

Martin, P. Y., & Turner, B. A. (1986). Grounded theory and organizational research. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 22(2), 141-157. https://doi.org/10.1177/00218863860220020710.1177/002188638602200207 Search in Google Scholar

McFadden, L., Seidman, E., & Rappaport, J. (1992). A comparison of espoused theories of self-and mutual help: Implications for mental health professionals. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 23(6), 515. https://psycnet.apa.org/buy/1993-14766-00110.1037/0735-7028.23.6.515 Search in Google Scholar

Michelson, G., & Mouly, V. S. (2002). ‘You Didn‘t Hear it From Us But…’: Towards an Understanding of Rumour and Gossip in Organisations. Australian Journal of Management, 27(1 suppl), 57-65. https://doi.org/10.1177/031289620202701S0710.1177/031289620202701S07 Search in Google Scholar

Michelson, G., Van Iterson, A., & Waddington, K. (2010). Gossip in organizations: Contexts, consequences, and controversies. Group & Organization Management, 35(4), 371-390. https://doi.org/10.1177/105960110936038910.1177/1059601109360389 Search in Google Scholar

Mills, C. (2010). Experiencing gossip: The foundations for a theory of embedded organizational gossip. Group & Organization Management, 35(2), 213-240. https://doi.org/10.1177/105960110936039210.1177/1059601109360392 Search in Google Scholar

Nevo, O., Nevo, B., & Derech-Zehavi, A. (1993). The development of the tendency to gossip questionnaire: Construct and concurrent validation for a sample of Israeli college students. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 53(4), 973-981. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164493053004010.10.1177/0013164493053004010 Search in Google Scholar

Noon, M., & Delbridge, R. (1993). News from behind my hand: Gossip in organizations. Organization studies, 14(1), 23-36. https://doi.org/10.1177/017084069301400103.10.1177/017084069301400103 Search in Google Scholar

Pennartz, P. J. (1986). Atmosphere at home: A qualitative approach. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 6(2), 135-153. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-4944(86)80014-7.10.1016/S0272-4944(86)80014-7 Search in Google Scholar

Rosnow, R. L., & Foster, E. K. (2005). Rumor and gossip research. Psychological Science Agenda, 19(4). http://www.apa.org/science/about/psa/2005/04/gossip Search in Google Scholar

Şantaş, G., Uğurluoğlu, Ö., Özer, Ö., & Demir, A. (2018). Do gossip functions effect on organizational revenge and job stress among health personnel? Journal of Health Management, 20(1), 64-72. https://doi.org/10.1177/097206341774772410.1177/0972063417747724 Search in Google Scholar

Tan, N., Yam, K. C., Zhang, P., & Brown, D. J. (2021). Are You Gossiping About Me? The Costs and Benefits of High Workplace Gossip Prevalence. Journal of Business and Psychology, 36(3), 417-434. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-020-09683-710.1007/s10869-020-09683-7 Search in Google Scholar

Thomas, S. A., & Rozell, E. J. (2007). Gossip and nurses: malady or remedy? The Health Care Manager, 26(2), 111-115. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.HCM.0000268613.02997.8c10.1097/01.HCM.0000268613.02997.8c Search in Google Scholar

Waddington, K. (2005). Behind closed doors–the role of gossip in the emotional labour of nursing work. International Journal of Work Organisation and Emotion, 1(1), 35-47. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJWOE.2005.00732510.1504/IJWOE.2005.007325 Search in Google Scholar

Waddington, K., & Michelson, G. (2007). Analysing gossip to reveal and understand power relationships, political action and reaction to change inside organisations. Paper presented at the CMS conference – 2007. http://wms.ac.nz/ejrot/cmsconference/2007/proceedings/talkpowerandorganisational/waddington.pdf. Search in Google Scholar

Wittek, R., Hangyi, H., Van Duijn, M., & Carroll, C. (2000). Social capital, third party gossip, and cooperation in organizations. The Management of Durable Relations: Theoretical Models and Empirical Studies of Households and Organizations, Edited by Jeroen Weesie and Werner Raub, Amsterdam, ThelaThesis. https://ssrn.com/abstract=2655664 Search in Google Scholar

Wu, L.-Z., Birtch, T. A., Chiang, F. F. T., & Zhang, H. (2018). Perceptions of Negative Workplace Gossip: A Self-Consistency Theory Framework. Journal of Management, 44(5), 1873-1898. https://doi.org/10.1177/014920631663205710.1177/0149206316632057 Search in Google Scholar

Ybema, S. (2004). Managerial postalgia: Projecting a golden future. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 19(8), 825-841. https://doi.org/10.1108/0268394041056828410.1108/02683940410568284 Search in Google Scholar

Ye, C., He, B., & Sun, X. (2021). Subordinates’ negative workplace gossip leads to supervisor abuse: based on the conservation of resources theory. Chinese Management Studies, ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print). https://doi.org/10.1108/CMS-09-2020-038710.1108/CMS-09-2020-0387 Search in Google Scholar

Polecane artykuły z Trend MD

Zaplanuj zdalną konferencję ze Sciendo