1. bookTom 55 (2022): Zeszyt 2 (May 2022)
Informacje o czasopiśmie
License
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1581-1832
Pierwsze wydanie
17 Oct 2008
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski
access type Otwarty dostęp

Influence of Parental Experience on Transformational Leadership Behaviour: A Test of Work–Family Enrichment of Male Managers from an Employee Perspective

Data publikacji: 23 Jun 2022
Tom & Zeszyt: Tom 55 (2022) - Zeszyt 2 (May 2022)
Zakres stron: 112 - 127
Otrzymano: 30 Dec 2021
Przyjęty: 07 May 2022
Informacje o czasopiśmie
License
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1581-1832
Pierwsze wydanie
17 Oct 2008
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski
Abstract

Background: When a male leader becomes a father, changes in his transformational leadership behaviour occur due to shifted priorities, role expectations and resource transfer between domains. Work–life enrichment research acknowledges the positive overall effects of fatherhood on overall transformational leadership behaviours. Our quantitative study contributes to existing knowledge by analysing the perception of behavioural changes of leaders from the employees’ view. The results are matched with previous studies to assess differences of perception between leaders and employees.

Methods: Our research uses a granular, detailed definition of transformational leadership. Based on a sample of 139 respondents, we test the positive effects of fatherhood on leadership performance with Wilcoxon signed rank sum tests.

Results: 13 out of 15 transformational leadership behaviours improve significantly with fatherhood. We find that leaders and employees view change differently. Employees perceive improvement similarly in terms of direction, but it is less pronounced in terms of magnitude. Moreover, we find that well rated leaders tend to benefit the most from fatherhood, at least from the perspective of their employees. Males perceive higher levels of improvement than females, which we attribute to a gender empathy bias.

Conclusion: Our study confirms work–family enrichment theory and the positive effects of fatherhood on transformational leadership behaviour. Nevertheless, we show that not all involved parties perceive behavioural changes conformably.

Keywords

Asselmann, E., & Specht, J. (2020). Testing the Social Investment Principle around Childbirth: Little Evidence for Personality Maturation before and after Becoming a Parent. European Journal of Personality, 35(1), 85-102. https://doi.org/10.1002/per.2269 Search in Google Scholar

Barnett, R. C., & Hyde, J. S. (2001). Women, men, work, and family: An expansionist theory. American Psychologist, 56(10), 781–796. https://doi.org/10.1037//0003-066X.56.10.781 Search in Google Scholar

Bass, B. M. (1990). From transactional to transformational leadership: Learning to share the vision. Organizational Dynamics, 18(3), 19–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/0090-2616(90)90061-S Search in Google Scholar

Bleidorn, W., Buyukcan-Tetik, A., Schwaba, T., van Scheppingen, M A., Denissen, J. J. A., & Finkenauer, C. (2016). Stability and Change in Self-Esteem During the Transition to Parenthood. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 7(6), 560–569. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550616646428 Search in Google Scholar

Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112(1), 155–159. https://doi.org/10.1037//0033-2909.112.1.155 Search in Google Scholar

Dahl, M. S., Dezső, C. L., & Ross, D. G. (2012). Fatherhood and Managerial Style. Administrative Science Quarterly, 57(4), 669–693. https://doi.org/10.1177/0001839212466521 Search in Google Scholar

Dermott, E., & Miller, T. (2015). More than the sum of its parts? Contemporary fatherhood policy, practice and discourse. Families, Relationships and Societies, 4(2), 183–195. https://doi.org/10.1332/204674315X14212269138324 Search in Google Scholar

Dumas, T. L., & Stanko, T. L. (2017). Married with children: How family role identification shapes leadership behaviors at work. Personnel Psychology, 70(3), 597–633. https://doi.org/10.1111/peps.12182 Search in Google Scholar

Goode, W. J. (1960). A Theory of Role Strain. American Sociological Review, 25(4), 483. https://doi.org/10.2307/2092933 Search in Google Scholar

Grau Grau, M. (2017). Work-Family Enrichment Experiences among Working Fathers: Evidence from Catalonia: Dissertation. Search in Google Scholar

Graves, L. M., Ohlott, P. J., & Ruderman, M. N. (2007). Commitment to family roles: Effects on managers’ attitudes and performance. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(1), 44–56. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.92.1.44 Search in Google Scholar

Greenhaus, J. H., & Powell, G. N. (2006). When Work and Family Are Allies: A Theory of Work-Family Enrichment. Academy of Management Review, 31(1), 72–92. https://doi.org/10.2307/20159186 Search in Google Scholar

Heikkinen, S., & Lämsä, A. M. (2017). Narratives of spousal support for the careers of men in managerial posts. Gender, Work & Organization, 24(2), 171-193. https://doi.org/10.1111/gwao.12157 Search in Google Scholar

Herbst, T. H., & Conradie, P. D. (2011). Leadership effectiveness in Higher Education: Managerial self-perceptions versus perceptions of others. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 37(1). https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v37i1.867 Search in Google Scholar

Humberd, B., Ladge, J. J., & Harrington, B. (2015). The “New” Dad: Navigating Fathering Identity Within Organizational Contexts. Journal of Business and Psychology, 30(2), 249–266. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-014-9361-x Search in Google Scholar

Jokela, M., Kivimäki, M., Elovainio, M., & Keltikangas-Järvinen, L. (2009). Personality and having children: A two-way relationship. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96(1), 218–230. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0014058 Search in Google Scholar

Kotter, J. P. (1990). What leaders really do. Harvard business review on leadership. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Search in Google Scholar

Kotterman, J. (2006). Leadership versus management: What’s the difference? The Journal for Quality and Participation, 29(2), 13–17. Search in Google Scholar

Ladge, J. J., Humberd, B. K., Baskerville Watkins, M., & Harrington, B. (2015). Updating the Organization MAN: An Examination of Involved Fathering in the Workplace. Academy of Management Perspectives, 29(1), 152–171. https://doi.org/10.5465/amp.2013.0078 Search in Google Scholar

Lapierre, L. M., Li, Y., Kwan, H. K., Greenhaus, J. H., DiRenzo, M. S., & Shao, P. (2018). A meta-analysis of the antecedents of work–family enrichment. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 39(4), 385-401. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.2234 Search in Google Scholar

Marks, S. R. (1977). Multiple Roles and Role Strain: Some Notes on Human Energy, Time and Commitment. American Sociological Review, 42(6), 921. https://doi.org/10.2307/2094577 Search in Google Scholar

McClean, S. T., Yim, J., Courtright, S. H., & Dunford, B. B. (2021). Transformed by the family: An episodic, attachment theory perspective on family–work enrichment and transformational leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 106(12), 1848. https://doi.org/10.1037/apl0000869 Search in Google Scholar

Mintzberg, H. (1971). Managerial Work: Analysis from Observation. Management Science, 18(2), B-97-B-110. https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.18.2.B97 Search in Google Scholar

Nichols, A. L. (2016). What do people desire in their leaders? The effect of leadership experience on desired leadership traits. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 37(5), 658–671. https://doi.org/10.1108/LODJ-09-2014-0182 Search in Google Scholar

Nunes-Costa, R., Lopes, C., & Leite, Â. (2020). Parenting and management skills: The mediator role of empathy. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 61(3), 388–392. https://doi.org/10.1111/sjop.12624 Search in Google Scholar

Palkovitz, R., & Palm, G. (2009). Transitions within Fathering. Fathering: A Journal of Theory, Research, and Practice About Men as Fathers, 7(1), 3–22. https://doi.org/10.3149/fth.0701.03 Search in Google Scholar

Posner, B. (2016). Investigating the Reliability and Validity of the Leadership Practices Inventory®. Administrative Sciences, 6(17), 1–23. https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci6040017 Search in Google Scholar

Pučėtaitė, R., Lämsä, A. M., & Norvaišaitė, M. (2020). Masculinity in flux? Male managers navigating between work and family. Journal of Baltic Studies, 51(2), 179-198. https://doi.org/10.1080/01629778.2020.1746369 Search in Google Scholar

Ruderman, M. N., Ohlott, P. J., Panzer, K., & King, S. N. (2002). Benefits of Multiple Roles for Managerial Women. Academy of Management Journal, 45(2), 369–386. https://doi.org/10.2307/3069352 Search in Google Scholar

Sieber, S. D. (1974). Toward a Theory of Role Accumulation. American Sociological Review, 39(4), 567. https://doi.org/10.2307/2094422 Search in Google Scholar

Specht, J., Egloff, B., & Schmukle, S. C. (2011). Stability and change of personality across the life course: The impact of age and major life events on mean-level and rank-order stability of the Big Five. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101(4), 862–882. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024950 Search in Google Scholar

Stellner, B. (2021). Effects of Fatherhood on Leadership Behaviour of Managers. International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 10(4), 367–384. https://doi.org/10.33844/ijol.2021.60598 Search in Google Scholar

Townsend, N. W. (2002). The package deal: Marriage, work, and fatherhood in men’s lives. Temple University Press. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctt14bt2mz Search in Google Scholar

van Scheppingen, M. A., Jackson, J. J., Specht, J., Hutteman, R., Denissen, J. J. A., & Bleidorn, W. (2016). Personality Trait Development During the Transition to Parenthood. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 7(5), 452–462. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550616630032 Search in Google Scholar

Yukl, G. (2012). Effective leadership behavior: What we know and what questions need more attention. Academy of Management Perspectives, 26(4), 66–85. https://doi.org/10.5465/amp.2012.0088 Search in Google Scholar

Zaleznik, A. (1977). Managers and leaders: Are they different? Harvard Business Review. Search in Google Scholar

Zhang, Y., Xu, S., Jin, J., & Ford, M. T. (2018). The within and cross domain effects of work-family enrichment: A meta-analysis. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 104, 210-227. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2017.11.003 Search in Google Scholar

Polecane artykuły z Trend MD

Zaplanuj zdalną konferencję ze Sciendo