1. bookVolume 23 (2015): Issue 2 (June 2015)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2199-6202
First Published
30 Jul 2013
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Religion and gender inequality: The status of women in the societies of world religions

Published Online: 21 Aug 2015
Volume & Issue: Volume 23 (2015) - Issue 2 (June 2015)
Page range: 2 - 11
Received: 05 Jun 2014
Accepted: 14 Apr 2015
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2199-6202
First Published
30 Jul 2013
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

The status of women in society is very diverse worldwide. Among many important traits associated with the differentiation of gender inequality is religion, which itself must be regarded as a fluid concept with interpretations and practices ‘embedded’ and thus varying with respect to cultural and historical relations. Admitting the complexity of the issues, some religious norms and traditions can contribute to the formation of gender inequalities and to subordinate the role of women in society. Using an exploratory quantitative analysis, the influence of religiosity on gender inequality in social, economic and political spheres is examined. Three categories of states have emerged from the analysis: (a) states where the majority of inhabitants are without religious affiliation, which display the lowest levels of gender inequality; (b) Christian and Buddhist societies, with average levels of gender inequality; and (c) states with the highest levels of gender inequality across the observed variables, whose inhabitants adhere to Islam and Hinduism.

Keywords

Adherents.com (2013): National and World Religion Statistics – Church Statistics – World Religions [online]. [cit. 17.01.2013]. Available at: URL: http://www.adherents.comSearch in Google Scholar

AITCHISON, C. [eds.]. (2007): Geographies of Muslim identities: diaspora, gender and belonging. Ashgate, Aldershot.Search in Google Scholar

BILEZIKIAN, G. (2006): Beyond Sex Roles: What the Bible says about a Woman's Place in Church and Family. Baker Academic.Search in Google Scholar

CABEZÓN, I. (1992): Buddhism, Sexuality, and Gender. Albany, State University of New York Press.Search in Google Scholar

Census of India (1991): Chhattisgarh Government. Official Website of Government Of Chhattisgarh [online]. [cit. 02.02.2013]. Available at: URL: http://cg.gov.in/development/cdevelopment.htmSearch in Google Scholar

Census of India (2001) [online]. [cit. 02.02.2013]. Available at: URL: http://www.censusindia.gov.in/Census_Data_2001Search in Google Scholar

Census of India (2011) [online]. [cit. 03.02.2013]. Available at: URL: http://www.census2011.co.in.Search in Google Scholar

CHAUDHURI, S. (2013): A Life Course Model of Human Rights Realization, Female Empowerment, and Gender Inequality in India. World Development, 52: 55–70.10.1016/j.worlddev.2013.07.001Search in Google Scholar

DEL CASINO JR, V. J. (2009): Social Geography. Critical Introductions to Geography. Chichester, Wiley-Blackwell.Search in Google Scholar

DOLLAR, D., GATTI, R. (1999): Gender inequality, income and growth: Are good times good for women? Policy research report on gender and development working paper series No. 1.Search in Google Scholar

DRURY, C. (1994): Christianity. In: Holm, J. J., Bowker, J. [eds.]: Women in religion (pp. 30–54). New York, Continuum.Search in Google Scholar

Economic Review of Tripura (2010–11): Directorate of Economics and Statistics Planning (Statistics) Department Government of Tripura, Agartala [online]. [cit. 03.02.2013] Available at: URL: http://www.destripura.nic.in/review2010_11.pdfSearch in Google Scholar

ENGLAND, K. (2006): Producing Feminist Geographies: Theory, Methodologies and Research Strategies. In: Aitken, S., Valentine, G. [eds.]: Approaches to human geography (pp. 286–298). London, Sage Publications.10.4135/9781446215432.n27Search in Google Scholar

FALAH, G. W., NAGEL, C. (2005): Geographies of Muslim women: gender, religion, and space. New York, Guilford Press.Search in Google Scholar

GROSS, R. M. (1994): Buddhism. In: Holm, J. J., Bowker, J. [eds.]: Women in religion (pp. 1–29). New York, Continuum.Search in Google Scholar

GUISO, L., SAPIENZAD, P., ZINGALES, L. (2003): People’s opium? Religion and Economic Attitudes. Journal of Monetary Economics, 50: 225–282.10.1016/S0304-3932(02)00202-7Search in Google Scholar

GUNEWARDENE, A., HUON, G. F., ZHENG, R. (2001): Exposure to Westernization and Dieting: A Cross-Cultural Study. Int. J. Eat. Disord, 29: 289–293.Search in Google Scholar

HAMPLOVÁ, D. (2013): Náboženství v české společnosti na prahu 3. tisíciletí. Praha, Karolinum.Search in Google Scholar

HAMPLOVÁ, D. (2011): Náboženství a pohlaví: Proč jsou ženy zbožnější než muži? Sociologický časopis, 47(2): 297–323.10.13060/00380288.2011.47.2.04Search in Google Scholar

HAVLÍČEK, T., HUPKOVÁ, M. (2013): Sacred structures in the landscape: the case of rural Czechia. Scottish Geographical Journal, 129(2): 100–121.10.1080/14702541.2012.754931Search in Google Scholar

HAVLÍČEK, T., HUPKOVÁ, M. (2008): Religious landscape in Czechia: new structures and trends. Geografie, 113(3): 302–319.10.37040/geografie2008113030302Search in Google Scholar

HOLM, J. (1994): Introduction: raising the issues. In: Holm, J. J., Bowker, J. [eds.]: Women in religion (pp. 12–22). New York, Continuum.Search in Google Scholar

HOPKINS, P. (2009): Men, women, positionalities and emotion: doing feminist geographies of religion. ACME: an International Journal for Critical Geographers, 8(1): 1–17.Search in Google Scholar

INGLEHART, R., NORRIS, P. (2003): Rising tide: Gender equality and cultural change around the world. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9780511550362Search in Google Scholar

International Labour Office (2011): Labour force participation rate, published in Key Indicators of the Labour Market [online]. [cit. 02.02.2013] Available at: URL: http://www.ilo.org/public/english/employment/strat/kilmSearch in Google Scholar

Inter-Parliamentary Union (2012): Parline database on women in parliament [online]. [cit. 20.02.2013]. Available at: URL: http://www.ipu.org/wmn-e/classif.htmSearch in Google Scholar

KING, U. (1995): Gender and the Study of Religion. In: King, U. [ed.]: Religion and Gender (pp. 1–40). Oxford, Blackwell.Search in Google Scholar

KLINGOROVÁ, K. (2015): Genderové rozdíly ve vybraných světových náboženstvích. In: Doboš, P., Honsnejmanová, I. [eds.]: Geografický výzkum: Prostor ve své transdisciplinaritě. Brno, Masarykova univerzita (in print).Search in Google Scholar

KLINGOROVÁ, K. (2013): Vliv náboženství na postavení žen ve vybraných státech (diploma thesis). UK v Praze, PřF, KSGRR, Praha.Search in Google Scholar

KNOTKOVÁ-ČAPKOVÁ, B. (2008): Obrazy ženství v náboženských kulturách. Praha–Litomyšl, Paseka.Search in Google Scholar

KONG, L. (2001): Mapping ‘new’ geographies of religion: politics and poetics in modernity. Progress in Human Geography, 25: 211–33.10.1191/030913201678580485Search in Google Scholar

KONG, L. (2010): Global shift, theoretical shifts: Changing geographies of religion. Progress in Human Geography, 34(6): 755–776.10.1177/0309132510362602Search in Google Scholar

KREJČÍ, J. (2009): Ženy ve spektru civilizací. Klíčový problém ve vývojové perspektivě. In: Tomeš, J. [ed.]: Ženy ve spektru civilizací. K proměnám postavení žen ve vývoji lidské společnosti (pp. 9–21). Praha, Sociologické nakladatelství.Search in Google Scholar

MASSEY, D. (1994): Space, place and gender. London, Polity.Search in Google Scholar

MOGHADAM, V. M. (1991): The Reproduction of Gender Inequality in Muslim Societies: A Case Study of Iran in the 1980s. World Development, 19(10): 1335–1349.10.1016/0305-750X(91)90077-USearch in Google Scholar

NASIR, J. J. (2009): The Status of Women under Islamic Law and Modern Islamic Legislation. Leiden, Brill.10.1163/ej.9789004172739.i-227Search in Google Scholar

NEŠPOR, Z. R. (2008): Genderové pojetí božství a sacerdotálních vrstev. In: Nešpor, Z. R, Václavík, D. [eds.]: Příručka sociologie náboženství. Praha, Slon.Search in Google Scholar

NORRIS, P., INGLEHART, R. (2004): Sacred and secular: Religion and politics worldwide. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9780511791017Search in Google Scholar

PEACH, C. (2006): Islam, ethnicity and South Asian Religions in the London 2001 census. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 31(3): 353–370.10.1111/j.1475-5661.2006.00214.xSearch in Google Scholar

RENZETTI, C. M., CURRAN, D. J. (1999): Women, men, and society. Boston, Allyn and Bacon.Search in Google Scholar

RIDGEWAY, C. (2004): Unpacking the Gender System: A Theoretical Perspective on Gender Beliefs and Social Relations. Gender and Society, 18(4): 510–531.10.1177/0891243204265269Search in Google Scholar

ROSE, G. (1993): Feminism and geography: the limits of geographical knowledge. Cambridge, Polity.Search in Google Scholar

SEGUINO, S. (2011): Help or Hindrance? Religion’s Impact on Gender Inequality in Attitudes and Outcomes. World Development, 39(8): 1308–1321.10.1016/j.worlddev.2010.12.004Search in Google Scholar

SHARP, J. (2009): Geography and gender: what belongs to feminist geography? Emotion, power and change. Progress in Human Geography, 33(1): 74–80.10.1177/0309132508090440Search in Google Scholar

SINCLAIR, K. (1986): Women and religion. In: Dudley, M. I., Edwards, M. I. [eds.]: The Cross-cultural Study of Women: A Comprehensive Guide (pp. 107–124). New York, The Feminist Press.Search in Google Scholar

STUMP, R. (2008): The Geography of Religion: Faith, Place, and Space. Maryland, Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.Search in Google Scholar

STURM, T. (2013): The future of religious politics: towards a research and theory agenda. Area, 45(2): 134–140.10.1111/area.12028Search in Google Scholar

SUGIRTHARAJAH, S. (1994): Hinduism. In: Holm, J. J., Bowker, J. [eds.]: Women in religion (pp. 59–83). New York, Continuum.Search in Google Scholar

UNESCO (2013): Institute for Statistics. [online]. [cit. 20.02.2013] Available at: URL: http://www.uis.unesco.orgSearch in Google Scholar

United Nations Development Program (2013): International Human Development Indicators. Database [online]. [cit. 02.02.2013]. Available at: URL: http://hdr.undp.orgSearch in Google Scholar

United Nations Statistics Division (2011): United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division [online]. [cit. 14.02.2013] Available at: URL: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/indwm/Search in Google Scholar

VERVEER, M. (2011): The Political and Economic Power of Women. Center for International Private Enterprise [online]. [cit. 19.03.2013] Available at: URL: http://www.state.gov/s/gwi/rls/rem/2011/167142.htmSearch in Google Scholar

Women in Indian Parliaments (2013): Legislative bodies in India [online]. [cit. 04.02.2013] Available at: URL: http://legislativebodiesinindia.nic.in/Search in Google Scholar

World Factbook (2013): Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency [online]. [cit. 01.04.2013] Available at: URL: https://www.cia.gov/index.htmlSearch in Google Scholar

YOUNG, K. (1987): Introduction. In: Sharma, A. [ed.]: Women in World Religions (pp. 1–36). Albany, State University of New York Press.Search in Google Scholar

ZUCKERMAN, P. (2007): Atheism: Contemporary Rates and Patterns. In: Martin, M. [ed.]: Cambridge Companion to Atheism (pp. 47–69). Cambridge, University of Cambridge Press.10.1017/CCOL0521842700.004Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo