1. bookVolume 26 (2018): Issue 2 (June 2018)
Journal Details
First Published
30 Jul 2013
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
access type Open Access

An integrated AHP and PROMETHEE approach to the evaluation of the attractiveness of European maritime areas for sailing tourism

Published Online: 04 Jul 2018
Volume & Issue: Volume 26 (2018) - Issue 2 (June 2018)
Page range: 135 - 148
Received: 10 Nov 2017
Accepted: 18 May 2018
Journal Details
First Published
30 Jul 2013
Publication timeframe
4 times per year

As a subject of scientific investigation, evaluations of the attractiveness of tourist destinations have had a relatively long history, particularly among geographers and regional economists. Based on mathematical and psychological principles and using methods that combine the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE) approach, this research project constructs an evaluation structure used for the assessment of European coastal and offshore areas for sailing tourism. A case study with a three-level evaluation structure has been defined and tested. It contains: at the top of the hierarchy an overall objective defined as the attractiveness of the European coastal and offshore areas for sailing tourism; six criteria of evaluation (on the second level); and ten coastal areas (at the bottom level). This structure covers almost all the coasts around Europe, as they were the subjects of evaluation and comparison. The evaluation was carried out by a group of experts who made the assessment taking into account previously determined criteria with weights. The findings indicate that the AHP-PROMETHEE method may be a useful tool to evaluate the attractiveness of different destinations. It can be also used for practical purposes, particularly to determine strengths and weaknesses, as well as the competitive position, of given coastal areas in relation to others.


ADAMCZYK, T., NOWACKI M. (2014): Ocena atrakcyjności krajoznawczej destynacji żeglarskich z wykorzystaniem metody AHP. Turystyka kulturowa, 8: 51–68.Search in Google Scholar

AKKAYA, G. C., UZAR, C. (2013): The usage of multiple-criteria decision making techniques on profitability and efficiency: an application of PROMETHEE. International journal of economics and finance studies, 5(1): 149–156.Search in Google Scholar

ANHOLT, S. (2010): Places: Identity, image and reputation. Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan.Search in Google Scholar

ATLANTIC SPAIN AND PORTUGAL (2006): RCC Pilotage Foundation. Cambridgeshire, Imray.Search in Google Scholar

BALAGUER, P., DIEDRICH, A., SARDÁ, R., FUSTER, M., CAÑELLAS, B., TINTORÉ J. (2011): Spatial analysis of recreational boating as a first key step for marine spatial planning in Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Spain). Ocean & Coastal Management, 54(3): 241–249.10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2010.12.002Search in Google Scholar

BARTKOWSKI, T. (1971): O metodyce oceny środowiska geograficznego, Przegląd Geograficzny, 53(3): 263–281.Search in Google Scholar

BLANCAS, J., GUERRERO, F. M., LOZANO, M. (2009): La localización espacial en la planificación del turismo rural en Andalucía: un enfoque multicriterio. Revista de estudios regionals, 84: 83–113.Search in Google Scholar

BRANDON, R., MARCHMENT, J. (2007): Corsica and North Sardinia. Cambridgeshire, Imray.Search in Google Scholar

BRANDIS, D., MARTÍN, F., CALLE, M., RÍO, M. I., TROITIÑO, M. A., GUTIÉRREZ, J., LOBO, P. (1998): Toledo: problemática e implicaciones urbanas del turismo. Ería, Revista cuatrimestral de geografía. 47: 299–325.Search in Google Scholar

BRANS, J. P., MARESCHAL, B., VINCKE, P. H. (1984): PROMETHEE: a new family of outranking methods in multicriteria analysis. In: Brans, J. P. [ed.]: Operational Research’84 (pp. 477–490), North-Holland.Search in Google Scholar

BRANS, J. P., VINCKE, P. H. (1985): A preference ranking organization method, the PROMETHEE method. Management Science, 31: 647–656.10.1287/mnsc.31.6.647Search in Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, G. (2009): Shetland Islands Pilot. Imray, Cambridgeshire.Search in Google Scholar

BUTOWSKI, L. (2010): Morska turystyka żeglarska w Europie – podstawy metodologiczne analizy jakościowej wybranych elementów popytu i podaży. Folia Turistica, 23: 95–114.Search in Google Scholar

BUTOWSKI, L. (2014): Maritime Tourism Space. Turyzm, 24(1): 57–64.10.2478/tour-2014-0006Search in Google Scholar

BUTTRES, R., DU PORT, A. (2009): Reeds Nautical Almanac 2010. Atlantic Europe from the tip of Denmark to Gibraltar. Adlard Coles Nautical.Search in Google Scholar

CABAŁA, P., ONDERKA, Z. (2015): Przegląd metod wielokryterialnego wspomagania decyzji. In: Stabryła, A. [ed.]: Praktyka projektowania systemów organizacyjnych przedsiębiorstwa (pp. 191–199). Kraków, Mfiles.pl.Search in Google Scholar

CHARLIER, R. H., DE MEYER, C. P. (1992): Tourism and the coastal zone: The case of Belgium. Ocean & Coastal Management, 18(2–4): 231–240.10.1016/0964-5691(92)90026-HSearch in Google Scholar

CHEN, C. F. (2006): Applying the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) Approach to Convention Site Selection. Journal of Travel Research, 45(2): 167–174.10.1177/0047287506291593Search in Google Scholar

CHO, V. (2008): Linking location attractiveness and tourist intention. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 8(3): 220–224.10.1057/thr.2008.20Search in Google Scholar

CHOU, T. Y., HSU, C. L., CHEN, M. C. (2008): A fuzzy multi-criteria decision model for international tourist hotels location selection. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 27(2): 293–301.10.1016/j.ijhm.2007.07.029Search in Google Scholar

COHEN, E. (1972 Spring). Toward a Sociology of International Tourism. Social Research, 39(1): 164–182.Search in Google Scholar

CORNELL, J. (2008): World Crusing Routes. Adlard Coles Nautical, 6th edition.Search in Google Scholar

CRACOLICI, M. F., NIJKAMP, P. (2009): The attractiveness and competitiveness of tourist destinations: A study of Southern Italian regions. Tourism Management, 30: 336–344.10.1016/j.tourman.2008.07.006Search in Google Scholar

CROUCH, J. (2007): Modelling destination competitiveness: A survey and analysis of the impact of competitiveness attributes. CRC for Sustainable Tourism Pty Ltd., Queensland.Search in Google Scholar

DAGDEVIREN, M. (2008): Decision making in equipment selection: an integrated approach with AHP and PROMETHEE. Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing. 19: 397–406.10.1007/s10845-008-0091-7Search in Google Scholar

DALTON, T., THOMPSON, R. (2013): Recreational boaters’ perceptions of scenic value in Rhode Island coastal waters. Ocean & Coastal Management, 71: 99–107.10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2012.10.002Search in Google Scholar

DAVENPORT, J., DAVENPORT, J. (2006): The impact of tourism and personal leisure transport on coastal environments: A review. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 67(1–2): 280–292.10.1016/j.ecss.2005.11.026Search in Google Scholar

DE BRUCKER, K., VERBEKE, A., MACHARIS, C. (2004): The applicability of multicriteria-analysis to the evaluation of intelligent transport systems (ITS). Research in Transportation Economics, 8: 151–179.10.1016/S0739-8859(04)08008-4Search in Google Scholar

DEJA, W. (2001): Przydatność rekreacyjna strefy brzegowej jezior Polski. Poznań, Bogucki Wydawnictwo Naukowe.Search in Google Scholar

DENG, J., KING, B., BAUER, T. (2002): Evaluating natural attraction for Tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 29(2): 422–438.10.1016/S0160-7383(01)00068-8Search in Google Scholar

DIAKOMIHALIS, M. N., LAGOS, D. G. (2008): Estimation of the economic impacts of yachting in Greece via the tourism satellite account. Tourism Economics, 14(4): 871–887.10.5367/000000008786440139Search in Google Scholar

DUBEL, K. (2000): Uwarunkowania przyrodnicze w planowaniu przestrzennym. Białystok, Wydawnictwo Ekonomia i Środowisko.Search in Google Scholar

FILIPOWIĆ, M. (2007): The analytic hierarchy process as a support for decision-making. Spatium, 15–16: 44–59.10.2298/SPAT0716044FSearch in Google Scholar

FORMICA, S., UYSAL, M. (2006): Destination attractiveness based on supply and demand evaluations: An analytical framework. Journal of Travel Research, 44: 418–430.10.1177/0047287506286714Search in Google Scholar

FRANCO, S., OSORIO, M., NAVA, G., REGIL, H. H. (2009): Evaluación multicriterio de los recursos turísticos. Parque Nacional Nevado de Toluca – México. Estudios y perspectivas en turismo, 18(2): 208–226.Search in Google Scholar

GARTNER, W. (1989). Tourism image: Attribute measurement of state tourism products using multidimensional scaling techniques. Journal of Travel Research, 28(2): 16–20.Search in Google Scholar

GENÇ, A. N. (2015): A Model to Simulate Yacht Movements in Enclosed Bays. Journal of Coastal Research, 31(2): 364–370.10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-12-00218.1Search in Google Scholar

GÖKSU, A., KAYA S. E. (2014): Ranking of tourist destinations with multi-criteria decision making methods in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Economic Review – Journal of Economics and Business, XII(2): 91–103.Search in Google Scholar

GOŁEMBSKI, G. [ed.] (2002): Kompendium wiedzy o turystyce. Warszawa / Poznań, WN PWN.Search in Google Scholar

GOUMANS, M., LYGEROU, V. (2000): An extension of the PROMETHEE method for decision making in fuzzy environment: Ranking of alternative energy exploitation projects. European Journal of Operational Research, 123(3): 606–613.10.1016/S0377-2217(99)00093-4Search in Google Scholar

HALL, C. M. (2001): Trends in ocean and coastal tourism: the end of the last frontier? Ocean & Coastal Management, 44(9–10): 601–618.10.1016/S0964-5691(01)00071-0Search in Google Scholar

HEATH, N. (2006): The Channel Islands. Cambridgeshire, Imray.Search in Google Scholar

HEIKELL, R. (1998): Mediterranean Cruising Handbook. Cambridgeshire, Imray.Search in Google Scholar

HEIKELL, R. (2006): Italian Waters Pilot. Cambridgeshire, Imray.Search in Google Scholar

HEIKEL, R. (2007): Greek Waters Pilot. Cambridgeshire, Imray.Search in Google Scholar

HUANG, Y., BIAN, L. (2009): A Bayesian network and analytic hierarchy process based personalized recommendations for tourist attractions over the Internet. Expert Systems with Applications, 36(1): 933–943.10.1016/j.eswa.2007.10.019Search in Google Scholar

HUSBANDS, W. C. (1983): Tourists space and tourist attraction, an analysis of the destination choices of European travelers. Leisure Sciences, 5(4): 289–307.10.1080/01490408309513010Search in Google Scholar

HSU, T. K., TSAI, Y. F., WU, H. H. (2009): The preference analysis for tourist choice of destination: A case study of Taiwan. Tourism management, 30(2): 288–297.10.1016/j.tourman.2008.07.011Search in Google Scholar

IAŢU, C., BULAI, M. (2010): A critical analysis on the evaluation of tourism attractiveness in Romania. Case study: the region of Moldavia. Proceedings of the 5th WSEAS International Conference on Economy and Management Transformation (Volume I, pp. 145–150). Timisoara, West University of Timisoara.Search in Google Scholar

ISHIZAKA, A., NEMERY, P., LIDOUH, K. (2013): Location selection for the construction of a casino in the Greater London region: A triple multi-criteria approach. Tourism Management, 34: 211–220.10.1016/j.tourman.2012.05.003Search in Google Scholar

JOE, Y. A., KIM, S. (2011): An Application of SWOT – AHP to develop planning for a tourist destination. Texas: Nutrition, Hospitality, and Retailing Department, Texas Tech University, Tourism Education.Search in Google Scholar

KIM, D., PERDUE, R. R. (2011): The influence of image on destination attractiveness. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 28: 225–239.10.1080/10548408.2011.562850Search in Google Scholar

KIM, S. S., AGRUSA, J. (2005): The positioning of overseas honeymoon destinations. Annals of Tourism Research, 32(4): 887–904.10.1016/j.annals.2004.12.004Search in Google Scholar

KOVAČIČ, M. (2010): Selecting the location of a nautical tourism port by applying PROMETHEE and GAIA methods. Case study – Croatian Northern Adriatic. Promet – Traffic & Transportation, 22(5): 341–351.Search in Google Scholar

KOŻUCHOWSKI, K. (2005): Walory przyrodnicze w turystyce i rekreacji. Poznań, Wydawnictwo Kurpisz.Search in Google Scholar

KREŠIĆ, D. (2007): Faktori atraktivnosti turističkih destinacija u funkciji konkurentnosti / Tourism Destination Attractiveness Factors in the Funcion of competitiveness. Acta Turistica, 19(1): 45–82.Search in Google Scholar

KREKRE, D., PREBE, E. D. (2011): Index of destination attractiveness as a tool for destination attractiveness assessment. Tourism, 59(4): 497–517.Search in Google Scholar

KRUCZEK, Z. (2011): Atrakcje turystyczne. Fenomen, typologia, metody badań. Kraków, Proksenia.Search in Google Scholar

LAI, W. H., VINH, N. Q. (2013): An Application of AHP Approach to investigate tourism promotional effectiveness. Tourism and Hospitality Management, 19(1): 1–22.10.20867/thm.19.1.1Search in Google Scholar

LAWRENCE, M. (2002): The Yachtsmans Pilot to North and East Scotland. Cambridgeshire, Imray.Search in Google Scholar

LEASK, A. (2010). Progress in visitor attraction research: Towards more effective management. Tourism Management, 31: 155–166.Search in Google Scholar

LEE, H. C. (2001): Determinants of recreational boater expenditures on trips. Tourism Management, 22(6): 659–667.10.1016/S0261-5177(01)00033-4Search in Google Scholar

LEW, A. A. (1987): A Framework of tourist attraction research. Annals of Tourism Research, 14(4): 553–575.10.1016/0160-7383(87)90071-5Search in Google Scholar

LLORET, J., ZARAGOZA, N., CABALLERO, D., RIERA, V. (2008): Impacts of recreational boating on the marine environment of Cap de Creus (Mediterranean Sea). Ocean & Coastal Management, 51(11): 749–754.10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2008.07.001Search in Google Scholar

LUKOVIC, T. (2012): Nautical Tourism and its Functions in the Economic Development in Europe. In: Kasimoglu, M. [ed.]: Visions for Global Tourism Industry – Creating and Sustaining Competitive Strategies (pp. 399–430). Rijeka, In Tech.10.5772/38058Search in Google Scholar

LUKOVIC, T. (2013): Nautical Tourism. CABI.10.1079/9781780642444.0000Search in Google Scholar

LÜCK, M. [ed.] (2007): Nautical tourism. Concepts and issues. Cognizant Communication Corporation.Search in Google Scholar

LÜCK, M. [ed.] (2008): The Encyclopedia of Tourism and Recreation in Marine Environments, CABI.10.1079/9781845933500.0000Search in Google Scholar

MACHARIS, C., VERBEKE, A., DE BRUCKER, K. (2004): The strategic evaluation of new technologies through multicriteria analysis: the Advisors case. Research in Transportation Economics, 8: 443–462.10.1016/S0739-8859(04)08019-9Search in Google Scholar

MARUŠIĆ, Z., HORAK, S., TOMLJENOVIĆ, R. (2008): The socioeconomic impacts of cruise tourism: A case study of Croatian destinations. Tourism in Marine Environments, 5(2): 131–144.10.3727/154427308787716767Search in Google Scholar

MARROU, L. (2011): Nautical Frequentation and Marina Management. Journal of Coastal Research (Special Issue), 61: 126–132.10.2112/SI61-001.5Search in Google Scholar

MAYO, E. J., JARVIS, L. P. (1981): Psychology of leisure travel. Boston, CABI Publishing.Search in Google Scholar

MIKULIĆ, J., KREŠIĆ, D., KOŽIĆ, I. (2015): Critical factors of the maritime yachting tourism experience: an impact-asymmetry analysis of principal components. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 32: 30–41.10.1080/10548408.2014.981628Search in Google Scholar

MIOSSEC, J. M. (1977: Un modčle de l’espace touristique. L’Espace Géographique. 6(1): 41–48.10.3406/spgeo.1977.1690Search in Google Scholar

MIOSSEC, A. (1988): The physical consequences of touristic development on the coastal zone as exemplified by the Atlantic coast of France between Gironde and Finistčre. Ocean and Shoreline Management, 11(4–5): 303–318.10.1016/0951-8312(88)90011-2Search in Google Scholar

MONDÉJAR-JIMÉNEZ, J. A., GARCÍA-CENTENO, M. C., MÍNGUEZ-SALIDO, R., MONDÉJAR-JIMÉNEZ, J., CORDENTE-RODRÍGUEZ, M. (2010): Cultural Tourism, Using a Multicriteria Analysis: Spanish World Heritage Cities. International Journal of Management & Information Systems, 14(4): 35–43.Search in Google Scholar

MONTIS, A., NIJKAMP, P. (2006): Tourism development and collaborative evaluation: a multicriteria web based planning support system. International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management, 6(1–2): 40–64.10.1504/IJETM.2006.008289Search in Google Scholar

MUSZYŃSKA-KURNIK, M. (2010): Atrakcyjność turystyczna Tatrzańskiego Parku Narodowego. Paper published in the IV Conference: The Nature of Tatra National Park and a Man, 3: 69–73.Search in Google Scholar

MOUTINHO, L., RITA, P., CURRY, B. (1996): Expert Systems in Tourism Marketing. London, Routledge.Search in Google Scholar

NAVIN, B. (2004): Cruising Guide to the Netherlands. Cambridgeshire, Imray.Search in Google Scholar

NAVIN, B. (2006): Cruising Guide to Germany and Denmark. Cambridgeshire, Imray.Search in Google Scholar

NAVIN, B. (2003): North Sea Passage Pilot. Cambridgeshire, Imray.Search in Google Scholar

NICKEL, P., HARRIES J. (2009): Norwegian Cruising Guide 2009, Norway, Swalbard, and the West Coast of Sweden. Hamilton, Bermuda, Atteinable Adventure Cruising Ltd.Search in Google Scholar

NEKOOEE, Z., KARAMI, M., FAKHARI, I. (2011): Assessment and Prioritization of Urban Tourist Attractions Based on Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP): A Case Study of Birjand, Iran. Iran Journal of Applied Business and Economics, 12(4): 122–134.Search in Google Scholar

OCEAN PASSAGES FOR THE WORLD (2004): NP136, Fifth Edition, United Kingdom Hydrographic Office.Search in Google Scholar

OMERZEL GOMZELJ, D., MIHALI, T. (2008): Destination competitiveness—Applying different models, the case of Slovenia. Tourism Management, 29(2): 294–307.10.1016/j.tourman.2007.03.009Search in Google Scholar

ORAMS, M. B. (2007): The impact of hosting a major marine sports tourism event: The America’s cup in Auckland, New Zealand. In: Luck, M. [ed.]: Nautical tourism: Concept and issues (pp. 97–105). New York, Cognizant Communication Corporation.Search in Google Scholar

OTAMENDI, F. J., GONZÁLEZ DE VEGA J. R. (2014): Recreational boating incidents based on marine surveyors reports: Economic, safety and prevention issues across Spain. Ocean & Coastal Management, Vol. 102, Part A: 65–71.10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2014.09.015Search in Google Scholar

PAPATHANASSIS, A., ROSS, A. K. [eds.] (2015): Tourism in Marine Environments. Special issue Cruise Tourism. Cognizant Communication Corporation.Search in Google Scholar

PAPIĆ-BLAGOJEVIĆ, N., GAJIĆ, T., DJOKIĆ, N. (2012): Using Bayesian network and AHP method as a marketing approach tools in defining tourists’ preferences. Turizam, 16(1): 8–19.10.5937/Turizam1201008PSearch in Google Scholar

PAPRZYCKA, A. (2005): Kryteria typologii i oceny krajobrazu kulturowego. In: Szponar, A., Horska-Schwarz, S. [eds.]: Struktura funkcjonalno-przestrzenna krajobrazu (pp. 78–83). Wrocław, Uniwersytet Wrocławski.Search in Google Scholar

PARRAIN, C. (2011): Sailing Routes and Stopovers: Spatial Disparities Across the Atlantic. In: Micallef, A. [ed.]: Journal of Coastal Research (Special Issue), 61: 140–149.Search in Google Scholar

PÉREZ, V., CAMARGO, I., CABALLERO, R., GONZÁLEZ, M. (2008): Selección multicriterio de nuevos productos turísticos en Pinar del Río, Cuba. Revista Investigación Operacional, 2(2): 98–107.Search in Google Scholar

PIKKEMAAT, B. (2004). The measurement of destination image: The Case of Austria. The Poznan University of Economics Review, 4(1): 87–102.Search in Google Scholar

PROMETHEE methods. Visual PROMETHEE 1.4 Manual, 2014. VP Solutions [online] [cit. 01.05.2016]. Available at: http://www.promethee-gaia.net/software.htmlSearch in Google Scholar

QANIR, A. (1989): Planning of marina developments along the Moroccan coastline. Ocean and Shoreline Management, 12(5–6): 561–570.10.1016/0951-8312(89)90031-3Search in Google Scholar

RAYMOND, C. M., BROWN, G. (2006): A method for assessing protected area allocations using typology of landscapes values. Journal Environmental Planning Management, 49(6): 797–812.10.1080/09640560600945331Search in Google Scholar

RANJAN, R., CHATTERJEE, P., CHAKRABORTY, S. (2016): Performance evaluation of Indian states in tourism using an integrated PROMETHEE-GAIA approach. Opsearch, 53(1): 63–84.10.1007/s12597-015-0225-6Search in Google Scholar

RETIERE, D. (2002): Pratiques plaisancičres: évolution et spatialisation dans le Soient (Grande-Bretagne) et la baie de Quiberon (France). In: Guillaume, P. [ed.]: Les activités littorals (pp. 147–168). Paris, CTHS.Search in Google Scholar

RITCHIE, B. J., CROUCH, G. I. (2005): The Competitive Destination: A Sustainable Tourism Perspective. Wallingford, CABI Publishing.Search in Google Scholar

ROGALEWSKI, O. (1974): Zagospodarowanie turystyczne. Warszawa, WSiP.Search in Google Scholar

ROZMAN, C., POTOCNIK, M., PAZEK, K., BOREC, A., MAJKOVIC, D., BOHANEC, M. (2009): A multi-criteria assessment of tourist farm service quality. Tourism Management, 30(5): 629–637.10.1016/j.tourman.2008.11.008Search in Google Scholar

SAATY, T. L. (1980): The analytic hierarchy process. New York, McGraw.10.21236/ADA214804Search in Google Scholar

SAATY, T. L. (1982): Decision making for leaders. Lifetime learning publications. Belmont, Wadsworth.Search in Google Scholar

SAATY, T. L. (1987): The analytic hierarchy process - what it is and how it is used. Mathematical Modelling, 9(3–5): 161–176.10.1016/0270-0255(87)90473-8Search in Google Scholar

SAATY, T. L. (1995): Decision making for leaders. The analytical hierarchy process for decisions in a complex world. Pittsburgh, RWS publications.Search in Google Scholar

SAATY, T. L. (2008): Decision making with the analytic hierarchy process. International Journal of Services Sciences, 1(1): 83–98.10.1504/IJSSCI.2008.017590Search in Google Scholar

SALMONA, P., VERARDI, D. (2001): The marine protected area of Portofino, Italy: A difficult balance. Ocean & Coastal Management, 44: 39–60.10.1016/S0964-5691(00)00084-3Search in Google Scholar

SILVEIRA, L., SANTOS, N. (2012): The marina of Horta (Azores Island) – Impacts on the local population and in the tourism development. Proceeding of the 7th International Coastal & Marine Tourism Congress (pp. 117–129). Breda, NHTV Breda University of Applied Science.Search in Google Scholar

SILVEIRA, L., SANTOS, N. (2013): Marina Impacts on the Local Population and on Tourism Development in Horta (Azores Islands), Portugal. Tourism in Marine Environments, 9(1–2): 193–202.Search in Google Scholar

SOŁOWIEJ, D. (1992): Podstawy metodyki oceny środowiska przyrodniczego człowieka. Poznań, Wyd. Nauk. UAM.Search in Google Scholar

SOUTH AND WEST COASTS OF IRELAND (2006): Sailing Directions of Irish Cruising Club.Search in Google Scholar

THOMPSON, T., THOMPSON, D. (2008): Adriatic Pilot. Cambridgeshire, Imray.Search in Google Scholar

TURCKSIN, L., BERNARDINI, A., MACHARIS, C. (2011): A combined AHP-PROMETHEE approach for selecting the most appropriate policy scenario to stimulate a clean vehicle fleet. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 20: 954–965.10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.08.104Search in Google Scholar

UYGURTÜRK, H., KORKMAZ, T. (2015): The Determination of Preference Ranking of a Group Travel Agencies in Turkey with PROMETHEE Method. Business and Economics Research Journal, 6(2): 141–155.Search in Google Scholar

WANG, J. J., YANG, D. L. (2007): Using a hybrid multi-criteria decision aid method for information systems outsourcing. Computers and Operation Research, 34: 3691–3700.10.1016/j.cor.2006.01.017Search in Google Scholar

WORM, K. (1997): Coastal zone planning in Denmark. Ocean & Coastal Management, 37(2): 253–268.10.1016/S0964-5691(00)89026-2Search in Google Scholar

YOON, Y., UYSAL, M. (2005): An examination of the effects of motivation and satisfaction on destination loyalty: astructural model. Tourism Management, 26(1): 45–56.10.1016/j.tourman.2003.08.016Search in Google Scholar

ZAJADACZ, A., ŚMIAŁEK, J. 2009): Ocena potencjału turystycznego. In: Młynarczyk, Z., Zajadacz, A. [eds.]: Tourist development: determinants and plans. Volume3– The tourist values and attractions. Touristic potential. Plans of the development of tourism (pp. 35–61). Poznań, Adam Mickiewicz University Press.Search in Google Scholar

ZHOU, Y., MAUMBE, K., DENG, J., SELIN, S. W. (2015): Resource-based destination competitiveness evaluation using a hybrid analytic hierarchy process (AHP): The case study of West Virginia. Tourism Management Perspectives, 15: 72–80.10.1016/j.tmp.2015.03.007Search in Google Scholar

ZIOŁKOWSKI, R. (2006): Praktyczne aspekty rozwoju turystyki i rekreacji na obszarach przyrodniczo cennych. Białystok, Wydawnictwo Politechniki Białostockiej.Search in Google Scholar

ŻEMŁA, M. (2014): Autentyczność obiektywistyczna wybranych typów atrakcji w oczach turysty w kształtowaniu doświadczenia turystów. Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Szczecińskiego, 1(25): 385–404.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo